Skip to main content

Full text of "The lives of the saints"

See other formats


Brigham   Young    Univer^y 



* ^ 


Jlibes  of  tl)e  S)atnts 



^ ^ 


(First  Sunday  m  October.) 
From  the  Vienna  Missal. 

Oct.,  Part  I.— Front. 


litoesi  of  tl)e  ^ainte 



New  Edition  in  i6  Volumes 

Revised  with   Introduction  and  Additional  Lives  of 

English  Martyrs,  Cornish  and  Welsh  Saints, 

and  a  full  Index  to  the  Entire  Work 


©ctotier — PART  I 



JOH^    C    NMMMO 




Printed  by  Bali.antyne.  Hanson  6^  Co. 
At  the  Ballantyne  Press 




SS.  AdauctusandCallis- 


S.  Amnion 

SS.  Andronicus     and 

comp.     . 

„   Andronicus     and 

S.  ApoUinarius 
SS.  Apuleius  and  Mar 
S.  Aurea    .     . 






SS.  Bacchus  and  Sergius  155 
S.  Bavo 13 

SS.  Berenice  and  comp.  63 
„  Boniface  and  others  62 
S.  Briget  of  Sweden    .   182 


S.  Bruno 141 

,,   Burchard,     B.     of 

Wiirzburg  .     .     .  354 

SS.  Caius  and  comp. 

,,   Caius  and  Crispus 

„  Callisthene     and 
Adauctus    . 

S.  Callixtus,  Pope    . 

,,   Carpus  .... 

,,   Cerbonius  . 

„   Charitina    .     .     . 

„   Colman  of  Ausuia 

,,  Congan .... 

,,  Cosmas .... 
SS.  Crispus  and  Caius 

S.  Cumine      .     .     . 
SS.  Cyprian  and  FeHx 














S.  Demetrius.     .     .     .165 
SS.  Dionysius  and  comp.    50 
„   Dionysius, or  Denys, 

and  comp.  .     .     .195 
S.  Dionysius  the  Areo- 

pagite     .     .     .     .190 

„  Domnina   ....  285 

SS.  Domnina  and  comp.     63 

S.  Edward    the    Con- 
fessor    .     .     .     .327 

„   Edwin 292 

SS.  Eleutherius         and 

comp 14 

„   Eleutherius,  Diony- 
sius, and  Rusticus   195 
S.  Ethelburga     .     .     .  2S1 
SS.  Eulampius  and  Eu- 

lampia  .  .  .  .225 
„  Eutychius  and  comp.  120 
„  Ewalds,  the  two.     .     55 

S.  Failbhe      .     .     .     .134 

„   Faith 132 

SS.  Faustus  and  others 

of  Alexandria .     .     50 
„  Faustus  and  others 

of  Cordova      .     .321 
„   Felix  and  Cyprian  .  287 

S.  Fiech 290 

„  Florentius  ....  322 
„  Fortunatus  .     .  353 

„   Francis  Borgia    .     .  249 
„   Francis  of  Assisi      .     68 
SS.  Fyncana    and    Fin- 

docha     ....  324 

S.  Galla 125 

„  Gerard 57 


SS.  Gereon  and  comp.  .  224 
S.  Ghislain      .     .     .     ,211 

SS.  Guardian  Angels  .  14 
S.  Gummar    ....  284 


S.  Hesychius . 



SS.  Januarius         and 

comp 321 

S.  John  of  Bridlington  248 

„  Julia 283 

„  Justina 152 


S.  Kenny 278 

„   Keyne 178 

S.  Leodegar,  or  Leger  19 
„  Leudomer  ....15 
„  Louis  Bertrand  .  .213 
,,   Lubentius  ....  322 


S.  Maccallin  .  .  . 
SS.  Marcellus  and  Apu- 
leius  .... 
,,  Martialis  and  comp 
S.  Maximian  ... 
„  Meinulf  .  .  . 
,,  Menna  .... 
,,   Murdach    .     .     . 








SS.  Nicasius  and  comp.    258 
S.  Nicetas 135 

S.  Osyth 161 







S.  Palladius   .     .     . 

„  Pantalus     .     .     . 

„  Paulinus  of  York 

„  Pelagia  .... 
SS.  PhilonillaandZenais 

S.  Piatus    .... 

„  Pinitus  .... 
SS.  Placidus  and  comp 

,,   Probus  and  comp. 

„  Prosdoce  and  comp. 











S.  Quintin  of  Tours     .     66 
SS.  Quirinus  and  comp.  258 


S.  Remigius,      B.      of 

Rheims  ....       2 

„  Romana     ....     51 

SS.  Rusticus  and  comp.    195 

S.  Savin 203 

SS.  Scubiculus      and 

comp 258 


S.  Serenus      ....     16 

SS.  Sergius and  Bacchus  155 

S.  Simeon,  Prophet     .  164 

„   Simpert      ....  326 


S.  Tancha       ....  247 
SS.  Tarachus  and  comp.  260 

S.  Thais 167 

„  Theophilus   of   An- 

tioch 320 

„  Thomas  Cantilupe  .     31 
SS.  Thyrsus  and  others      62 

S.  Triduana    .     .     .     .180 
SS.  Two  Ewalds  ...     55 

S.Wilfrid,  B.  of  York.  292 

S.  Ywi 135 


SS.  Zenais    and    Philo- 

nilla 257 


VOL.    XI. 


►J( ^ 


Festival  of  the  Holy  Rosary  {First  Sun- 
day in  Ociober)     ......        Frorrtispiece 

From  the  Vieiuia  Missal. 

Baptism  of  Clovis  by  S.  Remigius     .        .         to  face  p.  2 
S.  Victor  of  Marseilles  {see  July  21st)      .  „       60 

After  the  Paintiyjg  by  GlOV.  ANTONIO  DE  Bazzi 
at  Siena. 

S.  Francis  of  Assisi      ....  68 

After  Cahier. 

Marriage  of  S.  Francis  to  Poverty       .  „       80 

From  a  Fresco  by  GlOTTO  in  the  Lower  Church  at 

S.  Francis  of  Assisi  Preaching  to  the 

Birds ,,94 

From  a  Painting  by  GlOTTO. 

S.  Meinulf ,,128 

After  Cahier. 

S.  Bruno >,      142 

After  Cahier. 

Tailpiece on  p.  189 



X  List  of  Illustrations 

Festival  of  the  Maternity  of  the  B.V. 

Mary  {Seco?id  Sunday  m  October)     .         .      to  face  p.  190 
From  the  Vienna  Missal. 

S.  Denys,  supported  by  two  Angels,  and 
carrying  his  head  ;  a  christian 
Lady,  S.  Catulla,  is  holding  his 
winding-sheet  or  shroud  ;  above, 
the  shroud  is  being  wrapped  around 
the  head 5,      i94 

After  a   Miniature   in   a   MS.    of  the    XlVth 

S.  Louis  Bertrand ,,216 

After  Cahier, 

Tailpiece on  p.  256 

S.  Wilfrid,  Bishop  of  York       .        .        .     to  face  p.  296 

From  a  Drawing  by  A.  Welby  Pugin. 

S.  Wilfrid „  302 

S.  Wilfrid  Landing „  304 

S.  Wilfrid  Baptizing »  312 

Funeral  of  S.  Edward  the  Confessor  .  „  344 

From  the  Bayeux  Tapestry,  Xllth  Century. 

S.  Donatian,  Bishop  of  Rheims.        .        .  „      352 

After  Cahier. 



^ * 

Lives  of  the  Saints 

October  i. 

S.  PlATUS,  P.M.  at  Scclin,  near  Lille,  circ.  a.d.  287. 

SS.   Verissima,    Maxima   and  Julia,    MM.  at  Lisbon :   circ. 

A.D.  304. 
SS.  Priscus,  Crescentius,  Evagrius,    and  Others,   MM.  at 

Tovti,  hi  Mocsia. 
S.  Germ  an  A,  V.M.  at  Bar-snr-Azibe;  about  ^th  cent. 
S.  Remedius,  C.  at  Trent;  sth  cent. 
S.  Remigius,  B.  oJ  Rlieims;  circ.  a.d.  532. 
S.  WuLGis,  P.C.  at  Fcrte-Milon,  near  Soissons;  6th  cent. 
S.  Bavo,  C.  at  Ghent;  circ.  a.d.  654. 
SS.  Michael  and  his  Companion.s,  Mks.  MM.  at  Sebastopol; 

circ.  A.D.  788. 

S.  PIATUS,    P.M. 

(about  a.d.  287.) 

[Roman  Martyrology.  Corbel  Kalendar  of  8th  cent.  Usuardus.  The 
loth  cent.  Kalendar  of  S.  Maximin  at  Treves ;  Galhcan  and  Belgian 
Martyrologies.  Hereford  Kalendar,  that  of  York  as  S.  Plato.  Au- 
thority : — the  late  fabulous  Acts.] 

AINT  PIATUS,  it  is  pretended,  was  a  native  of 

Beneventum,  who  went  to  Gaul  with  S.  Diony- 

sius  of  Paris,  and  preached  in  the  region  near 

Lille  and  Toumay.      He  was  attacked  by  the 

barbarians  and  killed. 

The  body  was  found  by  S.  Eligius  at  Seclin  where  he 
was  martyred,  and  translated  in  the  9th  century  to  S.  Omer, 
thence  to  Chartres,  and  then  to  Tournay.  The  relics  were 
shoAATi  in   1 143  at  SecHn  ;    the  Chartres  people,  however, 

VOL.  XI.  I 

j, ^ 

2  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  i 

showed  the  entire  body  in  their  cathedral,  and  disputed  its 
translation  from  Chartres  to   Tournay.     Each  entire  body 
has  estabUshed  its  authenticity  by  miracles ;  that  at  Chartres, 
however,  disappeared  at  the  Revolution. 


(about  a.d.  532.) 

[Corbei  Kalendar  of  the  8th  cent.  Gallican  and  Roman  Martyro- 
logies.  Sarum,  York,  and  Hereford  Kalendars ;  Anglican  Reformed 
Kalendar.  An  ancient  Life  of  S.  Remigius  existed  before  the  9th  cent., 
but  was  lost  then ;  Hincmar  of  Rheims  speaks  of  it  as  having  existed 
within  the  memory  of  old  men ;  he  sought  in  vain  to  recover  it.  A 
compendium  of  it,  made  by  Egidius  of  Rheims,  565  —  590,  and  a 
metrical  version  by  Venantius  Fortunatus,  still  exist.  Hincmar  wrote 
another  Life,  based  on  the  verses  of  Fortunatus,  and  all  the  legendary 
matter  he  could  rake  together  ;  it  is  of  no  value.  This  again  was  used 
by  Flodoard  in  the  loth  cent.] 

S.  Remigius  was  born  at  Laon  of  noble  parents,  Emilius 
and  Cylinia.  His  mother  Cylinia  occurs  in  the  Gallican  and 
the  Roman  Martyrologies,  as  a  saint,  on  October  21,  and  the 
translation  of  her  relics  is  noted  in  some  martyrologies  on 
April  5.  The  brother  of  S.  Remigius  was  S.  Principius, 
Bishop  of  Soissons,  the  father  of  S.  Lupus.  His  nurse  in 
infancy  was  Balsamia,  venerated  as  a  saint  in  the  Church  of 
Rheims.  Remigius  was  born  about  the  year  435,  and  was 
ordained  about  a.d.  457,  when  elected,  at  the  age  of  twenty- 
two,  to  the  bishopric  of  Rheims,  rendered  vacant  by  the  death 
of  Bennadius.  A  singular  and  picturesque  incident  led  to 
his  election.  He  was  in  the  great  church  at  Rheims  when 
the  clergy  and  people  were  assembled  to  choose  a  bishop, 
when  a  ray  of  sun,  smiting  through  a  small  clerestory  wn- 
dow,  fell  on  and  illumined  his  head.     In  the  dark  church, 

* -^ 

Oct.  I. 

the  irradiated,  handsome  face  of  the  young  noble  shone  out 
on  the  people  as  though  marked  by  God  for  their  future 
pastor.  He  was  chosen  by  acclamation,  and  notwithstanding 
the  impediment  of  his  being  under  the  canonical  age,  was 
ordained  Archbishop  of  Rheims. 

A  letter  of  Sidonius  ApoUinaris  to  the  saint  has  been  pre- 
served, in  which  the  eloquence  of  Remigius  is  commended. 
Sidonius  was  an  accomplished  professional  flatterer,  but  his 
description  of  the  abilities  of  Remigius  is  less  to  be  mis- 
trusted, as  there  was  nothing  to  be  got  by  lauding  him  to 
the  skies.  "  Some  one  from  my  part  of  the  world  had  occa- 
sion to  go  from  Auvergne  into  Belgic  Gaul ;  what  his  objects 
were  I  know  not,  nor  do  I  care,  for  the  matter  of  that ;  the 
man  I  knew  however.  He  halted  on  his  way  at  Rheims, 
and  found  means,  when  there,  of  procuring,  I  do  not  know 
whether  by  purchase  or  present,  with  or  without  your  con- 
sent, from  your  secretary  or  librarian,  a  voluminous  manu- 
script of  your  sermons.  On  his  return  here,  proud  of  what 
he  had  got,  though  he  had  at  first  bought  them  for  the  pur- 
pose of  seUing  them,  like  a  good  citizen,  instead  of  doing 
that,  he  made  me  a  present  of  them.  All  those  who  have 
read  them,  myself  included;,  having  obtained  rich  fruit  from 
the  study  of  them,  have  taken  pains  to  learn  the  greater 
part  of  them  by  heart,  and  to  copy  them  out.  Every  one  is 
agreed  that  at  the  present  day  few  men  are  capable  of  com- 
posing such  sermons  as  these.  Indeed,  it  would  be  difficult 
to  find  one  who  united  such  skill  in  disposition  of  matter, 
and  choice  of  expression  and  arrangement  of  words.  Add 
to  this  the  appositeness  of  the  illustrations,  the  authority  of 
the  testimonies,  the  propriety  of  the  epithets,  the  urbanity 
of  the  figures,  the  force  of  argument,  weightiness  of  thought, 
flow  of  words,  and  flash  of  conclusion.  The  structure  is 
strong  and  sure,  all  the  members  of  the  sentences  are  united 
elegantly,  the  style  is  flowing,  polished,  and  well  arranged ; 

4( 4i 

4  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  i. 

never  does  one  come  across  those  unhappy  stiffnesses  or 
feeblenesses  which  tease  the  tongue  of  the  reader,  and  those 
rough  words,  which  can  only  be  pronounced  by  rolling  them 
along  the  palate,  are  avoided.  The  language  glides  along  to 
the  end  with  ease,  giving  the  same  pleasurable  sensation  as 
when  the  nail  is  drawn  over  a  crystal  or  cornelian,  without 
striking  a  roughness,  or  catching  in  a  flaw. 

"  What  shall  I  say  in  conclusion  ?  I  know  no  living 
orator  whom  you  do  not  easily  surpass,  and  leave  far  behind. 
I  almost  expect,  my  Lord  Bishop,  that  you  are  proud  of  your 
rich,  ineffable  eloquence.  But  be  the  splendour  of  your 
talents  as  writer  or  virtues  as  prelate  what  it  may,  I  pray 
you  do  not  disdain  us,  for  though  I  may  not  be  a  great 
writer,  I  know  how  to  praise  what  is  well  written.  Do  not 
then,  for  the  future,  shrink  from  exposing  your  writings  to 
the  judgment  of  critics  when  you  know  that  they  run  no 
danger  of  mordant  criticism  or  severe  reproach.  If  you  will 
not  consent  voluntarily  to  fertilize  our  barrenness,  we  know 
how  to  set  men  on  the  watch,  and  suborn  them  to  rob  your 
portfolio ;  then,  finding  yourself  plundered,  you  will  per- 
haps be  sensible  of  the  robbery,  if  you  will  not  now  pay 
attention  to  our  prayers  and  the  pleasure  of  being  of  use  to 

S.  Remigius,  as  Gregory  of  Tours  tells  us,  "  was  a  man 
of  great  knowledge,  imbued  with  love  of  rhetorical  studies, 
and  so  illustrious  for  his  sanctity,  as  to  equal  S.  Silvester." 
He  is  described  as  having  been  very  tall,  seven  feet  in 
height,  with  an  open  face,  very  aquiline  nose,  a  thick,  tawny 
beard,  a  slow  and  stately  walk.  Many  miracles  are  related 
of  him,  but  the  authority  for  them  is  not  very  satisfactory,  as 
we  have  not  the  original  life  of  S.  Remigius,  and  we  cannot 
tell  how  far  they  are  later  legends. 

A  noble  damsel  of  Toulouse,  possessed  with  a  devil,  was 
taken  by  her  parents  to  the  tomb  of  the  apostles  Peter  and 

^ i{i 

Oct  I.J  -S".  Remigius.  5 

Paul,  at  Rome,  to  be  cured.  But  no  amount  of  prayers 
were  of  the  slightest  effect.  Then  the  devil  was  adjured  to 
tell  them  wlio  alone  could  expel  him.  He  answered  that 
none  but  Remigius  could  cast  him  out.  Then,  says  Fortu- 
natus,  the  parents  took  the  damsel  to  that  blessed  one,^  and 
he  cast  the  devil  out.  Hincmar  of  Rheims,  writing  three 
hundred  years  after  Fortunatus,  improved  the  story.  The 
parents  took  the  damsel  from  the  tomb  of  the  apostles  to 
S.  Benedict,  but  he  also  failed  to  cast  out  the  devil,  and  sent 
the  maiden  to  S.  Remigius,  as  the  only  saint  who  was  able 
to  achieve  this  work.  Hincmar  saw  in  the  brief  life  of  For- 
tunatus, that  the  maiden  was  taken  to  "that  Blessed  One 
(Benedictus),"  meaning  Remigius,  and  he  used  the  occasion 
to  expand  the  story  into  a  pilgrimage  to  S.  Benedict,  further 
to  enhance  the  supremacy  of  the  virtue  and  glory  of  S.  Re- 
migius. In  order  to  carry  out  this  fable,  at  the  birth  of 
which  we  are  present,  so  to  speak,  a  letter  from  S.  Benedict 
to  S.  Remigius  on  the  topic  was  forged,  probably  in  the 
nth  century.^ 

On  another  occasion  a  tremendous  conflagration  broke 
out  in  Rheims.  S.  Remigius  came  to  the  rescue  when  more 
than  half  the  city  was  in  flames.  He  went  before  the  raging 
fire  and  made  the  sign  of  the  cross;  the  flames  retreated, 
he  advanced,  and  continued  making  the  sign,  and  the  fire 
backed  before  him  step  by  step,  till  he  drove  it  through  a 
gate.  Then  he  ordered  the  gate  to  be  walled  up,  and  forbade 
any  one  ever  opening  it  again.  Many  years  after,  the  owner 
of  the  adjoining  house,  wanting  an  ash-pit,  knocked  a  hole 
in  the  wall,  that  he  might  shoot  his  rubbish  through  it.  In- 
stantly out  burst  the  demon  of  the  conflagration  and  killed 
the  man,  his  wife,  children,  and  servants. 

'  "Tunc  parentes  ejus  ipsius  benedicti  .  .  .  sufiragati,"  &c. 

^  Another  biographer  has  further  improved  the  story.  When  the  devil  came  out  of 
the  damsel's  mouth,  it  cried  :  "  Be  not  elate  at  thy  merits,  O  Remigius  I  1  am  uot  cast 
out  by  thy  virtue,  but  by  the  humility  of  Benedict." 

*- »J( 

>$l -^ ^ 

6  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  i. 

In  496,  the  Allemanni,  a  Germanic  confederation,  who 
had  for  some  time  been  assaihng  the  Roman  Empire  on  the 
banks  of  the  Rhine  or  the  frontier  of  Switzerland,  crossed 
the  river,  and  invaded  the  settlements  of  the  Franks  on  the 
left  bank.  Clovis  went  to  the  aid  of  his  allies,  and  attacked 
the  Allemanni  at  Tolbiac,  the  modern  Ziilpich,  near  Diiren, 
between  Aix  and  Cologne.  The  battle  was  going  ill ;  the 
Franks  were  wavering,  and  Clovis  was  anxious.  Before 
setting  out  he  had,  according  to  Fredegar,  promised  his 
wife,  S.  Clothild,  to  turn  Christian  if  he  came  off  victorious. 
Other  chroniclers  say  that  Aurelian,  Duke  of  Melun,  seeing 
the  battle  in  danger  of  being  lost,  said  to  Clovis,  "  My  lord 
King,  believe  only  on  the  Lord  of  Heaven,  whom  the  Queen, 
my  mistress,  preacheth."  Clovis  cried  out  with  emotion, 
"  Christ  Jesus  !  Thou  whom  my  Queen  Clothild  calleth  the 
Son  of  the  living  God,  I  have  invoked  my  own  gods,  and 
they  have  withdrawn  from  me;  I  believe  that  they  have  no 
power,  since  they  aid  not  those  who  call  upon  them.  Thee, 
very  God  and  Lord,  I  invoke ;  if  Thou  give  me  victory  over 
my  foes,  if  I  find  in  Thee  the  power  that  the  people  pro- 
claim of  Thee,  I  will  believe  in  Thee,  and  will  be  baptized 
in  Thy  name."  The  tide  of  battle  turned:  the  Franks 
recovered  confidence  and  courage ;  and  the  Allemanni, 
beaten,  and  seeing  their  king  slain,  surrendered  themselves 
to  Clovis,  saying,  "  Cease,  of  thy  grace,  to  cause  any  more 
people  to  perish,  for  we  are  thine." 

On  the  return  of  Clovis,  Clothild,  fearing  lest  he  should 
forget  his  victory  and  promise,  "  secretly  sent,"  says  Gregory 
of  Tours,  "  to  S.  Remigius,  Bishop  of  Rheims,  and  prayed 
him  to  penetrate  the  king's  heart  with  the  words  of  salva- 

S.  Remigius  hastened  to  fulfil  the  desires  of  the  Queen. 
"  I  will  listen  to  thee,  most  holy  father,"  said  Clovis,  "  wil- 
lingly; but  there  is  a  difficulty.     The  people  that  follow  me 

* ^ 

Oct.  I.]  ►S'.  Remignis.  7 

will  not  give  up  their  gods.  But  I  am  about  to  assemble 
them,  and  will  speak  to  them  according  to  thy  word." 

The  king  found  the  people  more  docile  or  better  prepared 
than  he  had  represented  to  the  bishop.  Even  before  he 
opened  his  mouth  the  greater  part  of  those  present  cried 
out,  "  We  abjure  the  mortal  gods  \  we  are  ready  to  follow 
the  immortal  God  whom  Remigius  preacheth."  About  three 
thousand  Frankish  warriors,  however,  persisted  in  their  in- 
tention of  remaining  pagans,  and  deserting  Clovis,  betook 
themselves  to  Ragnacar,  the  Frankish  king  ot  Cambrai. 

As  soon  as  S.  Remigius  was  informed  of  the  good  disposi- 
tion on  the  part  of  king  and  people,  he  fixed  on  Easter  eve 
of  that  year  (496)  for  the  ceremony  of  the  baptism.  The 
description  of  it  is  given  us  by  Hincmar  in  his  Life  of  his 
illustrious  predecessor.  "  The  bishop,"  says  he,  "  went  in 
search  of  the  king  at  early  morning  to  his  bed-chamber, 
in  order  that,  taking  him  at  the  moment  of  freedom  from 
secular  cares,  he  might  more  freely  communicate  to  him  the 
mysteries  of  the  holy  Word.  The  king's  chamberlains  re- 
ceive him  with  great  respect,  and  the  king  runs  forward  to 
meet  him.  Thereupon  they  pass  together  into  an  oratory 
dedicated  to  S.  Peter,  chief  of  the  apostles,  and  adjoining 
the  king's  apartment.  When  the  bishop,  the  king,  and  the 
queen  had  taken  their  places  on  the  seats  prepared  for  them, 
and  admission  had  been  given  to  some  clerks  and  also  to 
some  friends  and  household  servants  of  the  king,  the  vener- 
able bishop  began  his  instructions  on  the  subject  of  salvation. 
Meanwhile,  preparations  are  being  made  along  the  road  from 
the  palace  to  the  baptistery ;  curtains  and  valuable  stuffs  are 
hung  up ;  the  houses  on  both  sides  of  the  street  are  dressed 
out ;  the  baptistery  is  sprinkled  with  balm  and  all  manner 
of  perfume.  The  procession  moves  from  the  palace ;  the 
clergy  lead  the  way  with  the  holy  gospels,  the  cross,  and 
the  banners,  singing  hymns  and  canticles ;   then  comes  the 

bishop,  leading  the  king  by  the  hand ;  after  him  the  queen ; 
lastly,  the  people.  On  the  road  it  is  said  that  the  king  asked 
the  bishop  if  that  were  the  kingdom  of  heaven  promised 
him  ?  '  No,'  answered  the  prelate,  '  but  it  is  the  entrance  to 
the  road  that  leads  to  it.'  When  they  had  reached  the  bap- 
tistery, the  priest  who  bore  the  consecrated  chrism,  arrested 
by  the  crowd,  could  not  reach  the  font,  so  that  the  chrism 
was  wanting  for  the  benediction  of  the  font.  Then  the  holy 
pontiff  raises  his  eyes  to  heaven,  and  prays  in  silence  with 
tears.  Immediately,  a  dove,  white  as  snow,  descends,  bearing 
in  his  beak  a  vial  full  of  chrism  sent  from  heaven.  It  ex- 
haled a  delicious  fragrance,  which  intoxicated  those  present 
with  pleasure.  The  holy  bishop  takes  the  vial,  sprinkles  the 
baptismal  water  with  the  chrism,  and  immediately  the  dove 
disappears.  Transported  with  joy  at  such  a  miracle  of  grace, 
the  king  renounces  Satan,  all  his  pomps  and  works,  and 
demands  baptism.  As  he  bared  his  head  over  the  fountain 
of  life,  '  Bend  thy  head,  Sicambrian ! '  said  the  bishop. 
'  Adore  what  thou  hast  burned :  burn  what  thou  hast  adored.' 
After  having  confessed  the  symbol  of  the  orthodox  faith,  the 
king  was  plunged  thrice  in  tlie  water  of  Baptism,  in  the 
name  of  the  holy  and  indivisible  Trinity,  the  Father,  the 
Son,  and  the  Holy  Ghost,  and  the  blessed  prelate  received 
and  consecrated  the  king  with  the  divine  unction. 

"  Albofleda  and  Lantechild,  sisters  of  the  king,  received 
baptism  at  the  same  time,  as  well  as  three  thousand  men  of 
the  Frank  army,  and  many  women  and  children." 

The  first  to  mention  the  apparition  of  the  white  dove  with 
the  vial  of  holy  chrism,  is  Hincmar,  who  died  in  a.d.  882, 
three  hundred  and  fifty  years  after  S.  Remigius.  Fortunatus, 
who  wrote  an  epitome  of  his  life,  about  a.d.  570,  about 
thirty-five  years  after  the  death  of  the  saint,  says  nothing 
about  it.  He  relates  that  S.  Remigius  was  wont  to  feed 
sparrows  out  of  his  hand,  and  that  at  meals  they  hovered 

^ ^ 

^ lie 

Oct.  X.]  S.  Remigius.  9 

round  him  without  the  least  fear,  and  perched  on  his  fingers 
to  peck  up  the  crumbs  in  his  palm.  This  incident,  and 
those  of  the  miraculous  cure  of  the  girl  possessed,  and  the 
extinction  of  the  conflagration  of  Rheims,  are  almost  the 
only  events  in  the  episcopal  career  of  S.  Remigius  which  he 
records,  and  all  these  because  they  were  miraculous.  Had 
Fortunatus  known  the  story  of  the  dove  and  the  ampulla,  he 
would  certainly  not  have  omitted  it.  The  date  of  the 
formation  of  the  legend  was  probably  the  9th  century.^  Gre- 
gory of  Tours,  always  eager  to  narrate  marvels,  knew  nothing 
of  the  miraculous  dove  and  vial  of  chrism  (d.  a.d.  594)  ; 
it  first  appears  in  Hincmar's  "  Life  of  S.  Remigius,"  based  on 
popular  legend,  in  Flodoard  (d.  a.d.  966),  and  in  Almoin  of 
Fleury  (d.  a.d.  1008).  After  that  the  story  became  popular 

The  origin  of  the  story  is  plain  enough,  it  is  a  reminiscence 
of  the  Celtic  legend  of  the  Sangreal  which  has  attached 
itself  to  a  saint.  "  And  anon  there  came  in  a  dove  at  a 
window,  and  in  her  bill  there  seemed  a  little  saucer  of  gold, 
and  therewithal  there  was  such  a  savour  as  though  all  the 
spicery  of  the  world  had  beene  there ;  .  .  .  and  there  came 
a  damosell,  passing  faire  and  young,  and  she  beare  a  vessell 
of  gold  betweene  her  hands,  and  thereto  the  king  kneeled 

'  Not  only  are  Gregory  of  Tours  and  Venantius  Fortunatus  silent  on  the  matter, 
but  also  S.  Avitus  of  Vienne,  and  Pope  Anastasius  II.,  who  wrote  to  congratulate 
Clovis  on  his  baptism,  and  who  would  certainly  have  noticed  the  incident  had  it 
occurred.  S.  Nicetius  of  Treves,  in  his  letter  to  Clodoswinda,  Q.  of  the  Lombards, 
says  no  word  about  the  miracle,  nor  does  Fredegar,  nor  the  anonymous  author  of  the 
Gesta  Fraucorum,  who  wrote  in  725.  Alcuin,  in  his  Life  of  S.  Vedast,  and  the  anony- 
mous author  of  the  shorter  Life  of  S.  Vedast,  although  all  these  describe  the  baptism 
of  Clovis,  yet  not  one  alludes  to  the  sacred  ampulla  and  oil.  Not  only  so,  but  the 
Preface  to  the  ancient  Gallican  mass  of  S.  Remi,  although  it  mentions  many  of  his 
miracles,  and  the  baptism  of  Clovis,  says  not  a  word  about  the  miraculous  chrism. 

^  It  is  somewhat  amusing  to  read  in  Ch.  Barthelemy's  "  Annales  Hagiologiques  de 
la  France,"  Versailles,  1863,  t.  iv.  p.  1126,  concerning  the  miracle  of  the  sainte 
ampoule  :  "  C'est  le  miracle  le  plus  patent,  le  plus  avere  et  surtout  le  mieux  prouve 
qui  soit  au  monde."  To  help  the  evidence  on  a  little,  he  makes  Almoin  live  in  the 
gth  cent,  mistaking  Almoin  of  Fleury,  who  died  A.D.  1008,  for  Almoin  of  S.  Ger- 
main, who  flourished  a.d.  888. 

^ ^ 

lo  Lives  of  the  Samts.  [oa.  i. 

devoutly  and  said  his  prayers,  and  so  did  all  that  were 
there.  "^  The  ampulla  and  the  sacred  oil  have  since  been  used 
at  the  coronation  of  the  kings  of  France.  It  was  broken  at 
the  Revolution,  but  a  fragment  of  the  bottle  was  preserved 
with  a  drop  of  oil,  and  is  now  in  the  treasury  of  the  Cathedral 
of  Rheims. 

Three  letters  of  S.  Remigius  have  been  preserved,  one  to 
Clovis  on  the  death  of  his  sister  Albofleda,  another  on  his 
engaging  in  a  war,  exhorting  him  to  mercy  and  care  of  the 
poor,  the  suffering,  and  the  orphans,  and  to  show  kindness 
and  give  release  to  captives ;  the  third  on  ecclesiastical 

Finding  his  diocese  too  large  for  his  supervision,  S. 
Remigius  founded  the  see  of  Laon,  and  appointed  to  it  S. 
Genebald,  married  to  his  niece.  According  to  Hincmar, 
Genebald  did  not  desert  his  wife,  but  had  by  her  a  son  and 
daughter  after  he  was  raised  to  the  episcopacy.  Regretting 
this,  he  sent  for  S.  Remigius,  retired  into  a  cell,  did  penance, 
and  was  then  re-instated  in  his  see  by  S.  Remigius.  The 
saint  also  founded  the  sees  of  Atrebatum,  afterwards  fixed 
at  S.  Omer,  and  placed  over  it  S.  Vedast,  and  that  of 
Cambrai,  which  was  also  governed  by  S.  Vedast. 

A  letter  from  S.  Remigius  to  S.  Falco  of  Tongern  exists. 
Falco  had  ventured  to  exercise  some  acts  of  jurisdiction  at 
Mouzon  on  the  Meuse.  The  confines  of  dioceses  were  not 
accurately  marked  at  that  time,  and  a  transgression  of  limits 
was  possible  through  inadvertency.  S.  Remigius  wrote  a 
sharp,  fiery  letter  in  bad  taste  to  S.  Falco.  "  If  your  Sanctity 
was  ignorant  of  the  canons,  it  was  indecorous  of  you  to 
transgress  the  diocesan  limits  before  learning  them.  But  if 
you  knew  the  statutes  of  the  Church,  the  more  serious  and 
perilous   is  the  kicking  aside  of  decrees   of  ancient   and 

'  Sir  Thomas  JNIalory's  "Morte  d'Arthiire,"  ed.  Wright,  1858,  vol.  iiu  c.  2.     See 
also  the  Life  of  S.  Fronto,  Oct.  25. 


Oct.  I.]  '^-  Refiiigius.  1 1 

glorious  pontiffs,  by  your  folly.  Beware,  lest  in  meddling 
with  other's  rights  you  do  not  lose  your  own."  Falco  had 
laeld  an  ordination  at  Mouzon.  Remigius  refused  to  acknow- 
ledge the  orders  which  had  been  conferred  outside  the 
boundaries  of  the  diocese  of  Tongern.  "  I  do  not  wish  you 
to  be  ignorant  of  the  fact  that  I  have  removed  those  Levites 
and  priests  from  their  orders  whom  you  have  made  against 
all  order.  It  did  not  become  me  to  acknowledge  those 
whom  it  did  not  become  you  to  ordain." 

Another  letter  of  S.  Remigius  shows  him  in  a  more 
amiable  light.  At  the  request  of  Clovis  he  had  ordained  one 
named  Claudius  to  the  priesthood.  There  was  some  trifling 
canonical  irregularity  in  the  matter,  but  no  complaint  was 
made  so  long  as  Clovis  lived.  But  after  the  death  of  the 
king,  Claudius  fell  into  some  sin  of  a  grave  character — ap- 
parently did  not  pay  his  debts.  S.  Remigius  was  anxious  to 
deal  leniently  with  him,  and  instead  of  permanently  excluding 
him  from  his  office,  put  him  to  penance,  and  gave  him  hopes 
of  ultimate  restoration.  This  highly  incensed  three  bishops, 
Heraclius  of  Paris,  Leo  of  Sens,  and  Theodosius  of  Auxerre, 
and  they  wrote  to  Remigius  rebuking  him  for  having  or- 
dained Claudius,  and  for  treating  with  such  lenity  his  case 
when  he  had  fallen,  and  required  the  archbishop  to  see  to 
the  repayment  by  Claudius  to  a  certain  Celsus  of  moneys 
out  of  which  he  had  swindled  him.  Two  of  these  bishops 
are  in  the  Roman  Martyrology.^ 

The  answer  of  S.  Remigius  to  these  bishops,  "bursting 
with  spite  against  him,"  exhibits  him  as  a  model  of  for- 
bearance and  charity.  As  to  the  ordination  of  Claudius,  he 
had  not  been  bribed,  as  the  bishops  hinted,  but  had  ordained 
him  on  the  urgent  request  of  a  wise  and  Catholic  king.  As 
to  his  fall,  the  Ninevites  when  they  repented  were  pardoned, 
and  the  angel  of  the  church  of  Ephesus  was  not  cast  out  of 

S.  Leo  on  April  22,  S.  Theodosius  on  July  17. 
^_ _^ 


1 2  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  i. 

his  see,  but  was  exhorted  to  amendment  and  repentance. 
As  to  Celsus,  to  whom  Claudius  owed  money,  Remigius 
declared  himself  profoundly  ignorant  of  his  whereabouts, 
whether  alive  or  dead.  Finally :  "  You  write  that  I  am  in 
my  second  childhood,^  sneering  at  rather  than  rejoicing 
lovingly  -with  him  who  is  neither  accused  before  you  nor 
comes  in  for  mercy  at  your  hands." 

This  letter  was  probably  Avritten  in  512. 

Two  testaments  purporting  to  be  by  S.  Remigius  have 
been  preserved ;  the  shortest  is  probably  genuine,  but  that 
given  by  Hincmar  is  a  forgery,  composed  for  the  purpose 
of  securing  to  the  church  of  Rheims  certain  estates  which  it 
was  pretended  that  S.  Remigius  had  acquired. 

Such  iniquitous  practices  were  unfortunately  too  common 
in  the  Middle  Ages.  The  forged  chronicle  of  Ingulf  of 
Croyland  was  composed  in  order  that  it  might  contain 
charters  to  the  abbey  conveying  lands,  which  were  never 
really  given  to  the  monastery.  Some  forged  testaments  of 
lands  exist  at  Durham  at  the  present  day,  whereby  the 
monks  of  Durham  claimed  the  tenure  of  certain  estates  in 
the  county. 

Hincmar,  who  found  this  will,  as  well  as  the  story  of 
the  miraculous  chrism,  discovered  also  the  body  of  S. 
Remigius,  and  after  the  invention,  solemnly  translated  it. 
The  stately  Abbey  of  S.  Remi  was  erected  over  his  shrine. 

The  bones  of  the  saint  were  buried,  at  the  Revolution,  in 
the  adjoining  garden,  and  on  the  restoration  of  tranquillity 
were  recovered  by  the  man  who  had  buried  them.  They  are 
now  in  the  Abbey  of  S.  Remi  at  Rheims. 

•  "  Annorum  numero  me  esse  scribitis  jubileura." 



Oct.  1.]  ^-  Bavo.  1 3 

S.  BAVO,  C. 
(about  a.d.  654.) 

[Roman,  Gallican,  and  Belgian  Martyrologies.  York,  Sarum,  and 
Hereford  Kalendars.  Hrabanus  and  Wandelbert.  Authority : — a  Life 
written  by  an  anonymous  monk  in  the  7th  or  8th  cent.  This  was  versi- 
fied by  another  anonymous  monk  about  A.  D.  980 ;  and  another  was 
written  in  the  nth  cent,  by  Theodoric,  Abbot  of  S.  Trond.  A  com- 
pendium of  the  Life  and  Miracles  of  S.  Bavo  was  written  by  a  third 
anonymous  writer  of  the  loth  cent.  The  first  life  is  the  one  on  which 
most  reliance  can  be  placed.] 

Aldowin,  commonly  called  Bavo,  was  Count  of  Hesbain, 
married  to  the  daughter  of  Count  Adilio,  and  by  her  became 
the  father  of  S.  Adeltrude.  He  lived  a  careless,  merr)'  life  till 
the  death  of  his  wife,  when  he  felt  her  loss  so  keenly,  that 
the  world  and  its  pleasures  became  bitter  to  his  taste  ;  then 
in  a  fit  of  sorrow  he  went  to  S.  Amandus  and  asked  him 
his  advice.  Amandus  advised  him  to  distribute  his  goods 
among  the  poor,  and  build  a  church  and  monastery  to  S. 
Peter  at  Ghent.  Wherever  Amandus  went  preaching  Bavo 
followed,  eager  to  hear  the  Word  of  God.  The  seed  sank 
deep  into  his  heart  and  bare  fruit  in  an  altered  life.  He 
returned  to  Ghent  and  became  a  recluse  in  the  monastery 
he  had  erected  there,  and  there  he  died  in  the  odour  of 


•J. * 

J  4  Lives  of  the  Saints. 


October  2. 

SS.  Guardian  Angels. 

SS.  Eleqtherius  and  Comp.  MM.  at  Nicotnedia;  a.d.  303. 

S.  Leudomer,  B.  of  CluJblons-sur-Marne ;  circ.  a.d.  585. 

S.  Serenus,  P.C.  at  Celle,  near  Chantemerle  l  circ.  a.d.  650. 

S.  Gerin,  M.  in  Gaul;  a.d.  676. 

S.  Leodegar,  B.M.  o/Autun;  a.d.  678. 

S.  Theophilus,  Mk.C.  at  Constantinople;  middle  of  %th  cent. 

S.  Beregis,  Ab.  at  Ajtdain  in  the  Ardennes:  ith  cent. 

S.  Thomas  Cantilupe,  B.  of  Hereford;  a.d.  1282. 


[The  festival  of  the  Guardian  Angels  was  first  established  by  Pope 
Paul  v.,  in  a  bull  dated  27th  Sept.,  1508,  and  was  fixed  by  Pope  Cle- 
ment X.  for  the  2nd  of  October.] 

N  this  day  are  commemorated  those  blessed 
angels  who  are  given  charge  by  God  of  Christians. 
These  angels,  "  ministering  spirits  sent  forth  to 
minister  for  them  who  shall  be  heirs  of  salvation,"^ 

watch  the  baptized,  protect  them  against  danger,  and  bear 

their  souls  after  death  to  Paradise. 

(about  a.d.  303.) 

[Roman  Martyrology,  the  "  Martyrologium  parvum,"  Ado,  Notker, 
and  Usuanlus.     Authority  : — mention  in  the  Martyrologies.] 

The  palace  of  Domitian  at  Nicomedia  having  caught  fire, 
the  blame  was  thrown  on  Eleutherius,  a  soldier,  and  some 
others,  Christians.  Some  were  decapitated,  others  flung  into 
the  sea,  and  others  burned  alive. 

* ■■ ^ 

Ij, )J< 

Oct.  2.]  '^^  Leudomer.  15 


(about  a.d.  585.) 

[Gallican  MartjTologies.  By  some  martyrologists  on  Sept.  30.  At 
Chalons  on  Oct.  2.  On  that  day  Saussaye.  Authority  : — his  Life,  sup- 
posed to  have  been  written  by  Stephen,  abbot  of  S.  Urban,  fl.  a.d. 
925;  full  of  fable.] 

S.  Leudomer,  brother  of  S.  Elaphius,  bishop  of  Chalons- 
sur-Manie,  succeeded  him  in  that  see.  They  were  both 
born  at  Limoges,  sons  of  a  certain  noble  named  Leo. 

Elaphius  was  summoned  by  KingSigebertof  Austrasia,  from 
Limoges  to  occupy  the  see  of  Chalons.  He  is  mentioned  by 
Gregory  of  Tours.  Leudomer  accompanied  his  brother, 
whom  he  dearly  loved,  and  the  brothers  gave  over  their 
paternal  inheritance  at  Limoges  to  the  church  at  Chalons. 
Ruinart  says  that  he  had  read  the  deed  whereby  "  the 
blessed  Elasius  (Elaphius)  the  bishop,  and  his  brother  the 
deacon  Leudomir,  had  made  over  estates  to  the  church  of 
S.  Stephen,  at  Chalons."'  This  donation  was  made  in  a.d. 
565.  On  the  death  of  Elaphius,  in  a.d.  580,  Leudomer  was 
raised  to  occupy  the  episcopal  throne  in  his  room. 

Queen  Brunehild  is  said  by  the  Chalons  Breviary  to  have 
sent  for  him  one  day  to  her  palace,  and  finding  him  a  tall, 
good-looking  fellow,  eyed  him  with  kindling  glances,  and 
made  an  observation  to  him  full  of  warmth.  Leudomer 
drew  back  and  stared  at  her  with  icy  eyes.  So  frozen  was 
the  glance  that  when  Roger  II.,  Bishop  of  Chalons,  dug  up 
his  predecessor,  after  the  lapse  of  four  hundred  and  fifty 
years,  though  all  the  rest  of  the  body  of  Leudomer  was  turned 
to  dust,  the  glassy  eye  stared  out  of  the  dust  heap,  with  all 
the  cold  indignation  wherewith  it  had  repulsed  Queen  Brune- 
hild.     The  freezing  glance  seems  to  have  been  reserved  to 

'  Ruinart,  in  his  notes  to  S.  Gregory  of  Tours,  lib  v.  c.  41 ;  it  was  unquestionably 
a  mediaeval  forgery  of  a  not  uncommon  kind. 

* ^ 


1 6  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  2. 

one  eye.^  This  wonderful  story  is  not  told  by  Stephen,  the 
Abbot,  who,  however,  narrates  another  sufficiently  mar- 
vellous anecdote,  which  the  Bollandists  ticket  as  "  fabulosa 
narratio."  The  bishop  had  a  field  which  was  cleared  of 
the  fresh-sown  corn  by  birds.  He  was  very  indignant,  and 
going  to  the  field,  he  '  rdered  all  the  birds  to  follow  him. 
The  guilty  sparrows  and  blackbirds  slunk  after  him  to  a 
barn.  He  held  the  door  open  and  ordered  them  all  to  enter, 
and  they  sneaked  dejectedly  in.  Then  he  shut  the  door  on 
them,  and  left  them  in  the  barn  to  their  meditations.  Now, 
during  the  night,  a  labourer  got  in,  and  killed  and  ate  one  ol 
the  sparrows.  Next  morning  Leudomer  came  to  the  granary 
and  ordered  the  birds  out,  and  to  be  off  and  not  molest 
his  fields  any  more.  They  shook  their  heads,  and  looked 
sadly  at  some  feathers  and  a  pair  of  clawed  feet  on  the 
floor.  Leudomer  saw  what  was  the  matter  in  a  moment. 
He  collected  the  feathers,  bones,  and  claws  into  a  little 
heap,  prayed,  and  the  heap  got  up  and  shook  itself  into 
shape,  and  flew  off  pertly  twittering  with  the  rest  of  the 

In  French,  S.  Leudomer  is  called  S.  Leumer  or  Lomer. 

His  symbol  in  art  is  an  eye. 


(about  a.d.  650.) 

[Usuardus,  Ado,  Greven,  and  Canisius,  in  their  German  Martyro- 
logies  ;  Saussaye,  in  his  Gallican  Martyrology,  &c.  Venerated  chiefly 
in  the  diocese  of  Troyes.  Authority  : — a  fabulous  life  by  an  unknown 
writer,  late,  and  full  of  anachronisms.] 

Serenus,  says  the  legend  which  passes  as  his  biography, 
was  the  son  of  Adrian  and  Serena,  nobles  of  Metz.     War 

'  The  story  is  told  also  by  Thomas  Cantipratensis,  De  Apibus,  lib.  ii.  c.  30. 


^_ _ >J, 

o^j^^j  kS".  Serenus.  17 

broke  out  between  the  Austrasians  and  Dagobert  (a.u.  622 
or  623),  and  Serenus  was  taken  captive  and  sold  to  Count 
Boso  for  five  sous.  This  Boso  was,  perhaps,  the  son  of 
Audolen,  executed  by  Clothair  in  a.d.  626,  on  the  charge 
of  having  dishonoured  Queen  Sighild.^ 

Serena,  the  mother  of  the  boy,  learned  where  he  was,  and 
went  with  money  in  her  hand  to  redeem  him,  but  Serenus 
refused  the  proffered  freedom,  and  sent  his  mother  weeping 
home  to  Metz.  Boso  constituted  Serenus  his  cow-herd,  and 
the  boy  taught  the  cattle  to  disperse  about  the  woods,  but 
to  assemble  at  the  blast  of  his  horn  and  follow  him  home. 
As  Boso's  son  went  every  day  to  school  at  Nesle,  Serenus 
accompanied  him  for  three  years  and  six  months,  leaving 
the  cattle  to  take  care  of  themselves,  and  every  evening  on 
his  return  from  school  he  blew  his  cow-horn,  and  the  cattle 
came  forth  from  the  green  wood,  and  followed  him  to  their 

But  some  one  told  Count  Boso  that  Serenus  neglected  his 
herds  ;  he  was  very  angry,  and  threatened  the  boy  with  a 
whipping  if  he  did  not  produce  all  the  cattle.  Serenus  blew 
his  horn,  and  when  the  herds  came  forth  from  under  the 
trees  in  answer  to  the  call  none  were  wanting. 

The  Count  being  thirsty,  he  dug  the  end  of  his  cow-horn 
into  the  ground,  and  a  fountain  sprang  up  at  the  spot,  since 
esteemed  miraculous. 

Then  Count  Boso  allowed  the  cowherd  to  leave  his 
service  and  build  himself  a  cell  in  solitude.  To  decide 
where  he  should  settle  he  flung  his  goad,  and  it  stuck  in  a 
great  oak,  and  where  it  stuck  there  he  fixed  his  abode. 

After  some  years  he  went  to  Rome  and  spent  there  seven 
years.  Then  an  angel  appeared  to  Pope  John  IV.  in  a 
dream,  and  bade  him  ordain  Serenus  priest,  and  give  him  the 
relics  of  SS.  Fabian  and  Sebastian.      The  Pope  obeyed,  and 

'  Fredegar,  Chron.  c.  54. 

VOL.  XI.                                                                                                          2 
^ 1^ 

Serenus  departed  from  Rome  a  priest,  carrying  back  with 
him  into  Gaul  the  precious  bones  of  SS.  Fabian  and  Se- 
bastian. This  must  have  occurred  between  the  years  640 
and  642,  when  John  IV.  was  Pope.  Now  as  Serenus  came 
to  the  river  Po,  there  met  him  S.  EHgius,  on  his  way  to 
Rome.  The  holy  man,  when  he  ascertained  what  a  treasure 
Serenus  bore,  could  not  keep  his  fingers  off  the  little  casket^ 
in  which  Serenus  carried  the  bones,  but  stole  it  and  made 
off  by  boat  down  the  Po. 

Serenus,  when  he  found  that  he  had  been  robbed  of  his 
box  of  bones,  fell  on  his  knees  and  prayed.  Then  a  storm 
fell  on  the  ship,  and  Eligius  would  have  been  wrecked,  had  he 
not  vowed  to  restore  the  rehcs  to  the  rightful  owner.  They 
parted  with  friendship,  and  S.  Eligius  promised  on  his  return 
to  Noyon  to  call  on  Serenus  on  his  way.  But  after  a  year 
had  passed  he  was  on  his  road  back,  and  though  he  was 
not  far  from  Celle,  he  neglected  to  visit  Serenus,  perhaps 
because  he  feared  for  himself  the  temptation  of  being  so 
near  the  holy  relics  of  Fabian  and  Sebastian.  S.  Eligius 
pushed  on,  but  was  punished  for  his  neglect  by  losing  his 
sight,  and  he  was  obliged  to  turn  back  to  Celle,  and  apologize 
to  the  man  of  God,  who  very  graciously  forgave  the  disrespect 
and  restored  sight  to  his  blinded  eyes. 

Serenus  built  a  chapel  at  Celle,  near  Chantemerle,  in 
which  he  placed  the  relics,  and  there  he  spent  the  rest  ot 
his  days,  and  died,  and  was  buried. 

Now,  apparently,  only  the  head  of  S.  Sebastian  had  been 
given  to  S.  Serenus,  for  in  a.d.  826,  the  body  of  this  saint 
was  brought  from  Rome  to  Soissons.  But  when  it  got  within 
the  territory  of  Celle,  there  it  stuck  and  obstinately  refused 
to  move.  Crowds  assembled,  and  pulled  at  the  traces,  but 
not  an  inch  would  the  car  advance.  Then  it  flashed  on 
some  intelligent  mind,  as  an  inspiration,  that  very  likely  the 

'  Capsula. 


Oct.  2.]  "S^-  Leodegar  or  Leger.  19 

body  of  S.  Sebastian  did  not  like  to  go  on  without  its  head, 
which  was  at  Celle,  and  when  the  conveyance  was  turned  in 
that  direction  it  flew  along  as  though  the  bones  and  shrine 
weighed  no  heavier  than  a  feather. 

So  the  head  and  the  body  were  re-joined  and  left  there. 

Now  the  merits  of  S.  Serenus  spread  far  and  wide,  and 
Queen  Bertha,  with  her  two  sons,  Charlemagne  and  Pepin, 
visited  the  church,  and  prayed  there  for  the  peace  of  the 
Frank  nation.  Unfortunately  for  the  story,  Bertha  died  in 
A.D.  783,  and  Pepin  died  at  the  age  of  three  in  759.  The 
biographer  implies  that  their  visit  took  place  after  the  trans- 
lation of  the  body  of  S.  Stephen,  in  a.d.  826.  He  goes  on 
to  relate  that  shortly  after,  Charles  the  Great  and  Pepin 
gained  a  great  victory  at  S.  Medard,  having  invoked  the 
assistance  of  Serenus.  It  is  impossible  to  reconcile  this 
statement  with  history. 

(a.d.  678.) 

[Almost  all  Latin  Martyrologies.  Ado,  Usuardus,  Notker ;  Gallican, 
German,  Sarmn  Kalendars.  Authorities: — i.  A  Life  by  an  anonymous 
writer  of  the  same  date,  an  eye-witness  of  part  of  what  he  describes. 
2.  A  second  Life,  by  Ursinus,  also  a  contemporary.  He  seems  to  have 
seen  the  first  Life,  but  not  to  have  trusted  it  implicitly,  for  small  dis- 
crepancies occur,  showing  that  he  had  other  sources  of  information  which 
he  preferred.  He  is  fuller  on  the  early  Life  of  S.  Leger,  but  not  so 
reliable  for  exact  succession  of  events  as  the  author  of  the  first  Life,  who 
seems  to  have  been  a  companion  of  S.  Leger.  3.  A  third  Life,  later, 
from  a  ALS.  at  Amorbach,  contains  few  additional  details  ;  it  is  founded 
on  the  Life  of  Ursinus.  M.  Guizot  says  of  the  two  first  Lives  :  *'  Nous 
possedons  deux  vies  de  Saint  Leger  ....  sans  lesquelles  I'histoire  des 
Merovingiens  de  I'an  660  a  I'an  680  nous  serait,  si  non  tout  a  fait  in- 
connue,  du  moins  a  peu  pres  inintelligible."  '      "  Le  recit  de  I'abbe 

"Collection  des  Memoires  relatifs  a  I'histoire  de  France."     T   II   p.  iig. 

^ ,5^ 

^. ^ 

20  Lives  of  the  Saints.  \qo..i. 

Ursin  est  moins  etendu  et  moins  anime  que  celui  du  nioine  anonyme,  le 
plus  curieux  peut-etre,  apres  le  grand  ouviage  de  Gregoire  de  Tours,  des 
monuments  qui  nous  sent  parvenus  sur  cette  epoque  de  notre  histoire. "  ' 
There  are  other  and  later  Lives,  founded  on  the  earlier  ones,  which  it 
is  not  necessary  to  notice.] 

S.  Leodegar,  or  as  he  is  more  commonly  called,  S.  Leger, 
was  born  about  the  year  616,  in  the  reign  of  Clothair  II.,  on 
the  banks  of  the  Rhine,  of  a  stock  connected  with  the 
Merovingian  reigning  princes.  His  mother's  name  was 
Sigrada ;  his  aunt,  his  mother's  sister,  Bereswintha,  was 
married  to  Ethico  or  Adalric,  Duke  of  Alsatia.  The  bro- 
ther of  Leger  was  Warin  or  Barin,  Count  of  Poitiers,  and  his 
uncle  Dido  was  Bishop  of  Poitiers.  At  a  very  early  age, 
Leger  was  committed  to  the  care  of  King  Clothair,  whose 
queen,  Radegund,  daughter  of  Berthar  of  Thuringia,  or  one 
of  his  other  wives,  seems  to  have  been  a  relative  of  the 
saint.  Clothair  sent  the  boy  to  Dido  of  Poitiers,  to  be 
educated  for  the  Church,  and  he  was  ordained  deacon  at 
the  age  of  twenty,  and  advanced  almost  immediately  to  the 
office  of  archdeacon  by  his  uncle.  About  the  year  651, 
when  he  was  thirty-five  years  old,  he  was  made  Abbot  of 
S.  Maxentius  at  Poitiers.  His  contemporary  anonymous 
biographer  thus  describes  him  at  this  period  : — "  There 
shone  in  him  such  a  blaze  of  science  and  firmness,  that  he 
surpassed  all  his  predecessors ;  not  being  ignorant  of  the 
rule  of  the  laws  of  the  world,  he  was  a  terrible  judge  of 
seculars,  and  full  of  the  science  of  canon  law,  exhibiting 
liimself  as  an  excellent  doctor  of  clerics.  Never  having 
been  softened  by  the  pleasures  of  the  flesh,  he  was  rigorous 
in  his  treatment  of  sinners  ;  he  watched  always  carefully 
at  the  offices  of  the  Cluircli,  was  skilful  in  his  reasonings, 
prudent  in  counsel,  and  shining  in  discourse." 

After  having  ruled  the  Abbey   of  S.  Maxentius  for  six 

'  "  Collection  des  Mcmoires  relatifs  a  I'histoirc  de  France."    T.  II.,  p.  320. 

* ^ 

0(.t.  2  ]  6'.  Leodegar  or  Leger.  2 1 

years,  he  was  summoned  to  court  by  S.  Bathild,  the  queen 
regent  for  the  infant  Clothair  III.,  who  was  only  five  years 
old  when  his  father,  Clovis  II.,  died  (a.d.  656).  Bathild  had 
been  a  Saxon  captive  of  exquisite  beauty,  with  whom 
Clovis  II.  had  fallen  in  love,  and  whom  he  had  married.' 
She  was  the  holiest  and  most  devout  of  women.  She  suc- 
ceeded to  some  part  of  the  authority,  to  none  of  the  crimes 
or  ambition,  of  Brunehild  or  Fredegund.  Her  pious  muni- 
ficence knew  no  bounds  ;  remembering  her  own  bondage, 
she  set  apart  vast  sums  for  the  redemption  of  captives.  Not 
a  cathedral,  not  a  monastery,  but  records  the  splendid  dona- 
tions of  Queen  Bathild  ;  not  farms  only,  but  forests,  districts, 
almost  provinces.  This  was  the  woman  who  called  to  aid 
in  her  councils  the  holy  abbot  of  S.  Maxentius.  She  raised 
him  almost  immediately  to  the  great  Burgundian  bishopric 
of  Autun.  This  see  had  been  widowed  for  two  years. 
Two  rivals  fought  for  its  crosier.  One  killed,  or  obtained 
the  assassination  of,  the  other,  and  for  the  crime  was 
deprived  of  his  claim.  Thus  the  way  to  the  episcopal 
throne  of  Autun  was  cleared  for  S.  Leger,  and  he  was  con- 
secrated bishop  about  the  year  a.d.  660.  He  at  once 
entered  Autun,  supported  by  the  soldiers  of  Queen  Bathild, 
and  with  strong  hand  quelled  the  tumults  of  the  people. 
"  On  his  arrival,  all  the  enemies  of  the  Church  and  of  the 
city  were  struck  with  terror,  even  those  who  fought  with 
fury  and  killed  each  other ;  those  whom  preaching  would 
not  bring  back  to  concord,  justice  and  terror  constrained."'^ 
S.  Leger  founded  a  hospital  in  Autun,  enriched  the  church 
with  vessels  of  gold  and  silver,  adorned  the  baptistery,  trans- 
lated the  body  of  S.  Symphorian,  repaired  the  city  walls, 
re-laid  the  pavement  of  the  Cathedral,  gilded  the  rafters,  and 
set  up  a  stately  portico  to  the  church. 

But  Leger,   though   he    attended   to   the   wants   of    his 

'  See  Jan.  26.  ^  Anon.  i. 


2  2  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  2. 

diocese,  did  not  neglect  political  affairs.  He  directed  the 
councils  of  Queen  Bathild,  till  the  young  king  took  into  his 
own  hand  the  reins  of  government,  and  the  queen-mother 
was  forced  to  retire  into  the  convent  of  Chelles. 

The  death  of  the  young  king,  Clothair  III.  (a.d.  670), 
was  the  signal  for  the  breaking  out  of  a  fierce  contest  for 
supremacy  between  two  factions  in  the  kingdom.  At  the 
head  of  one  stood  Ebroin,  mayor  of  the  palace  ;  at  the  head 
of  the  other,  Leger,  Bishop  of  Autun.  Clothair  died 
childless,  leaving  two  brothers,  Childeric  and  Theodoric. 
Of  these  Theodoric  was  the  elder.  Leger  and  Ebroin  had 
been  at  rivalry  in  the  lifetime  of  Clothair.  Leger  repre- 
sented the  domination  of  the  hierarchy  over  the  affairs  of  the 
realm,  Ebroin  the  despotism  of  the  mayor  of  the  palace. 
Leger  represented  the  Burgundian  interests,  Ebroin  those  of 
Austrasia.  Before  the  death  of  Clothair,  Ebroin  had  per- 
suaded the  king  to  drive  all  the  Burgundians  from  his  court, 
and  to  pass  an  edict  that  no  Burgundian  might  appear  before 
the  king  without  a  special  permission. 

On  the  death  of  Clothair,  Ebroin,  instead  of  summoning 
the  nobles  to  consult,  relying  on  his  own  authority  and 
power,  proceeded  to  enthrone  Theodoric.^  Leger  at  once 
placed  himself  at  the  head  of  the  opposite  party,  and  offered 
the  sovereignty  of  Burgundy  and  Neustria  to  Childeric. 
The  policy  of  Ebroin,  the  depression  of  the  higher  nobles, 
the  elevation  of  the  lower,  the  subordination  of  all  to  the 
throne,  had  stirred  him  up  a  host  of  powerful  foes.  What 
the  higher  nobility  and  some  of  the  bishops  called  rebellious 
tyranny,  his  partisans  held  to  be  high  and  rigid  justice. 
Some  saw  that  the  policy  of  Ebroin  was  the  consoHdation  of 
the  kingdom,  and  S.  Praejectus  of  Auvergne,  S.  Reolus  of 
Rheims,  S.  Agilbert  of  Paris,  and  S.  Ouen  of  Rouen,  joined 
his   party.      But   the  great  chiefs  saw  their  independence 

'  The  anonymous  author  of  the  Life  of  S.  Leger  asserts  the  seniority  of  Theodoric. 


•^ — * 

Oct.  2.]  ^-  Leodegar  or  Leger.  23 

and  autocracy  menaced,  and  rallied  round  S.  Leger.  Ebroin 
fell  before  the  fierce  onslaught  of  the  Burgundians,  who 
threatened  fire  and  sword  to  all  who  should  support  the 
mayor  of  the  palace  and  the  elder  prince. 

Ebroin  fled  to  a  church,  and  clung  to  the  altar.  His 
house  and  treasures  fell  a  prey.  It  was  held  to  be  a 
splendid  effort  of  Christian  virtue,  that  the  saint  spared  the 
life  of  his  rival.  He  was  banished  to  the  monastery  of 
Luxeuil,  compelled  to  give  up  his  wife,  to  submit  to  the 
tonsure,  and  to  take  the  irrevocable  vows.  Leodegar  ruled 
supreme,  and  in  the  highest  episcopal  splendour,  in  his 
cathedral  city  of  Autun.  If  his  biographer  be  right,^  he 
assumed  even  the  title  of  mayor  of  the  palace. 

Childeric  ordered  his  elder  brother  to  be  brought  before 
him,  and  some,  thinking  to  please  the  young  king  and 
secure  his  place  on  the  throne,  hastily  shaved  the  head  of 
Theodoric,  and  invested  him  with  the  monastic  habit.  In 
this  plight  the  unfortunate  prince  was  brought  before  Chil- 
deric, who  ordered  him  to  be  confined  in  the  monastery  of 
S.  Denys,  "  where,"  says  the  anonymous  biographer  of 
S.  Leger,  "  he  lived  in  security  till  his  hair  grew  again." 
The  nobles  who  had  carried  Childeric  to  the  throne  now 
insisted  on  the  king  issuing  edicts  confirming  the  inde- 
pendence and  privileges  of  the  separate  provinces,  which  had 
been  menaced  by  the  policy  of  Ebroin.  He  consented,  but 
afterwards  seeing  that  this  was  a  disastrous  policy,  withdrew 
his  edicts.  As  long  as  possible,  Leger,  acting  as  mayor  of 
the  palace,  governed  the  mind  of  the  young  king  and  the 
aftairs  of  state.  But  a  strong,  compact  body  of  malcontents 
was  formed  against  him,  a  body  favouring  the  concentrating, 
not  the  disintegrating  policy,  as  that  most  conducive  to  the 
welfare  of  the  realm. 

S.  Leger  is  said  to  have  remonstrated  with  Childeric  for 

'  Ursinus,  a  contemporary. 
^ _ 

* — * 

'      24  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Qcm. 

having  married  his  cousin,  and  this  served  to  alienate 
Childeric  from  him,  added  to  the  fact  that  Leger  advocated 
a  course  which  obviously  enfeebled  the  crown,  and  left  it  a 
prey  to  the  dictation  of  the  great  nobles.  Leger  was  obliged 
to  surrender  his  office  of  mayor  of  the  palace  to  Wulfoald. 
S.  Leger  invited  the  king  to  celebrate  Easter  at  Autun,  a.d. 
673.  At  that  time  one  Hector,  a  patrician  of  Marseilles, 
came  to  Autun  to  make  a  request  of  the  king,  and  obtain 
the  intercession  of  the  bishop.  The  biographer  of  S.  Leger 
calls  him  a  "  very  prudent  man,"  and  only  speaks  vaguely  of 
his  "  certain  affair."  But  the  contemporary  life  of  S.  Prae- 
jectus  gives  us  a  fuller  account  of  the  matter.  S.  Praejectus, 
Bishop  of  Auvergne,  belonged  to  the  party  of  Ebroin,  and 
his  biographer  shared  in  the  dislike  in  which  Leger  was  held 
by  that  party.  He  tells  us  that  Hector  had  carried  off  a 
young  girl  of  Marseilles,  and  made  her  his  concubine.  Her 
mother  left  some  farms  in  Auvergne  to  the  Church.  Hector 
claimed  them  for  his  concubine.  S.  Prjejectus  opposed 
his  claim.  Then  Hector,  "  an  infamous  man,"  says  the 
biographer  of  S.  Prsejectus,  "having  associated  with  him 
another,  Leodegar,  in  his  crime,  came  to  the  king."  Strong 
suspicions  were  roused  in  the  king's  mind  that  Leger  and 
Hector  were  in  conspiracy  with  others  against  him.  How 
far  there  was  such  a  plot,  and  it  was  known  to  S.  Leger,  we 
cannot  decide,  but  that  there  was  one  appears  probable. 
Leger  was  restless  under  his  loss  of  favour,  and  there  was  a 
large  party  of  nobles  which  shared  his  discontent. 

The  king,  on  Easter  Eve,  came  to  the  baptistery  of  the 
Cathedral  shouting  for  Leger,  but  when  he  saw  the  bishop 
in  the  blaze  of  wax  lights,  with  incense  smoking  round  him 
as  he  blessed  the  font,  he  retired  awestruck.  When  the 
service  was  accomplished,  Leger  went  to  the  king's  lodgings, 
and  high  words  passed  between  them.  The  king  raised  his 
hand  with  his  poignard,  and  would  have  killed  the  bishop, 

^ — — i{i 


Oct. 2]  S.  Leodegar  or  Leger.  25 

but  for  the  interference  of  the  bystanders.  Leger  retired, 
and  fearing  for  his  Hfe,  fled  from  Autun.  He  was  over- 
taken, and  ordered  to  be  imprisoned  at  Luxeuil.  Thus,  by 
a  sudden  revokition,  the  bishop  found  himself  an  exile  in 
the  same  monastery  with  his  fellow-rival,  Ebroin.  Hector 
and  all  his  followers  were  put  to  death.  The  banishment  of 
S.  Leger  was  approved  by  all  the  bishops  of  the  opposite 
faction,  and  there  were  canonized  saints  among  them  ;  so  that 
it  is  probable  that  there  were  circumstances  with  regard  to  a 
conspiracy  against  Childeric  which  had  come  to  light,  and 
tended  to  incriminate  him. 

But  the  banishment  of  S.  Leger  was  of  short  duration. 
Childeric  was  stabbed  while  hunting.  At  the  same  time  two 
dukes  had  withdrawn  Leger  from  Luxeuil,  and  guarded  him 
in  their  castle,  waiting  for  the  explosion  of  the  conspiracy, 
when  he  could  be  put  forward  again.  Ebroin  took  ad- 
vantage of  the  death  of  Childeric  to  escape  from  Luxeuil. 
Like  a  second  Julian,  says  the  old  biographer  of  Leger,  he 
cast  oft  his  religion,  that  is,  his  enforced  monastic  vows ;  his 
free  locks  again  flowed,  he  rejoined  his  wife.  Thromng 
himself  into  Austrasia,  he  set  up  a  child  named  Clovis  as 
the  son  and  successor  of  Childeric,  and  assembled  about  him 
all  the  troops  of  the  Austrasian  nobles. 

Theodoric  III.,  the  second  son  of  Clovis  II.,  brother  of 
Clothair  and  Childeric,  who  had  been  imprisoned  in  the 
abbey  of  S.  Denys,  and  tonsured  to  incapacitate  him  for  the 
throne,  was  brought  forth  by  the  party  which  detested 
Ebroin,  to  act  the  part  of  king.  Ebroin  felt  the  necessity 
of  at  once  cutting  off"  Leger,  his  most  subtle  and  dangerous 
rival.  He  therefore  detached  an  army,  under  two  officers, 
Diddo  and  Waimer,  Duke  of  Champagne,  to  take  Autun 
and  its  bishop.  When  S.  Leger  saw  the  walls  of  his  city 
surrounded,  he  brought  all  the  gold  and  silver  plate  out  of 
his  palace,  on  which  he  had  fared  with  almost  royal  mag- 



26  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.a. 

nificence,  had  it  smashed  into  bits,  and  distributed  among 
the  poor,  to  encourage  them  to  defend  the  city  and  his 
person  with  enthusiasm.  Then  he  went  round  the  walls, 
bearing  relics,  and  prayed  and  genuflected  at  each  gate. 

The  assault  was  made,  and  it  became  evident  that  the 
town  could  not  hold  out.  The  abbot  Meroald  was  let  down 
the  rampart  by  a  rope,  to  offer  terms.  The  servants  of 
Ebroin  would  accept  none.  Next  day  the  gates  were  flaming; 
further  resistance  was  impossible.  S.  Leger  ordered  the 
gates  to  be  opened,  and  came  forth  with  calm  countenance. 
He  was  at  once  brought  before  Diddo  and  Waimer,  who 
had  his  eyes  put  out  with  instruments  of  iron.  "  Many 
illustrious  men,  then  present,  affirm  that  he  would  not  allow 
his  hands  to  be  tied,  that  no  groan  escaped  his  mouth  while 
his  eyes  were  being  torn  out,  but  that  he  continued  singing 
psalms  and  praising  God."  Bobbo,  Bishop  of  Valence,  was 
placed  over  the  city,  the  town  was  given  up  to  spoil,  and 
then  the  army  marched  on  to  Lyons  to  obtain  possession  of 
Genes,  the  archbishop. 

Ebroin  spread  a  report  that  Leger  was  dead,  and  even 
ordered  a  sepulchre  to  be  raised  to  contain  his  ashes.  But 
Leger  languished  in  a  castle  of  Duke  Waimer  of  Champagne, 
who  showed  him  great  kindness,  and  gave  him  large  sums  of 
money,  seeing  apparently  that  the  chances  of  Clovis,  whether 
he  were  truly  or  not  the  son  of  Childeric,  were  declining,  and 
uncertain  lest  the  turn  of  the  wheel  of  fortune  should  send 
Leger  up  again. 

But  Ebroin  saw  that  the  cause  of  Clovis  was  hopeless,  and 
he  adroitly  flung  himself  into  that  of  Theodoric,  and  secured 
for  himself  the  place  of  mayor  of  the  palace  against  Leudes, 
whom  Leger  had  set  up.  Ebroin,  finding  himself  again  su- 
preme, and  learning  that  Leger  was  not  dead,  ordered  the 
arrest  of  Werin,  or  Gerin,  the  brother  of  S.  Leger,  who  had 
neen  involved  in  the  conspiracy  against  Childeric,  and  that 



Oct,  2.]  S.  Leodegar  or  Leger.  27 

both  Werin  and  Leger  should  be  brought  before  him.  Leger 
turned  his  sightless  eyes  on  the  mayor,  and  said  :  "  By  thy 
oppression  of  the  inhabitants  of  France,  thou  losest  the  high 
rank  thou  hast  acquired  without  deserving  it." 

Ebroin,  highly  incensed,  ordered  Werin,  the  brother  of 
S.  Leger,  to  be  taken  forth  and  put  to  death.  As  he  left, 
Leger  turned  to  him  and  said  :  "  Be  calm,  my  dear  brother, 
we  must  suffer  these  things  ;  but  the  ills  of  this  present  life 
are  not  to  be  considered  beside  the  glory  that  awaits  us. 
Our  sins  are  grievous,  but  the  mercy  of  the  Most  High  sur- 
passes all,  and  is  ever  ready  to  cleanse  the  sins  of  those  who 
publish  its  praises.  We  must  suffer  in  this  world,  for  we  are 
debtors  to  death ;  but  if  we  endure  suffering  with  patience, 
the  life  in  which  we  shall  meet  again  will  recompense  us  with 
celestial  joy." 

Werin  was  taken  forth,  tied  to  the  trunk  of  a  tree,  and 
stoned  to  death. 

Ebroin  ordered  Leger  to  be  made  to  walk  over  sharp  flints, 
and  that  his  lips  and  tongue  should  be  slashed  with  a  razor. 
He  was  then  given  over  to  a  certain  Waring,  to  be  conducted 
to  his  house.  Waring  placed  him  on  a  poor  beast,  and  accom- 
panied by  Abbot  Winobert,  he  was  taken  to  the  residence  of 
Waring,  where  he  was  laid  on  straw,  and  covered  with  an 
old  tent-cloth.  Winobert  was  amazed  to  hear  the  wounded 
bishop  stutter  words  through  his  cut  lips  and  with  his  bleeding 
tongue.  Hermenar,  who  had  been  consecrated  bishop  of 
Autun  in  the  room  of  Leger,  obtained  permission  to  visit  the 
sufferer,  and  he  ministered  to  the  patient,  plastering  over  the 
cut  lips,  and  feeding  him  with  gruel  which  could  not  hurt  his 
wounded  tongue.  After  a  while  S.  Leger  was  able  to  speak, 
and  Waring  took  him  to  Fecamp,  in  Normandy,  and  left 
him  in  the  charge  of  a  community  of  religious  women,  under 
the  abbess  Childemark.  He  was  able  there  to  speak  and 
preach  to  the  people  with  his  former  facility,  and  to  say  mass 


A  letter  written  by  S.  Leger  to  his  mother,  after  the  death 
of  Werin,  exists.  It  bears  the  title :  "  I'he  consolatory 
epistle,  which  S.  Leodegar,  bishop  of  the  Edui,  sent  to  his 
mother,  after  the  death  of  his  brother,  Girenius,  and  the 
loss  of  his  eyes  and  the  slashing  of  his  lips,"  It  begins  as 
follows : — 

"  To  madam,  my  very  holy  mother  Sigrada,  who,  already 
my  true  mother  by  blood,  is  more  so  still  by  the  bond  oi 
spirit;  in  whom  is  accomplished  the  saying  of  the  Truth 
itself,  '  Whoso  doeth  the  will  of  my  Father  which  is  in  heaven, 
the  same  is  my  brother,  and  sister,  and  mother.' 

"Leodegar,  servant  of  the  servants  of  Jesus  Christ  our  Lord. 

"  Grace  and  peace  be  with  you,  from  God  our  Father,  and 
the  Lord  Jesus  Christ.  I  thank  my  God,  who  has  not  with- 
drawn His  mercies  from  me,  but  Who  has  caused  me  to  hear 
a  word  of  joy  and  gladness,  because  of  our  common  faith 
and  patience  in  all  persecutions,  and  those  tribulations 
which  are  in  Him,  which  you  endure,  following  the  example 
of  God,  the  Just  Judge,  in  order  that  we  may  be  found 
worthy  of  His  kingdom."  The  letter,  which  is  long,  breathes 
the  most  fervent  piety  and  calm  resignation.  "  How  truly 
God  has  recompensed  thee  !  In  place  of  a  crowd  of  serving- 
men.  He  has  given  thee  holy  brethren  praying  daily  for  thee; 
in  place  of  serving-women,  sisters  whose  society  is  a  delight ; 
in  place  of  many  cares  in  the  world,  the  peace  of  a  convent ; 
in  place  of  earthly  goods.  Holy  Scripture,  meditation,  and 
prayer."  Not  one  word  throughout  the  letter  about  his  own 
sufferings  and  cruel  mutilation. 

His  pitiable  aspect  attracted  the  reverence  of  the  people 
of  the  neighbourhood.  Two  years  passed,  and  then  Leger 
was  brought  before  a  council  of  bishops  assembled  at  Marly, 
near  Paris,  and  he  was  charged  with  having  been  privy  to 
the  murder  of  Childeric.  Leger  admitted  that  he  had  not 
been  exempt  from  human  frailty,  but  would  not  allow  that  he 



Oct.  2.] 

S.  Leodegar  07'  Leger. 


had  had  any  hand  in  the  commission  of  the  crime.  The 
bishops  were,  however,  satisfied  that,  though  he  had  not  been 
a  party  to  the  murder,  he  had  been  one  of  the  moving  spirits 
in  the  conspiracy,  and  his  episcopal  robe  was  torn  from  his 
neck  to  his  feet,  and  he  was  forbidden  to  offer  the  holy  sacri- 
fice. Having  been  thus  deprived  and  degraded  by  the  eccle- 
siastical power,  he  was  returned  to  Ebroin,  who  condemned 
him  to  death,  and  ordered  Chrodobert,  count  of  the  palace, 
to  execute  him. 

As  he  was  being  led  away,  Chrodobert,  seeing  him  weak 
and  faint,  ordered  his  page  to  bring  him  something  to  drink. 
The  day  was  cloudy,  but  as  the  cupbearer  approached,  the 
clouds  divided,  and  a  sudden  glory  of  golden  sunlight  fell  on 
the  head  of  the  blind  and  mutilated  old  bishop.  S.  Leger 
was  retained  a  few  days  in  the  house  of  Chrodobert,  before 
the  final  sentence,  signed  by  the  king,  arrived.  Then  Chro- 
dobert reluctantly  ordered  four  of  his  servants  to  execute  the 
holy  old  man.  He  himself  would  not,  could  not,  endure  to 
be  present.  His  wife  burst  into  a  storm  of  tears.  Leger 
consoled  her:  "Do  not  cry  about  me;  you  are  in  no  way 
guilty  of  my  death  ;  dispose  of  my  body  with  reverence,  and 
heaven  will  bless  thee." 

The  four  servants  led  him  into  a  forest.  They  looked 
about  for  a  well  into  which  they  might  fling  his  body,  but 
could  not  find  one.  Three  of  the  executioners  knelt  and 
besought  his  pardon.  The  fourth  drew  his  sword  silently 
from  his  scabbard.  The  saint  knelt,  prayed,  and  extended 
his  neck ;  and  whilst  he  was  in  prayer  his  head  was  smitten 
off.  As  the  body  remained  for  a  moment  still  kneeling,  the 
executioner  thrust  it  down  with  his  foot. 

Then,  by  orders  of  the  wife  of  Chrodobert,  the  body  was 
taken  with  reverence,  and  buried  at  Serein.  The  man  who 
had  executed  him,  it  is  said,  seized  with  remorse,  went  mad, 
and  falling  into  a  fire,  was  so  burnt  that  he  died. 



30  Lives  of  the  Saints.  ^oct  2. 

It  is  very  difficult,  if  not  impossible,  to  judge  of  the  con- 
duct of  S.  Leger.  In  the  midst  of  the  political  affairs  of  his 
day  he  exercised  a  preponderating  influence.  Several  great 
saints  were  opposed  to  him,  and  condemned  him  as  a  con- 
spirator against  the  king  he  hi:d  set  up  in  opposition  to  his 
elder  brother,  when  he  found  that  his  own  authority  was 
waning.  But  there  can  be  little  question  that  when  Leger 
was  at  the  head  of  affairs  during  the  regency  of  Queen  Ba- 
thild,  the  kingdom  was  governed  in  peace,  and  enjoyed  a 
prosperity  it  had  not  tasted  for  many  previous  years.  Great 
saints  at  that  period  mixed  in  the  revolutions  which  devastated 
France.  Not  long  after  the  death  of  S.  Leger,  Martin,  one 
of  the  grandsons  of  Pepin  of  Landen,  with  his  cousin  Pepin, 
aspired  to  at  least  the  mayoralty  of  Austrasia.  S.  Reolus, 
Archbishop  of  Rheims,  and  S.  Agilbert,  of  Paris,  swore  upon 
certain  relics  that  Martin's  life  would  be  spared  if  he  would 
surrender  himself  But  they  had  withdra\vn  the  holy  wit- 
nesses, and  swore  on  the  empty  case.  Martin  was  seized, 
and  the  bishops  made  no  protest  against  the  death  of  the 
deluded  youth. ^ 

Ebroin  perished  by  the  blow  of  an  assassin — perished  not 
in  this  world  only.  A  monk  on  the  shores  of  the  Saone, 
who  had  been  blinded  by  Ebroin^  heard  a  boat  rowed 
furiously  down  the  stream.  A  temble  voice  thundered  out : 
•'It  is  Ebroin,  whom  we  are  bearing  to  the  caldron  of 
hell  ."2 

St.  Leger  is  represented  in  art  with  gimlets  in  his  eyes,  or 
with  pincers  holding  his  eye-balls.  Relics  at.  Poitiers ;  the 
head  at  Chaux-les-Chatillon;  the  upper  jaw  at  Mercier,  near 
Soissons  ;  in  the  seminary  church  at  Soissons,  part  of  the 
lower  jaw.  Another  head  is  exhibited  as  that  of  S.  Leger, 
at  Morbach,  in  Alsace  ;  another  head,  and  a  hand,  at  May- 

'  Fredegar,  Contin.  ap.  Bouquet,  ii.  p.  451. 
'  Adonis  Chron.  ap.  Bouquet,  ii.  p.  670. 



Oct.  2.]  '^-  TJwnias  de  Cantilupe.  3 1 

mac,  in  the  diocese  of  Limoges  ;  another  head  at  Jumieges, 
in  the  diocese  of  Rouen ;  another  at  S.  Vast,  in  Artois;  another 
at  Preaux,  in  the  diocese  of  Lisieux,  with  four  teeth  adhering 
to  the  jaw.  The  eyes,  scooped  out  some  years  before  the 
death  of  the  saint,  were  discovered  after  his  death.  One 
was  shown  in  the  abbey  of  S.  Victor,  at  Paris ;  another  at 
S.  Denys ;  a  third  at  Dijon,  in  the  church  of  S.  Magloire. 
The  entire  body  at  Brain e-le-Comte,  in  Burgundy. 


(a.d.  1282.) 

[Canonized  in  1320  by  John  XXII.,  who  fixed  his  festival  for  the  sixth 
of  the  Nones  of  October  (Oct.  2).  Roman  Martyrology,  Lubeck-Cologne 
edition  of  Usuardus,  Greven,  and  Molanus ;  Sarum,  York,  and  Hereford 
Kalendars.  Galesinius  on  April  17  and  Oct.  2.  The  process  of  canoni- 
zation was  begun  by  Clement  V.  in  1307,  but  was  interrupted  by  his 
death  in  1314.  The  bull  of  John  XXII.  is  dated  from  Avignon,  April 
17,  1320.  King  Edward  II. 's  letter  to  the  Pope  requesting  the  canoni- 
zation is  dated  17th  Jan.,  1319,  and  is  to  be  seen  in  the  second  volume 
of  Rymer's  "Foedera,"  p.  385  (Record  Com.  edition).  Authorities:— 
A  compendium  of  the  Life  of  the  Saint,  from  the  Process  of  Canoniza- 
tion ;  his  miracles  from  the  same.  Mention  by  Matthew  Paris,  John  of 
Brompton,  &c.  The  Process  of  Canonization  is  of  peculiar  interest,  as  it 
contains  the  testimony  of  numerous  persons  who  had  known  S.  Thomas 
more  or  less  intimately.] 

Thomas  Cantilupe  was  the  son  of  Baron  WiUiam  Can- 
tilupe and  Mehsent  de  Gournay,  widow  of  the  Count  of 
Evreux.'  Wilham  Cantilupe  was  seneschal  of  Henry  III. 
By  his  wife  Mehsent  the  Baron  de  Cantilupe  had  five  sons : 
William,  the  eldest,  seneschal  of  Aquitain,  Hugh,  Arch- 
deacon of  Gloucester,  Thomas,   Bishop  of  Hereford,  John 

■  Robert  of  Gloucester,  in  his  examination  at  the  canonization,  says:  "After  the 
English  fashion,  his  mother  retained  the  title  of  Countess  after  she  had  married 

ij. ^ 


Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  2. 

and  Nicolas,  barons.  One  of  the  witnesses  in  the  canoni- 
zation, Richard  Kimberly,  thought  the  rental  of  William,  the 
eldest  son,  was  ;^2,ooo  sterling.  Hugh,  the  archdeacon,  is 
described  by  another  as  "  clericus  et  dives."  There  were 
three  daughters :  Juliana,  married  to  John,  Baron  Tregoz  ; 
Agnes,  the  wife  of  Robert  St.  John,  baron,  whose  son  was 
John  St.  John,  seneschal  of  Aquitain  in  the  reign  o( 
Edward  I.  Another  daughter  was  married  to  Robert 
Gregonet,  baron,  in  England. 

S.  Thomas  Cantilupe  was  born  in  1 218,  at  Hambledene 
or  Hambleden,  not  far  from  the  Thames,  near  Marlow,  in 
Buckinghamshire,  and  was  there  baptized  in  the  parish 
church.  Baron  Cantilupe  had  a  manor  at  Hambledene. 
The  child  was  entrusted  to  be  nursed  by  a  "  devout,  noble, 
and  holy  matron,"  and  at  the  age  of  seven  was  given,  along 
with  his  brother  Hugh,  good  masters,  and  taught  to  hear 
mass  and  the  canonical  hours  every  day.  The  director  ol 
the  boys'  studies  was  their  uncle,  Walter,  Bishop  of  Worcester. 
Thus  the  two  brothers  were  trained  from  infancy  for  the 
ecclesiastical  state.  Thomas  was  not,  however,  quite  dis- 
posed to  renounce  a  more  active  career,  for  when  Bishop 
Walter  asked  the  boys  one  day  what  profession  they  should 
prefer,  "I  want  to  be  a  soldier,"  said  Thomas.  "Ah!  a 
soldier  thou  shalt  be,  indeed,"  said  the  bishop ;  "  but  a 
soldier  of  Christ,  and  thy  harness  shall  be  the  cassock  ol 
the  priest." 

From  Worcester  the  youths  were  sent  to  Paris  to  study  in 
the  arts.  They  kept  house  in  noble  style,  with  many  ser- 
vants. In  1245,  when  Thomas  was  aged  twenty-seven. 
Innocent  IV.  summoned  a  council  at  Lyons,  and  the  two 
Cantilupes  hasted  thither.  The  relations  of  the  Pope  with 
England  were  far  from  satisfactory.  Crowds  of  Italian 
priests  had  been  intruded  into  Enghsh  benefices,  and  this, 
together  with  heavy  taxation  for  the  Papal  necessities,  had 


^ _ ^ 

Oct.  a.]  S.  Thomas  de  Canttlupe.  33 

kindled  such  violent  resentment  alike  among  the  barons  and 
the  prelates,  as  almost  to  threaten  that  the  realm  would  alto- 
gether throw  off  the  papal  yoke.  It  was  tauntingly  said 
that  England  was  the  Pope's  farm.  At  this  time  the  col- 
lector of  the  papal  revenues,  Master  Martin,  was  driven 
ignominiously,  and  in  peril  of  his  life,  from  the  shores  of  the 
kingdom.  "  Master  Martin,"  says  Matthew  Paris,  "  had 
been  laying  his  hooked  fingers  on  the  revenues  of  the  Church 
for  the  use  and  benefit  of  the  Pope."  ..."  For  his  infa- 
mous rapacity,  many  called  him  Master  Mattin  (pirate). 
He  extended  his  hands  to  exact  contributions,  to  make 
provision  for  unknown  purposes,  in  accordance  with  the 
impulse  of  his  own  mind,  without  any  regard  to  reason ;  and 
being  armed  with  cruel  authority  by  the  Pope,  from  whom 
he  showed  new  charters  every  day,  adapted  to  any  sudden 
case  of  emergency,  he  forcibly  extorted  revenues,  to  be  con- 
ferred on  the  Pope's  relations.  Hence  many  said  that  he 
had  a  number  of  parchments  not  written,  but  sealed  with 
the  papal  bull,  so  that  he  might  write  on  them  whatever 
he  pleased."  Martin  had  taken  up  his  residence  in  the 
house  of  the  Templars  in  London.^  Fulk  Fitzwarenne  sud- 
denly appeared  before  him,  and  with  a  stern  look  said  : 
"Arise,  get  thee  forth!  depart  out  of  England!"  "In 
whose  name  speakest  thou?"  "  In  the  name  of  the  barons 
of  England  assembled  at  Luton  and  Dunstable.  If  thou  art 
not  gone  in  three  days,  thou  and  thine  shall  be  cut  to 
pieces."  Martin  sought  the  king.  "  Is  this  done  by  your 
command,  or  by  the  insolence  of  your  subjects?"     "It  is 

'  Matthew  Paris  says  :  "  Carrying  himself  like  a  legate,  he  sent  word  in  all  direc- 
tions, to  such  and  such  an  abbot,  such  and  such  a  prior,  ordering  them  to  send  him 
costly  presents  of  handsome  palfreys,  meats,  drinks,  and  ornamental  dresses,  and  it 
not  good  enough  he  ordered  them  to  send  more,  under  penalty  of  suspension  and 
anathema.  He  also  suspended  all  from  bestowal  of  benefices  worth  thirty  marks  and 
upwards  till  his  cupidity  should  be  satisfied.  Hence  the  wretched  English  suffered 
worse  than  the  sons  of  Israel  of  old,  and  were  obliged  to  endure  the  slavery  of  Egypt 
in  England." 

VOL.  XI.                                                                                                          3 
^ ^ 


34  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [0ct2. 

not  by  my  command  ;  but  my  barons  wall  no  longer  endure 
your  depredations  and  iniquities.  They  will  rise  in  insur- 
rection, and  I  have  no  power  to  save  you  from  being  torn 
to  pieces."  The  trembling  priest  implored  a  safe-conduct. 
"  The  devil  take  thee  away  to  hell ! "  said  the  indignant  king, 
ashamed  of  his  own  impotence. 

All  the  ports  of  England  were  guarded  against  the 
entrance  of  papal  legates.  England  was  in  such  a  state  of 
exasperation,  that  Pope  Innocent  felt  the  necessity  of  allay- 
ing the  irritation.  The  Bishop  of  Worcester,  the  uncle  of 
the  two  young  Cantilupes,  was  one  of  the  malcontents. 
When  Hugh  and  Thomas  appeared  at  Lyons,  the  pope  con- 
ferred on  them  the  honour  of  papal  chaplaincies,  and 
Thomas  was  provided  with  four  bulls,  granting  him  permis- 
sion to  hold  any  number  of  benefices  in  England  simulta- 
neously. On  his  way  back,  Thomas  halted  at  Orleans  to 
study  canon  law,  and  after  having  taken  a  degree  of  licen- 
tiate at  Paris,  returned  to  England.  At  Paris  the  brothers 
had  lived  in  great  magnificence,  many  needy  scholars  had 
been  fed  from  their  table  with  the  scraps  that  remained ;  so 
had  also  daily  from  five  to  thirteen  paupers.  In  their  hotel 
the  brothers  received  a  visit  from  the  king,  S.  Louis.  On 
the  return  of  Thomas  Cantilupe  to  England,  he  went  to 
Oxford,  and  was  elected  Chancellor  of  the  University  (a.d. 
1262).  As  chancellor  he  was  remarkable  for  his  strictness. 
The  north  country  and  south  country  scholars  were  at  that 
time  accustomed  to  fight.  Thomas  interfered  in  these  distur- 
bances, and  carried  off  the  bows  and  swords  and  daggers 
of  the  most  riotously  inclined  of  the  students.  Hugh  le 
Barber,  one  of  the  witnesses  at  his  canonization,  said  that 
he  had  at  one  time  in  his  possession  as  many  as  twenty  con- 
fiscated bows  and  other  weapons,  and  that  he  only  restored 
them  when  convinced  that  their  owners  were  sincere  in  their 
promises  to  keep  the  peace.     One  turbulent  young  fellow, 

Roger  Horn,  who  had  fallen  on  twenty  scholars  and  held 
^ _ ^ 

,^ _ ^ 

Oct.  3.]  •^-  Thomas  de  Cantilupe.  3  5 

them  at  bay,  had  his  sword  confiscated  in  perpetuity,  and 
the  chancellor  made  a  present  of  it  to  John  Kensey,  after- 
wards canon  of  Hereford.  In  one  of  the  periodical 
(quarrels  between  North  and  South,  S.  Thomas  dashed  with 
his  bedells  into  the  midst  of  the  disputants,  and  received  a 
blow  which  cut  through  his  mantle.  He  made  no  inquiries 
whose  knife  had  lacerated  his  cloak  and  endangered  his  life, 
and  his  forbearance  created  astonishment. 

S.  Thomas  was  appointed  Chancellor  of  England  under 
Henry  IH.  in  1265  ;  but  in  126S  he  returned  to  Paris,  and 
applied  himself  to  the  study  of  theology.  How  long  he  re- 
mained there  does  not  appear;  it  was  "  several  years."  His 
studies  were  in  the  canonical  Epistles  and  the  Apocalypse. 
He  then  returned  to  Oxford,  became  again  chancellor  in 
1274,  and  afterwards  for  a  year  and  four  months  lectured  in 
theology,  till  Gregory  X.  summoned  a  council  at  Lyons,  and 
Thomas  Cantilupe  went  to  Lyons  to  attend  it.  He  was 
there  made  chaplain  of  Pope  Gregor)',  as  he  had  been  before 
of  Innocent. 

S.  Thomas  held  many  benefices  simultaneously,  "  ex  dis- 
pensatione  Sedis  Apostolicce ; "  he  was  precentor  and  canon 
of  York,  archdeacon  of  Stafford,  and  canon  of  Lichfield, 
canon  of  London,  canon  of  Hereford,  and  held  the  livings 
of  Doderholt,  Hampton,  Aston,  Wintringham,  Deighton, 
Rippel,  Sunterfield,  and  apparently  also  that  of  Prestbury. 
He  was  speedily  engaged  in  litigation  with  the  Bishop  of 
Worcester  about  a  cow.  There  was  a  widow  at  Rippel  who 
died ;  whereupon  the  bishop,  claiming  heriot,  seized  one  of 
her  cows.  S.  Thomas,  as  rector  of  the  parish,  insisted  that 
the  cow  was  his,  as  lord  of  the  manor,  and  went  to  law  about 
it,  and  carried  his  point.  The  Dean  of  Warwick  claimed  the 
small  tithes  of  the  parish  of  Sunterfield,  worth  two  marks. 
S.  Thomas  refused  to  admit  the  claim,  went  to  law  about  it, 
and  gained  the  two  marks. 

On  the  death  of  his  father,  he  was  constituted  executor. 
^ __ — ^ 


36  Lives  of  the  Saints.  \ocx.i. 

His  mother  demanded  the  horses  and  part  of  the  harness 
{volebat  habere  equos,  et  aliqua  harnesia),  but  there  was 
no  specification  in  the  will  that  she  was  to  have  them, 
so  Thomas  refused  to  surrender  them ;  they  went  by 
right  to  his  brother,  but  he  generously  gave  to  his  mother 
from  his  own  stables  sufficient  horses  and  harness  to  satisfy 

Robert  of  Gloucester,  one  of  the  witnesses  at  the  process 
of  canonization,  was  asked,  not  unreasonably,  how  the  saint 
managed  with  such  a  multitude  of  benefices,  to  execute  the 
duties  incumbent  on  him  in  each  ?  He  answered  that  he 
conducted  himself  "  very  well,  curiously,  and  dihgently;  he 
frequently  paid  a  flying  visit  {frequenter  discurrebaf)  to  his 
benefices,  and  celebrated  and  preached  devoutly  in  them, 
and  kept  open  house  to  great  and  small,  and  gave  away 
large  alms  to  the  poor."  He  also  provided  the  churches 
with  respectable  curates,  and  kept  the  chancels  and  par- 
sonage houses  in  good  repair.  His  bailiffs  at  Doderholt, 
Hampton,  Aston,  Wintringham,  and  Deighton,  had  orders 
to  look  after  and  relieve  the  sick  and  poor,  and  give  them 
peas,  beans,  and  corn  {bladas). 

He  supplied  the  curates  of  his  churches  with  his  old  suits 
of  clothes,'  and  accompanied  the  present  with  an  injunction 
to  be  solicitous  for  the  souls  in  their  charge. 

John  Bruton,  or  le  Breton,  Bishop  of  Hereford,  died  in 
1275,  and  Thomas  Cantilupe  was  elected  in  his  room,  and 
consecrated  on  Sunday,  the  8th  September,  at  the  age  of 
fifty- six  or  fifty- seven. 

He  is  described  as  having  an  angelic  face,  very  white  and 
pink,  with  long  nose,  and  thick  beard,  reddish,  but  then 
patched  with  grey.  He  always  wore  his  cloak,  even  at 
meals ;  his  tunic  was  dressed  with  miniver,  and  he  had  a 
miniver  coverlet  to  his  bed. 

'  "  Dabat  eis  de  vestibus  suis." 


q^ ^ 

Oct.  2.]  •^-  Thomas  de  Cantilupe.  2>7 

He  was  so  very  modest,  that  he  never  would  allow  his 
sisters  to  kiss  him ;  and  when  Juliana,  Baroness  Tregoz, 
came  to  pay  him  a  visit  one  day,  and  he  saw  that  she  had 
made  up  her  mind  for  a  sisterly  visitation  of  some  consider- 
able duration,  he  requested  her,  after  she  had  spent  one 
night  in  his  house,  to  pack  up  her  trunks  and  be  off  with  hei 
maids  elsewhere,  for  he  only  allowed  old  and  ugly  women  to 
lodge  in  his  house. 

His  sisters  persisted  in  coming  to  see  him  every  year,  but 
he  would  scarcely  speak  to  them,  saying,  not  very  politely, 
that  it  was  no  use  conversing  with  women,  they  twaddled, 
and  did  not  talk.  "  When  Lady  Juliana,  wife  of  Baron  John 
Tregoz,  his  own  sister,  a  very  pretty  lady,  came  to  visit  the 
Lord  Thomas,  after  he  had  been  made  bishop,  at  his  manor 
of  Bosebury,  she  wanted  to  kiss  him  on  the  mouth  ;  but 
Thomas  drew  himself  up,  and  extended  his  hand  for  her  to 
kiss.  Then  the  lady  began  to  cry,  being  much  troubled. 
And  those  who  stood  by  remonstrated,  and  urged  Thomas 
to  let  his  sister  kiss  him,  as  was  only  honest  and  right,  but 
he  would  not  suffer  it." 

S.  Thomas  did  not  approve  of  jokes,  especially  such  as 
were  not  very  refined.  He  was  dining  one  day  with  his 
brother  in-law,  Robert,  Baron  Gregonet,  when  a  young  lady 
at  table  sighed.  ''Ha,  ha!"  laughed  the  baron,  "Folks 
say,  when  girls  sigh,  that  they  are  looking  out  for  hus- 
bands."   Thomas  reproved  him  peremptorily. 

The  bishop  had  a  nephew  of  whom  he  was  very  fond,  and 
whom  he  maintained  at  Oxford  and  Paris.  The  young  fellow 
was  often  with  his  uncle.  But  when  S.  Thomas  went  to  the 
Council  of  Lyons,  under  Gregory  X.,  he  did  not  take  his 
nephew  with  him.  Some  one  expressed  his  surprise,  and 
asked  the  reason.  "  Because  he  is  impudent,"  said  Thomas. 
"  When  I  was  a  young  man,  if  a  girl  looked  at  me  I  blushed 
scarlet,  and  jDulled  my  hood  over  my  face ;   but  that  young 


38  Lives  of  the  Saints.  foct.a. 

cub  looks  about  him,  and  right  into  the  eyes  of  the  girls, 
without  any  colour  rising  to  his  cheek." 

S.  Thomas  was  a  very  moderate  eater,  astonishing  his  ser- 
vants by  his  small  appetite.  "  I  never  eat  to  satiety,"  he  told 
Master  William  Daubeny.  When  dainty  dishes  were  served 
up,  he  would  smell  them  and  say,  "Shall  I  eat  them?  No, 
I  won't !  "  send  them  away,  and  content  himself  \vith  pottage 
of  vegetables.  Sometimes,  when  there  were  various  soups 
and  salt  meats,  he  would  mix  several  of  them  together,  that 
the  taste  might  not  be  so  deHcious.  He  doted  on  Severn 
lampreys,  and  he  confided  on  more  than  one  occasion  to 
Nicolas,  Earl  of  Warwick,  justiciary  and  counsellor  of 
Edward  I.,  that  he  "liked  lampreys."  Nevertheless,  as  the 
Earl  of  War^^^ck  testified  on  oatli  before  the  papal  com- 
missioners, he  had  several  times  dined  with  the  Bishop  of 
Hereford  when  there  were  lampreys  on  the  table,  and  the 
bishop  did  not  touch  them. 

On  Wednesday  he  ate  no  meat,  and  on  Friday  only  bread 
and  soup.  On  Saturday  he  ate  fish  ;  on  the  Vigils  of  Our 
Lady,  bread  and  water.  Great  uncertainty  reigns  as  to  his 
drink.  The  witnesses  were  doubtful  whether  he  took  wine 
or  beer  on  Fridays.  John  Bute  declared  that  he  was  "  most 
vehemently  sober  in  his  food  and  drink ;"  that  he  had  white 
wine  set  before  him,  and  a  bottle  of  water,  and  that  often 
when  people  thought  he  was  taking  wine,  he  was  drinking 
water.  "  His  goblet,  from  which  he  drank  wine,"  says  the 
same  witness,  "was  small,  of  silver,  and  only  as  big  as  a  salt- 
cellar ;  and  he  did  not  empty  it  at  one  draught.  He  com- 
monly took  only  two  cups  of  wine,  and  a  little  beer.  He 
rarely  supped,  and  then  only  took  one  or  two  toasts,  very 
diluted."^  But  the  medical  men  interfered.  "On  the  vigils 
of  the  B.  Virgin,  and  on  Good  Friday,  the  doctors  would  not 

'  "Vipa."      Du  Cange,  quoting  Hermolaus,  says:   "  Erat  veteribus  jentaculum 
buccea  ex  vino,  quod  genus  baxbari  a  vino  e.\.pane,  vippaiii  vocant." 


suffer  him  to  fast  on  bread  and  water  only,  but  made  him  eat 
bread  and  pottage,  in  small  quantity,  and  drink  diluted  wine 
or  very  small  beer."  Robert  of  Gloucester,  being  ordered 
by  the  apostolic  commissioners  to  declare  what  he  knew  of 
the  virtues  and  abstinence  of  the  saint,  said  :  "  I  came  once 
with  my  lord  to  Hurley  (Arlee),  near  Reading  (Radinga), 
in  the  diocese  of  SaHsbury  (Sarr),  I  said  to  him,  '  My  lord, 
you  have  not  eaten  and  drunk  enough,  you  cannot  hold 
out.'  Then  the  Lord  Thomas  answered  nothing.  So  I  re- 
peated what  I  had  said,  and  he  replied,  '  Eat  and  drink  what 
thou  likest,  but  prithee  hold  thy  tongue,  and  leave  me  in 
peace.'  Then  I  urged,  '  No,  I  will  not  leave  off,  for  I  am 
afraid  of  your  dying  of  exhaustion,  and  so  that  I  should  lose 
the  promotion  1  expect  of  you.'  Then  Thomas  said,  '  What 
a  tlatterer  thou  art ! ' "  Hugh  Barber,  being  questioned,  said 
that  Thomas  de  Cantilupe  was  a  peacemaker.  Being  asked 
how  he  knew  that,  he  replied,  that  Thomas  had  reconciled 
two  priests  at  Hampton  who  were  at  variance,  Master  Peter 
and  Master  Robert.  When  asked  how  he  knew  that  the  re- 
concihation  was  complete,  he  replied  that  he  had  seen  them 
dine  together  at  the  table  of  Thomas  de  Cantilupe.  On 
another  occasion  he  restored  amity  between  John  de  Lud- 
ham  and  the  relatives  of  John  de  Cantilupe,  his  brother ; 
for  Mathilda  de  Valois,  daughter  of  the  said  John  de  Can- 
tilupe, had  privately  married  John  Ludham,  a  gentleman  in 
waiting  on  the  family,  and  had  set  all  the  Cantilupes  in  a  blaze 
of  indignation.  The  parents,  the  relatives,  would  have  nothing 
to  say  to  Mathilda  and  her  husband.  The  married  couple 
appealed  to  Thomas,  and  he  patched  up  a  reconciHation. 

S.  Thomas  interfered,  for  the  sake  of  peace,  between  hus- 
band and  wife ;  for  it  is  recorded  that  on  finding  that  Hugh, 
Baron  de  la  Zouche,  and  his  wife  did  not  agree  together,  he 
laboured  effectually  to  pour  oil  on  the  troubled  waters  of  the 
domestic  broil. 


40  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Q^^  , 

He  was  charitable  to  the  poor,  and  gave  away  annually 
among  them  cloth  of  all  colours,'  for  making  into  stout  warm 
Avinter  jackets  and  petticoats.  These  benefactions  he  made 
before  he  was  bishop,  in  the  parishes  of  Hampton  and 
Sunterfield,  after  he  was  bishop  at  Bosebury. 

He  once  gave  a  blue  mantle,  trimmed  wth  miniver,^  to  a 
vicar  not  in  one  of  his  parishes.  To  a  certain  William  Plant- 
folie,  a  muffin  man,^  who  used  to  play  dice  in  pubhc-houses, 
he  gave  a  cloak  and  hood  of  Ypres  blue ;  and  William  vowed, 
by  all  that  was  sacred,  he  would  never  play  dice  in  taverns 
any  more. 

He  visited  the  sick  poor,  and  any  of  his  servants  who  were 
confined  to  their  beds,  and  gave  them  delicacies  that  had 
been  prepared  for  his  own  table. 

His  charity,  however,  did  not  extend  to  the  Jews.  He 
obtained  fi-om  the  king  an  order  that,  unless  they  should  be 
converted,  they  should  be  turned  out  of  the  kingdom.  Forty 
Jews  waited  on  Thomas  Cantilupe,  and  endeavoured  to  bribe 
him  from  persecuting  them,^  but  he  coldly  refused  their  offers 
and  petition,  telling  them  that  they  were  rebels  and  enemies 
against  God. 

One  day  a  baron  saw  him  talking  to  several  poor  folk,  and 
rebuked  him.  '•'  I  have  to  give  account  of  the  souls  of  poor 
as  well  as  rich,"  said  Thomas.  At  times  he  suffered  from 
lumbago  and  was  obliged  to  walk  with  the  assistance  of  two 

When  bishop  he  rode  with  his  stole  on  under  his  cloak, 
and  whenever  he  saw  a  child  along  the  road,  if  he  ascertained 
it  was  unconfirmed  he  jumped  off  his  horse  and  administered 
the  Sacrament  on  the  spot. 

He  looked  sharply  after  the  morals  of  his  diocese.     A 

'   "  De  grosso  paiino  et  de  diversis  coloribus." 

'•'  "  Unum  mantellum  de  blneto,  foderatum  de  minutis  variis." 

'  "  Faciens  colliridas." 

*  "  Pecuniam  ofi'erentes,  ut  desisteret  a  persecutione  eorura." 



Oct.  2.]  •5'.  Thomas  de  Caiitilupe.  4 1 

citizen  of  Hereford,  who  had  deserted  his  wife  for  another 
woman,  he  excommunicated ;  and  when  the  man  remained 
indifferent,  he  obtained  his  incarceration.  Reginald  Fitz- 
Peter,  a  knight  and  baron  of  his  diocese,  was  excommuni- 
cated by  him  for  incontinence.  Baron  Roger  de  CHftbrd 
he  subjugated  to  humiliating,  insulting  penance,  for  having 
wronged  the  diocese  in  the  time  of  the  War  of  the  Barons. 
De  Clifford  offered  the  bishop  a  hundred  pounds  sterhng  as 
compensation.  S.  Thomas  refused,  and  obliged  the  haughty 
baron  to  do  public  penance  before  a  crowd  of  the  citizens  of 
Hereford,  in  the  Cathedral.  He  was  made  to  walk  in  his 
tunic,  with  bare  feet,  round  the  church,  Thomas  following 
with  a  switch,  and  lashing  into  his  back  till  he  reached  the 
high  altar. 

The  offence  of  the  proud  baron  was  that,  in  the  war  against 
Henry  HI.  he  had  dared  to  lay  hands  on  Peter  de  Aqua- 
blanca,  a  foreigner,  who  had  been  intruded  on  the  diocese 
as  bishop,  and  had  imprisoned  him. 

Thomas  could  not  forgive  Baron  Clifford.  On  another 
occasion  he  excommunicated  him  for  having  detained  a 
priest,  probably  for  some  crime,  in  his  castle.  He  refused 
to  listen  to  any  other  terms  save  that  the  baron  should 
again  do  penance  publicly  in  his  shirt.  The  bishop  seems 
to  have  delighted  in  thus  humbling  the  great,  for  one  of  the 
witnesses  at  his  canonization  says  that  these  unseemly  ex- 
hibitions were  frequent.^ 

S.  Thomas,  though  he  held  along  with  his  bishopric  an 
archdeaconry,  a  precentorship,  four  canonries,  and  at  least 
seven  livings,  was  filled,  we  are  informed,  with  holy  zeal 
against  pluralists  unprovided  with  papal  dispensations. 
Hervey  de  Borham,  dean  of  S.  Paul's,  and  precentor  of 
Hereford,  had  been  the  rival  aspirant  to  the  see  of  Here- 
ford.    Shortly  after  Thomas  had  succeeded  in  obtaining  the 

'  "  Viderat  multos  publice  poenitentes  coram  dicto  domino  Thoma  in  camisia." 



42  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.2. 

see,  he  detected  that  De  Borham  was  without  papal  dispen- 
sation permitting  him  to  be  a  pluraHst,  and  he  turned  him 
out  of  the  precentorship — his  motive,  "  zeal  for  justice,"  we 
are  gravely  informed. 

Richard  of  Gravesend,  archdeacon  of  Northampton, 
obtained  the  parish  of  Ross,  in  the  diocese  of  Hereford, 
without  dispensation.  Thomas  was  down  on  him  like  a 
thunder-bolt,  and  deprived  him.^  James  de  Vitri,  arch- 
deacon of  Shropshire,  was  collated  to  one  of  the  canonries 
of  Ledbury,  that  church  being  served  by  two  canons. 
Thomas,  in  his  righteous  zeal,  deprived  him  of  archdeaconry 
and  canonry. 

Brother  Nicolas  de  Wych,  on  being  questioned  at  the 
process,  said  :  "  The  Lord  Thomas  was  naturally  discreet 
and  prudent  in  things  pertaining  to  this  world,  and  more  so 
in  those  that  pertained  to  God.  For  he  had  with  him  good 
and  prudent  counsellors,  and  by  their  counsel  he  acted  in 
matters  pertaining  to  this  world,  whilst  he  watched  in  those 
things  which  pertained  to  God;  and  when  anything  went 
wrong,  he  laid  the  fault  on  the  consciences  of  his  coun- 

He  was  mightily  fond  of  law,  apparently,  for  he  was 
always  involved  in  suits,  from  that  about  the  widow's  cow  to 
that  with  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury. 

The  bishop  had  a  castle  at  Ledbury,  and  the  Malvern 
Hills  he  claimed  as  his  chase.  But  the  Earl  of  Gloucester, 
Gilbert  de  Clare,  the  most  powerful  baron  in  England, 
hunted  there ;  his  father  had  done  so  before  him,  and  he 
assumed  that  the  right  was  his. 

One  day  Bishop  Thomas  de  Cantilupe  heard  the  winding 
of  the  earl's  horns  on  the  hills.  He  rode  to  meet  him, 
met  him  in  a  wood,  and  ordered  him  off  his  lands.  The 
earl,  one  of  the  haughtiest  men  in  England,  answered  scorn- 

*  He  became  in  a.d.  1280  liishop  of  London. 


fully,  that  he  was  not  going  to  be  driven  out  of  his  ancestral 
rights  by  a  "  clergiaster/'  and  that  he  would  chastise  him  as 
he  had  chastised  other  "  clergiasters."  Thomas,  incensed 
beyond  measure,  galloped  back  to  his  people,  vested  him- 
self in  mitre,  stole,  and  cope,  ordered  his  clerks  to  light 
candles  and  follow  him,  and  hasted  to  the  spot  where  the 
earl  and  his  huntsmen,  weary  with  the  chase,  were  resting. 
The  bishop  ordered  the  candles  to  be  solemnly  extinguished, 
as  he  poured  forth  over  his  head  the  awful  curse  of  the 
Church ;  and  the  great  earl  rode  home,  very  much  surprised 
and  indignant  at  being  excommunicated  and  anathematized, 
cut  off  from  the  grace  of  God,  the  sacraments,  and  Christian 
burial,  should  he  die,  because  of  the  hares  and  wild-deer  of 
the  Malvern  Hills, 

Then  S.  Thomas  summoned  all  his  friends,  and  for  three 
days  defiantly,  insultingly,  with  bray  of  horn  and  shout  of 
derision,  hunted  over  the  hills.  The  hunting  party  was 
composed  of  John  Tregoz,  his  brother-in-law,  Nicolas  Sea- 
grave,  Geoffry  and  Fulk  de  Lucy. 

The  earl,  disliking  his  excommunication,  and  wishing  to 
compromise  matters,  offered  the  bishop  a  large  sum  of 
money,  but  S.  Thomas  could  not  forgive  being  called  a 
"  clergiaster,"  and  being  threatened  with  chastisement.  He 
rejected  the  offer  contemptuously,  and  brought  an  action 
against  the  earl,  which  dragged  its  weary  length  through 
the  courts  for  four  or  five  years,  and  though  finally  given  in 
favour  of  the  bishop,  he  was  never  able  to  recover  damages 
from  the  proud  earl. 

He  had  another  action  going  on  at  the  same  time  with 
Baron  Corbet,  Lord  de  Caus,  about  some  pastures  near 
Ledbury.  If  any  of  the  bishop's  cattle  strayed  on  to  them  the 
baron  impounded  them,  and  would  not  let  them  out  without 
a  fine.  S.  Thomas  claimed  a  right  to  turn  his  cows  on  to 
these  meadows,  and  therefore  threw  the  matter  into  court. 


44  Lives  of  the  Saints.  iQa..t. 

When  the  verdict  was  given  in  his  favour,  Baron  Corbet 
turned  to  him  and  said  angrily:  "You  are  either  full  of 
devils  or  in  God's  privy  counsels."  "  I  do  not  use  diabolical 
arts,"  answered  the  triumphant  bishop  ;  "  but  trusting  in 
divine  assistance  I  maintain  the  rights  of  the  Church." 

S.  Thomas  had  another  contest  with  Llewellyn  of  Wales, 
about  three  estates  in  Montgomery  which  he  claimed,  Aston, 
Multon,  and  Churchstoke,  belonging  to  his  possessions 
round  Bishop's  Castle.  As  it  was  in  vain  to  try  conclusions 
at  law  with  Llewellyn,  he  got  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury 
to  excommunicate  him.  He  then  hastened  to  Bishop's 
Castle,  made  his  clergy  light  a  great  many  candles,  and 
whilst  he  hurled  an  anathema  at  Llewellyn  and  all  Welshmen, 
great  and  small,  the  candles  were  flung  into  the  moat,  and 
went  out  fizzing  in  the  slimy  water. 

He  quarrelled  also  with  Anian  H.,  Bishop  of  S.  Asaph, 
touching  their  respective  rights  of  jurisdiction.  The  Abbey 
of  S.  Mary  at  Dora  was  the  bone  of  contest  between  him 
and  the  Bishop  of  S.  David's.  The  new  church  had  to  be 
consecrated;  S.  Thomas  claimed  to  exercise  jurisdiction 
there,  but  the  Bishop  of  S.  David's  stole  a  march  on  him, 
and  with  the  connivance  of  John  de  Tregoz,  nephew  of  the 
Bishop  of  Hereford,  dedicated  the  church.  Thereupon  S. 
Thomas  brought  an  action  against  the  bishop  and  his  own 

Robert  Burnel  having  been  elected  to  the  see  of  Canter- 
bury, on  the  death  of  Robert  Kilwardby,  a.d.  1279,  the  Pope 
quashed  the  election,  and  appointed  to  the  archbishopric  a 
Minorite  friar,  John  de  Peckham.  Peckham  summoned  a 
council  at  Reading,  and  advanced  claims  which  were  re- 
sented by  the  bishops,  by  none  more  so  than  by  the  bishop 
of  Hereford.  It  was  not  long  before  peace  was  broken 
between  them. 

A  certain  Petronilla  Bebler,  and  one  Richard  Bramford, 


Opt  J  ]  6".  Thomas  de  Cajitilupe.  45 

in  the  diocese  of  Hereford,  had  a  contention  before  the 
court  of  the  sub-dean,  who  gave  judgment  against  Richard 
Bramford.  Instead  of  appealing  to  the  bishop's  court, 
Bramford  appealed  direct  to  that  of  the  archbishop.  This 
so  incensed  the  bishop's  commissary,  that  he  excommuni- 
cated Richard  Bramford,  who  appealed  against  this  sentence 
also  to  Canterbury. 

Thereupon  Richard  Bramford's  father,  also  called  Richard, 
was  excommunicated  by  the  commissary  of  the  Bishop  of 
Hereford,  and  when  Allan  de  Lichfield,  bearer  of  a  man- 
date from  the  archbishop  to  assert  the  excommunication, 
entered  the  diocese,  he  was  thrown  into  prison.  The  sub- 
dean,  who  had  been  served  with  letters  from  the  court  of  the 
archbishop,  contemptuously  flung  them  into  the  mud.  There- 
upon Archbishop  Peckham  sent  a  mandate  to  the  Bishop 
of  Hereford,  ordering  him  to  pronounce  the  excommuni- 
cation of  his  own  commissary  and  sub-dean,  and  to  remove 
the  excommunication  launched  against  Richard  Bramford, 
senior  and  junior,  and  citing  the  sub-dean  and  commissary 
on  a  fixed  day  to  appear  at  the  church  of  S.  Mary  Arches,  in 
London,  to  answer  for  contempt  of  the  court  of  Canterbury. 
And  should  the  bishop  refuse  thus  to  act,  he  was  threatened 
with  suspension  from  officiating,  and  interdict  wheresoever 
he  might  be,  except  when  the  king,  the  queen,  or  the 
princes,  or  the  archbishop  miglit  be  present. 

How  the  affair  ended  does  not  transpire  \  but  it  is  certain 
that  S.  Thomas  left  Hereford,  and  for  a  year  and  a  half 
remained  concealed  in  Normandy.  He  had  privately  made 
an  appeal  to  the  Pope,  but  he  did  not  wish  the  Archbishop 
of  Canterbury  to  be  aware  of  the  fact,  and  so  to  prepare  his 
procurators  in  the  Roman  curia  against  his  machinations. 

The  affair  of  the  Bramfords  was  somehow  settled;  and 
S.  Thomas  suddenly  returned  to  England,  and  with  smiles 
and  affected  cordiality  appeared  before  Peckham,  who  was 

►j, ^ 


46  Lives  of  the  Saints.  ^^^^ ,. 

completely  in  the  dark  as  to  any  appeal  against  his  authority 
being  made  in  the  court  of  Rome. 

Almost  directly  after  he  came  back  the  quarrel  broke  out 
afresh,  on  an  equally  insignificant  question.  A  priest  named 
Master  Henry  Havekly,  canon  of  Lincoln,  a  pluralist 
holding  many  livings,  died,  and  left  the  parson  of  Ross  his 
executor.  Ross  was  in  the  diocese  of  Hereford.  As  the 
archbishop  claimed  the  right  of  proving  wills,  he  sent  to 
the  commissary  of  Hereford  an  order  that  an  injunction 
should  be  served  on  the  vicar  of  Ross  to  attend  the  arch- 
bishop's court.  The  commissary  of  the  Bishop  of  Hereford 
regarded  this  as  an  infringement  of  prerogative,  and  took  no 
notice  of  the  mandate.  Thereupon  the  commissary,  Robert 
le  Wyse,  was  served  with  a  sentence  of  major  excommuni- 
cation, and  an  order  was  sent  to  S.  Thomas  to  summon  the 
vicar  of  Ross  before  the  archbishop's  court,  and  to  publicly 
excommunicate  his  commissary.  Robert  le  Wyse,  by  the 
bishop's  advice,  appealed  to  Rome,  but  apparently  without 
giving  notice  to  the  archbishop  that  he  had  done  so.  Then 
the  archbishop  excommunicated,  and  placed  under  an  inter- 
dict, the  Bishop  of  Hereford.  S.  Thomas,  who  was  at  the  same 
time  in  the  midst  of  his  squabble  with  the  Bishop  of  Asaph, 
determined  to  appeal  in  person  at  Rome  against  both  the 
archbishop  and  the  Bishop  of  S.  Asaph,  and  left  secretly  for 

We  have  several  letters  of  Archbishop  Peckham  relative 
to  the  matter. 

The  first  is  to  this  effect : — 

"  Brother  John,  &c.  (/.  e.  Peckham),  to  his  procurators  in 
the  Roman  curia,  health,  grace  and  benediction.  There  has 
suddenly  burst  on  us  a  tempest  from  the  Bishop  of  Here- 
ford, whom,  verily,  we  beHeved  to  be  the  most  obedient  and 
specious  of  all  our  suffragans,  and  one  whom  we  have  heard 
most  highly  spoken  of.     But  we  have  been  warned  by  Pon- 


^ — _ >J, 

Oct.  2.]  '5^«  Thomas  de  Cantilupe.  47 

tisar,  archdeacon  of  Exeter,  that  while  secretary  himself 
abroad,  he  has  been  endeavouring  by  his  procurators  to 
extort  apostolic  letters  against  us,  touching  certain  exactions 
not  due,  and  other  matters.  The  result  appeared  in  the 
sequence ;  but  God  overthrew  his  endeavours  in  this  affair. 

"And  Robert  of  Gloucester,  sumamed  le  Wyse,  the 
commissary  of  the  said  bishop,  on  account  of  his  dis- 
obedience, contempt  and  offence  offered,  both  to  our  own 
commissary  and  to  ourselves,  has  been  sentenced  to  excom- 
munication, no  legal  form  having  been  omitted  in  the 
transaction.  This  was  after  the  bishop,  being  on  his  way 
back  from  abroad,  had  returned  to  England,  and  waiting  on 
us  at  Canterbury,  had  kissed  us,  putting  on  a  sheep's  skin  to 
deceive  me,  and  blind  me  to  his  intrigues,  so  that  we  trusted 
him  as  a  most  devoted  and  constant  brother. 

"  Nevertheless,  his  officer  has  persisted  in  his  contumacy 
and  dogged  opposition,  and  the  bishop  has  'arned  a  deaf 
ear  to  our  injunctions,  and  has  neglected  and  despised 
them.  He  therefore,  from  whom  we  expected  consolation, 
having  flung  aside  his  obedience,  which  he  swore  to  our 
Church  and  to  us,  declares  our  sentence  against  his  com- 
missary to  be  invalid,  and  has  incited  him  to  appeal  to 
Rome,  asserting  that  we  have  no  jurisdiction,  except  on 
appeal,  over  his  flock ;  he  inserts  many  other  astute  and 
shifty  reasons  in  his  letters,  by  which  he  seeks  to  justify  his 
disobedience  and  refusal,  point  blank,  to  obey  our  orders. 
Understanding  which,  and  lamenting  his  damnation,  and 
desiring  to  restore  him  by  salutary  exhortations  to  a  right 
obedience,  we  wrote  to  him  again  and  again,  warning  him 
not  to  force  us  to  punish  such  defiance  with  canonical 

"  At  last,  a  meeting  having  been  convened  at  Lambeth, 
and  we  had,  on  our  part,  treated  him  in  an  amicable 
manner,  we  asked  him  7.77W  voce  to  do  for  us  what  he  and 

^ _______ 


48  Lwes  of  the  Saints. 


his  predecessors  had  done  hitherto  for  us  and  our  prede- 
cessors, and  having  laid  aside  the  vice  of  disobedience,  to 
return  to  firm  charity  and  submission;  and  this  he  pro- 
mised to  do. 

"  But  at  length,  when  our  monitions  and  amicable  con- 
ferences availed  nothing,  but  this  bishop,  putting  on  a 
dovelike  appearance,  armed  himself  with  trickery  and  crafty 
imaginations  against  us,  we  again  warned  him  by  mouth  and 
in  writing.  And  as  he  persists  in  his  rebellion  and  malice 
and  contempt,  we  have  been  forced  to  launch  the  sentenc  e 
of  excommunication  against  him,  by  writing,  as  justice 
requires.  Thereupon  he  appealed  away  to  the  Roman 
Curia,  and  that  after  we  had  ordered  all  our  suffragan  bishops 
throughout  the  province  to  publish  the  sentence  pronounced 
against  him. 

"  And  now  he  feigns  frivolous  excuses,  and  mixing  blas- 
phemy with  lies  in  his  appeal,  going  forward  in  all  sub- 
tlety and  falsehood,  he  defames  us  publicly  and  solemnly 
throughout  England,  and  dares,  perjurously,  to  publish 
things  tending  to  the  subversion  of  our  Church.  It  is 
reported  that  this  bishop  is  already  on  his  way  to  Rome ; 
we  can  hardly  beHeve  it,  for  the  report  is  not  certain ;  but 
should  it  be  true  that  he  has  crossed  the  Channel,  he  has 
nol  done  it  openly,  but  secretly,  and  when  he  is  thought  to 
be  here,  lo !  he  is  hidden  somewhere  else,  sneaking  away  in 
his  fox-skin.  Now  should  he  chance  to  appear  in  the  Court 
of  Rome,  be  on  your  guard,  and  let  no  letters  be  given  at 
his  request  without  being  checked  and  questioned  by  you  ; 
and  be  very  watchful  and  solicitous,  as  our  adversary  is 
subtle,  walking  in  all  guile.  Given  at  Clist,  at  the  Bishop 
of  Exeter's,  the  2nd  of  the  Calends  of  April,  in  the  4th  yeai 
of  our  consecration  (1282).'' 

Thomas  Cantilupe  had  crossed  over ;  the  archbishoj) 
learned  the  fact  later,  and  wrote  again  to  warn  his  agents  at 


the  Court  of  Rome,  bidding  them  spare  no  money  in  their 
attempts  to  obtain  a  judgment  against  him.  The  Bishop  of 
Hereford  was  well  received  by  Pope  Martin  IV.,  who  com- 
municated with  him,  ignoring  the  sentence  of  excommunica- 
tion launched  against  him  by  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury, 
which,  however,  could  only  have  effect  within  the  province 
of  the  archbishop. 

The  prosecution  of  his  appeals  was  interrupted  by  mortal 
sickness.  Finding  his  end  approach,  he  drew  up  his  will, 
made  his  confession  to  the  grand  penitentiary  of  the  Pope. 
On  the  night  of  the  25th  of  August,  as  he  was  held  up  in 
bed,  he  recited  the  hymn,  "  Veni  Creator  Spiritus;"  then  he 
said :  "By  the  sign  of  the  holy  Cross  deliver  us  from  our 
enemies,  O  God  !  and  by  this  sign  of  the  Cross  drive  away 
every  evil,  and  by  the  same  sign  preserve  all  that  is  good." 
Then  he  murmured,  "  Into  Thy  Hands,  O  Lord  !"  and  "I 
commend  my  spirit  to  Thee,  O  God  of  Truth  !"  He  raised 
his  joined  hands  to  heaven  and  repeated,  "  I  commend  my 
spirit,"  and  breathed  his  last. 

His  attendants  separated  the  flesh  from  the  bones,  buried 
the  flesh  with  pomp  at  Monte  Fiascone,  and  brought  back 
the  bones  to  England.  They  were  laid  in  Hereford  Cathe- 
dral. Since  the  reign  of  S.  Thomas,  the  arms  of  the  see  of 
Hereford  have  been  those  of  the  Cantilupes,  adopted  in 
honour  of  the  saint.  He  died  in  1282,  and  his  bones  were 
translated  to  a  more  magnificent  tomb  in  1287.  Numerous 
miracles  having  been  wrought  at  it,  Clement  V.  began  the 
process  of  his  canonization  in  1305,  at  the  request  of  King 
Edward  I.  In  the  process  sixty-six  witnesses  were  examined 
before  the  apostolic  commissioners,  in  S.  Paul's  Cathedral, 
London,  in  July,  1307.  The  canonization  took  place  in 
1330,  by  Pope  John  XXII. 

It  is  asserted  by  the  Jesuits  of  S.  Omer  that  they  are  in 
possession  of  an  arm  of  S.  Thomas. 

VOL.  XI.                                                                                      4 
* >J* 


50  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  3. 

October  3. 

SS.  DioNYSius,  Faustus,  Caius,  and  Others,  MM.  at  Alexan- 
S.  Rom  ANA,  V.M.  at  Beaiivais;  circ.  A.D.  303. 
S.  Hesychius,  Mk.  at  Majuma,  in  Palestine  ;  circ.  A.n.  373. 
S.  Menna,  V.  at  Fontenoy-le-ChiLtel,  in  tlie  Vosges  ;  end  of  ^th  cent. 
S.  Maximian,  B.C.  of  Bagce  iti  Africa;  stk  cent. 
S.  Cyprian,  B.  of  Toulon;  circ.  a.d.  565. 
SS.  Two  Ewalds,  pp.  mm.  itt  Westphalia;  circ.  a.d.  695. 
S.  Gerard,  Ab.  of  Brogne,  fiear  Nainur ;  a.d.  959. 


(beginning   of    4TH   CENTURY?) 

[Modem  Roman  Martyrology  with  Faustus,  Caius,  and  others.  These 
latter  are  adopted  from  the  Greek  Menologies.  The  Roman  Martyrology 
simply  says,  "Dionysius,  Faustus,  Caius,  Peter,  Paul,  and  four  others, 
who,  having  first  suffered  many  things  under  Decius,  received  the  palm 
of  martyrdom  under  Valerian,  by  order  of  .^milian,  the  governor." 
But  S.  Dionysius,  the  B.  of  Alexandria,  occurs  again  in  the  Roman  Mar- 
tyrology on  Nov.  17,  and  S.  Faustus  again  on  Nov.  19,  and  again  with 
Caius  on  Nov.  20,  along  with  Eusebius,  Chaeremon,  and  Lucius. 
"  Hinc  in  Martyrologio  Romano  majorem  accurationem  non  immerito 
quis  forte  requirat,"  say  the  Bollandists.] 

N  this  day  the  Greeks  commemorate  S.  Dionysius, 
Bishop  of  Alexandria,  and  other  Christians  who 
suffered.  By  some  mistake  Baronius  inserted 
these  martyrs  in  the  Roman  Martyrology  on  this 
day,  without  knowing  that  Dionysius  was  the  same  as  the 
famous  Bishop  of  Alexandria,  and  thus  made  duplicate 
martyrs  out  of  Dionysius,  Faustus,  and  Caius.  According  to 
him  they  suffered  at  the  beginning  of  the  4th  century, 
whereas  S.  Dionysius,   the   bishop,    certainly   attained   his 


^         ■ ^ 

Oct.  3.]  S.  Hesychius.  5 1 

crown  about  the  year  265,  and  if  the  others  were  his  com- 
panions in  martyrdom  they  must  have  suffered  about  the 
same  date. 

S.  ROMANA,  V.M. 

(about  A.D.  303.) 

[Gallican  Martyrologies.  Authority : — a  Life,  late,  and  wholly 

S.  RoMANA  is  said  to  have  been  one  of  twelve  virgins  at 
Rome  who,  moved  by  the  preaching  of  S.  Peter,  were  con- 
verted, and  set  off  in  company  with  SS.  Dionysius,  Fuscia- 
nus,  Victoricus,  Piatus,  Ruffinus,  Crispin  and  Crispinian, 
Valerius,  Lucian,  Marcellus,  Quintin,  and  Regulus.  S. 
Romana  and  two  others,  Benedicta  and  Leoberta — a  Teu- 
tonic name,  by  the  way — attached  themselves  to  S.  Lucian 
and  S.  Quintin.  Leoberta  was  martyred  at  Laon,  and 
Benedicta  at  Origny ;  Romana  suffered  at  Beauvais  with  S. 
Lucian.  No  reliance  whatever  can  be  placed  on  the  story. 
S.  Dionysius  of  Paris  belonged  to  the  4th  century,  and 
not  to  the  ist. 


(after  a.d.  373.) 

[Inserted  in  the  Modern  Roman  Martyrology  by  Baronius.  Authori- 
ties : — the  Life  of  S.  Hilarion  by  S.  Jerome,  Nicephoras  Callistus,  &c.] 

S.  Hesychius  was  one  of  the  devoted  disciples  of  S. 
Hilarion,  and  was  banished  with  him  from  Gaza.  The  im- 
placable enmity  of  the  pagans  against  S.  Hilarion  led  them 
to  pursue  him  when  he  fled,  and  the  old  hermit  led  for  some 


52  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  3. 

lime  a  life  of  concealment  in  Sicily.  From  thence  Hilarion 
sent  Hesychius  to  Palestine  to  salute  tiie  brethren.  After 
having  accomplished  his  mission,  Hesychius  rejoined  his 
master  in  Cyprus,  but  was  absent  on  another  expedition  to 
Palestine  when  the  venerable  hermit  died.  S.  Hilarion,  by 
will,  left  him  his  heir,  bequeathing  to  him  his  book  of  the 
Gospels,  and  his  clothes.  Hesychius,  having  learned  the 
death  of  his  master,  returned  to  Cyprus,  and  stayed  ten 
months  in  the  cell  of  Carburin,  where  the  old  man's  bones 
weie  laid,  till  the  suspicion  of  the  Cypriots  was  allayed,  and 
then  he  made  off  with  his  bones  at  the  risk  of  his  life  to 
Majuma,  the  port  of  Gaza,  to  the  old  monastery  of  S. 

S.  MENNA,  V. 

(end  of   4TH  CENT.) 

[Gallicau  Martyrologies.  Authoiily  : — the  late  Acts  based  on  tradi- 

S.  Menna,  or  Manna,  is  said  to  have  been  bom  at  Sou- 
losse  in  Lorraine,  during  the  4th  century,  and  to  have  been 
the  daughter  of  a  noble  named  Bactius  and  of  his  wife, 
the  Lady  Leutrudis,  and  therefore  of  a  Teutonic  family. 
S.  Menna  is  said  also  to  have  been  sister  of  S.  Eucharius 
and  S.  Elapius,  martyrs,  and  of  the  virgins  Gontrudis,  Li- 
baria,  Suzanna,  and  Oda,  who  are  honoured  in  the  dioceses 
of  Toul  and  throughout  Champagne.  But  little  reliance  can 
be  placed  on  this  assertion  of  the  late  Acts,  as  they  are  based 
on  popular  tradition,  which  may  have  confounded  dates, 
and  united  as  sisters  persons  removed  from  one  another  by 
race  and  period. 

INIenna  was  sent  by  her  father  to  be  baptized  by  the  Bishop 


of  Chalons.  She  was  regenerated,  and  then  sent  back  to 
her  father,  but  five  years  after,  acting  on  the  advice  of 
the  bishop,  Bactius  placed  her  in  a  school  conducted  by 
nuns  at  Chalons,  where  she  was  carefully  trained  in  a  holy 
life.  When  of  age  to  be  married,  the  noble  reclaimed  his 
daughter,  and  several  suitors  offered  for  her  hand.  But  Menna 
rejected  every  offer,  and  flying  secretly  from  her  home,  re- 
turned to  Chalons,  carrying  with  her  a  veil,  which  she  placed 
in  the  bishop's  hands,  and  she  entreated  him  to  consecrate 
her  a  virgin  to  Christ.  He  hardly  consented,  as  he  feared 
the  resentment  of  her  father.  And  when,  in  fact,  Bactius 
sent  after  his  daughter,  highly  incensed,  he  had  to  be  ap- 
peased by  the  story  that  an  angel  had  taken  the  veil  and 
had  himself  covered  with  it  the  head  of  the  virgin.  Bactius 
believed,  or  pretended  to  believe,  this  story,  and  was  con- 
strained to  endure  what  was  irrevocable.  The  furious  per- 
secution of  Julian  the  Apostate  then  broke  out  against  the 
Christians,  say  the  Acts,  in  happy  unconsciousness  of  the 
facts  of  history,  and  the  nuns  of  Chalons  were  forced  to  fly 
to  preserve  their  lives  and  honour.  Menna,  accompanied 
by  a  single  servant,  came  to  the  river  bank,  where  was  then 
a  deep  pool  and  an  eddy,  so  that  boats  could  not  cross  it. 
She  prayed,  says  the  legend,  and  the  pool  was  filled  up  with 
sand,  so  that  she  was  able  to  cross  dryshod.  The  spot  is 
now  called  the  Que  de  Sainte-Manne.  Having  passed,  she 
drove  her  staff  into  the  ground,  and  a  spring  bubbled  up  for 
the  relief  of  thirsty  passengers  who  should  in  future  traverse 
the  ford,  and  would  be  disincHned  to  drink  of  the  river. 

She  reached  a  forest  in  the  Vosges,  and  constructed  a 
hermitage  at  Fontenoy-le-Chatel.  There  she  spent  the  rest 
of  her  days,  which  were  not  many.  She  died  young,  and 
was  buried  at  Fontenoy.  But  in  1036  her  relics  were  trans- 
lated to  Portsas,  near  Mirecourt. 

She  is  represented  in  art  with  an  angel  veiling  her. 

4i —^ 


54  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  3- 


(5TH   CEINT.) 

[Modem  Roman  Martyiology,  inserted  by  Baronius.  Authority: — 
the  writings  of  S.  Augustine  against  the  Donatists.] 

S.  Maximian  was  Bishop  of  Bagse  in  Northern  Africa,  at 
the  time  of  the  troubles  with  the  Donatists,  that  excited 
S.  Augustine  to  labour  for  their  repression.  He  and  his 
brother  Castor  were  at  first  infected  with  Donatist  views,  but 
they  came  over  to  the  CathoHc  side,  and  Maximian  having 
destroyed  a  church  of  the  Donatists,  these  schismatics  fell 
on  him  and  wounded  him  in  the  stomach.  They  threw  him 
from  the  top  of  a  tower,  but  he  fell  into  a  dungheap,  which 
saved  his  life.  A  poor  man  found  him  lying  there,  naked 
and  covered  with  filth.  He  took  him  home,  washed  him, 
bound  up  his  wounds,  and  gave  him  clothes.  Maximian 
scarcely  waited  for  his  wounds  to  close  before  he  crossed 
the  sea  to  show  them,  and  describe  the  indignities  offered 
him  to  the  feeble  yet  orthodox  Emperor  Honorius,  a.d.  404, 
and  so  stir  him  to  the  publication  of  severe  repressive  edicts 
against  the  sectaries.  "  He  was  moved  to  this,"  says  S.  Au- 
gustine, "  not  from  desire  of  revenging  his  own  ill  treatment, 
but  that  the  Church  might  be  benefited."  Having  goaded 
Honorius  into  issuing  an  edict  as  tyrannical  as  his  heart 
could  wish  against  the  luckless  Donatists,  he  returned  to 
Africa  to  witness  its  execution. 

He  had  the  satisfaction  of  seeing  them  driven  wild  with 
persecution,  their  churches  closed,  their  sacred  rites  for- 
bidden, and  their  goods  confiscated. 

The  date  of  his  death  is  not  known. 


^ — . ^ 

Oct.  3.]  ^>^^  ^^<^  Ewalds.  55 


(about  a.d.  695.) 

[Roman and  German  Martyrologies.  Authority: — Bede,  Hist.  Eccl.  v. 
c.  10.] 

The  Venerable  Bede  relates  that,  "  Two  priests  of  the 
English  nation,  who  had  long  lived  as  strangers  in  Ireland, 
for  the  sake  of  the  eternal  inheritance,  following  the  example 
of  Wilibrord,  went  into  the  province  of  the  ancient  Saxons, 
to  try  if  they  could  there  gain  some  to  Christ  by  preaching. 
They  both  bore  the  same  name,  as  they  were  one  in  devo- 
tion, Hewald  being  the  name  of  both,  with  this  distinction, 
that,  on  account  of  the  difference  of  their  hair,  the  one  was 
called  Black  Hewald,  and  the  other  White  Hewald.  They 
were  both  very  pious,  but  Black  Hewald  was  the  more 
learned  in  Holy  Scripture.  On  entering  the  province,  these 
men  took  up  their  lodging  in  a  certain  steward's  house,  and 
requested  that  he  would  conduct  them  to  his  lord,  as  they 
had  a  message,  and  something  to  tell  him  to  his  advantage. 
The  steward  received  and  entertained  them  in  his  house  some 
days,  promising  to  send  them  to  his  lord  as  they  desired. 

"  But  the  barbarians,  finding  them  to  be  of  another  reli- 
gion, by  their  continual  prayer  and  singing  of  psalms  and 
hymns,  and  by  their  daily  offering  the  sacrifice  of  the 
saving  oblation — for  they  had  with  them  sacred  vessels  and 
a  consecrated  slab  for  an  altar — began  to  grow  jealous  of 
them,  lest  they  should  come  into  the  presence  of  their  lord, 
and  converse  with  him,  and  turn  his  heart  from  their  gods 
to  the  new  religion  of  the  Christian  faith,  and  thus  by 
degrees  all  their  province  should  change  its  old  worship  for 
a  new  one.  Hereupon  they,  on  a  sudden,  laid  hold  of  them 
and  put  them  to  death ;  the  White  Hewald  they  slew  imme- 

* * 


56  Lives  of  the  Saints.  ioa.%. 

diately  with  the  sword ;  but  the  Black  they  put  to  tedious 
torture,  and  tore  limb  from  limb,  throwing  them  into  the 
Rhine.  The  chief  whom  they  desired  to  see,  hearing  it, 
was  highly  incensed,  and  put  to  death  all  the  peasants 
engaged  in  the  murder  and  burnt  their  village.  The  afore- 
said priests  and  servants  of  Christ  sufi'ered  on  the  3rd  of 

"  Nor  did  their  martyrdom  want  the  honour  of  miracles ; 
for  their  dead  bodies  having  been  cast  into  the  river  by  the 
pagans,  as  has  been  said,  were  carried  against  the  stream  for 
the  space  of  almost  forty  miles,  to  the  place  where  their  com- 
panions were.  Moreover,  a  long  ray  of  light,  reaching  up  to 
heaven,  shone  every  night  over  the  place  where  they  were, 
in  the  sight  of  the  pagans  who  had  slain  them.  Moreover, 
one  of  them  appeared  in  a  vision  by  night  to  one  of  his 
companions,  whose  name  was  Tilnean,  a  man  of  illustrious 
birth,  acquainting  him  with  the  fact  that  their  bodies  lay 
where  he  would  find  a  ray  of  light  reaching  to  heaven.  And 
so  it  was,  the  bodies  were  found,  and  buried  with  the  honours 
due  to  martyrs ;  and  the  day  of  their  passion,  or  of  their 
bodies  being  found,  is  celebrated  in  these  parts  with  proper 
veneration.  At  length,  Pepin,  the  most  glorious  general  of 
the  Franks,  understanding  these  things,  caused  the  bodies 
to  be  brought  to  him,  and  buried  them  with  much  honour 
in  the  church  of  the  city  of  Cologne,  on  the  Rliine.  It  is 
reported,  that  a  spring  gushed  out  in  the  place  where  they 
were  killed,  and  that  it  affords  a  plentiful  stream  to  this 

The  place  of  their  martyrdom  seems  to  have  been  Apler- 
beke,  a  little  village  on  the  Embscher,  near  Dortmund,  in 
Westphalia.  Bede  was  mistaken  about  the  name  of  the 
river  into  which  the  bodies  were  thrown,  if  reliance  may  be 
placed  on  local  tradition  uninterrupted  from  a  remote  date, 
which  has  fixed  on  Aplerbeke  as  the  site  of  the  martyrdom. 


>b- — >J< 

Oct.  3.]  ^-  Gerard.  57 

Moreover,  the  bodies  did  not  float  against  the  stream,  but 
down  it  towards  the  Rhine,  the  Embscher  flowing  nearly- 
due  west.  The  rest  of  the  party  had  certainly  not  pushed 
east  of  Dortmund.  According  to  another  opinion,  the  site 
of  the  martyrdom  was  in  the  county  of  Hoya,  near  Bremen, 
but  this  is  not  probable,  nor  supported  by  so  persistent  a 

The  Anglo-Saxon  form  of  the  name  of  the  saints  was 
certainly  Edwald,  but  in  German  it  has  become  Ewald. 
The  relics  were  translated  in  1074,  by  Anno,  Archbishop 
of  Cologne,  to  the  church  of  S.  Cunibert,  in  his  metropolitan 
city.  The  heads  were  given  by  him  to  Frederick,  Bishop 
of  Miinster,  but  they  were  lost  when  the  Anabaptists  held 
Miinster,  in  1534,  and  sacked  the  churches. 

(a.d.  959.) 

[Roman  and  Belgian  Martyrologies.  Authority : — a  Life  by  an  anony- 
mous writer,  apparently  a  monk  of  Brogne,  dedicated  to  Gunthe,  abbot 
of  Brogne  in  1031.] 

At  the  close  of  the  9th  century,  there  lived  at  Staves, 
in  Lumai,  a  man  named  Stant,  of  noble  birth,  being  akin  to 
Hagen,  Count  of  Austrasia,^  married  to  Plectrudis,  sister  of 
Stephen,  Bishop  of  Tongres.  They  had  a  son  named 
Gerard,  who  entered  the  castle  of  Berengar,  Count  of  Na- 
mur,  and  was  one  of  his  military  suite.  One  day,  when 
out  hunting,  Gerard  at  dinner-time  hitched  up  his  horse 
beside  the  forest  chapel  of  Brogne,  which  was  on  his  own 
family   estate,   and  went  within  to  take  his  midday  nap. 

'  Hagen  subscribed  an  agreement  with  Charles  the  Simple  and  Henry  of  Germany 
in  A.D.  924. 

^ ■ _ ^ 


58  Lives  of  the  Saints.  \oz\..->. 

In  dream  he  beheld  S.  Peter,  who  slipped  his  hand  within 
that  of  the  sleeper,  and  conducted  him  round  the  chapel, 
saying  to  him,  "  Hither  shalt  thou  bring  the  body  of  my  son 
Eugenius,  the  martyr."  When  Gerard  woke  up,  he  was 
much  puzzled  with  his  dream.  It  hung  about  him,  but  how 
to  fulfil  the  order  of  S.  Peter  he  knew  not.  Not  long  after 
he  was  sent  to  Paris,  and  there,  entering  the  church  of  S. 
Denys,  he  heard  among  the  saints  invoked  the  name  of 
Eugenius.  Full  of  eagerness,  he  went  to  the  monks  and 
asked  who  Eugenius  was,  and  how  his  body  might  be  ob- 
tained. They  informed  him  that  Eugenius  had  been  a  dis- 
ciple of  S.  Dionysius,  who  they  fondly  imagined  was  the 
Areopagite,  and  commissioned  to  Gaul  by  S.  Peter  himself; 
and  as  for  getting  the  body  of  Eugenius,  it  was  sheer  impossi- 
bility, "  for  the  people  of  Paris  loved  him  as  an  angel  of  God." 

Gerard,  however,  did  not  despair ;  he  hasted  back  to 
Namur,  communicated  his  design  to  the  Count  and  the 
Bishop  of  Tongres,  and  returned  to  Paris,  where  he  was 
shaven,  and  assumed  the  habit  of  religion  in  the  abbey  of 
S.  Denys.  After  many  years,  he  had  so  won  the  love  of  the 
monks,  that  he  ventured  to  ask  again  for  the  bones  of  S.  Eu- 
genius, and  this  time  they  were  not  refused  him.  He  returned 
with  them  to  the  county  of  Lumai,  and  they  were  exposed 
to  the  veneration  of  the  neighbourhood  with  extraordinary 

Some  persons,  however,  complained  to  the  Bishop  of 
Liege  that  Gerard  was  inciting  all  the  district  in  which  he 
was  to  the  highest  enthusiasm  of  devotion  to  the  bones  of  an 
unknown  man.  He  burned  candles  before  them,  as  though 
they  were  the  relics  of,  at  least,  an  apostle,  and  as  to  the 
genuineness  of  the  relics  there  was  not  a  particle  of  evidence ; 
he  had  no  proof  that  they  belonged  to  a  martyr.' 

'   "  Ecce  nuper  advectus  e   Francorum  fiiiibus,  Bronii  colitur,  nescio  quis  martyr 
Eugenius,  cui  in  cereis  aliisque  oblationibus  tanta  veneratio  exhibetur  ab  omnibus,  ac 


^ .»!< 

Oct.  3.]  -S".  Gerard.  59 

The  advice  was  no  doubt  sensible.  The  bishop  felt  it 
was  so,  and  started  from  Fosses,  where  he  was  then  staying, 
for  Liege,  with  full  purpose  to  forbid  the  worship  of  the  relics 
till  he  was  satisfied  as  to  whose  they  were.  But  on  his  way, 
at  Maloignes,  he  was  taken  with  violent  cramp  in  his  bowels, 
so  that  he  thought  he  would  have  died.  He  lay  down  flat 
on  the  ground,  and  ordered  candles  to  be  lighted  about  him, 
and  S.  Eugenius  to  be  invoked.  The  spasms  ceased,  the 
bishop  got  up,  was  quite  satisfied  with  the  authenticity  of 
the  relics,  and  the  power  and  virtue  of  Eugenius,  and  forth- 
with made  the  festival  of  S.  Eugenius  a  day  to  be  observed 
annually,  the  same  as  a  Sunday,  throughout  his  diocese.  A 
council  was  summoned  at  Liege,  the  bishop  gave  a  graphic 
description  of  his  sufferings,  and  relief  when  Eugenius  was 
invoked.  No  further  scrutiny  into  the  history  of  the  martyr 
and  the  genuineness  of  the  relics  was  deemed  necessary,  and 
the  decree  of  the  bishop  was  confirmed  by  acclamation. 

At  the  request  of  Ghislebert,  Duke  of  Lorraine,  S.  Gerard 
undertook  the  refomiation  of  the  monastery  of  S.  Ghislain, 
near  Mons.  For  S.  Ghislain  had  appeared  in  dream  to  the 
duke,  and  had  complained  to  him  that  the  monks  of  the 
monastery  where  he  was  had  allowed  him  no  rest,  but  carried 
him  about  the  country  incessantly,  to  excite  the  people  to 
bring  them  large  alms,  all  which  they  spent  on  their  own 
amusements  and  riotous  living.  In  fact,  they  were  using  the 
body  as  a  mere  show  to  get  money  for  scandalous  purposes. 
Gerard  turned  these  monks  out,  deprived  them  of  the  sacred 
body,  and  replaced  them  by  severe  Benedictines. 

Arnulf,  Marquis  of  Flanders,  was  troubled  with  the  stone. 
He  applied  to  S.  Gerard,  who  fasted  for  three  days,  and  then 
said  mass.     During  the  mass  the  marquis  was  freed  from  the 

si  credatiir  ex  Apostolis  unus.  Ubinam  textus  martyrii  ejus?  ubinam  scriptura  conti- 
nens  ejus  gesta?  Vestram  profecto  prudentiam  oportet  summopere  perscrutari  et 
iuvestigare,  si  sit  a  Deo,  an  non,  Eugenius  iste." 

^ , ^ 


6o  Lives  of  the  Saints.  ^oct.  3. 

calculus.  Full,  graphic,  and  grotesque  details  are  given  by 
his  biographer.  Arnulf  was  so  delighted  with  his  cure,  that 
he  appointed  S.  Gerard  to  the  inspection  and  reformation  of 
all  the  monasteries  in  Flanders. 

When  he  had  spent  nearly  twenty  years  in  this  most 
hard  and  thankless  labour,  he  retired  into  a  cell  at  Brogne, 
where  he  died  on  October  3,  a.d.  959. 

He  is  said  to  have  reformed  the  monasteries  of  Mar- 
chiennes,  of  Saint-Amand,  of  Hasnon,  of  Saint -Vaast  in 
Arras,  of  S.  Bertin,  of  Wormhoudt,  of  Auchy-les-Moines,  of 
Saint-Wulmer,  of  Blangy,  of  Renaix,  and  of  S.  Ame  at  Douai, 
all  of  which  were  in  a  demoralised  condition. 

The  Abbey  of  Brogne  obtained  several  privileges  from  the 
Holy  See,  which  S.  Gerard  procured  on  a  visit  to  Rome. 
His  relics  are  preserved  at  Brogne. 




S.   VICTOR  OF  MARSEILLES  (see  July  21). 
After  the  Painting  by  Giov.  Antonio  de  Bazzi  at  Siena. 


Oct.— Part  T. 

6'6'.  Crisp  us  and  Cams.  6 1 

Oct.  4-] 

October  4. 

SS.  Crispus  and  Caius,  at  Corinth ;  ist  cent- 

SS.  Lrcius  AND  Ch-«:remon,  MM.  at  A  Icxandria;  ettdof^rdceftt. 

SS.  Thyrsus  and  Companions,  MM.  at  Treves;  circ.  a.u.  303. 

SS.  Boniface  and  Companions,  MM.  at  Treves;  circ.  a.d.  303. 

SS.  Marcus  and  ]\Iarcian,  MM.  in  E^ypt ;  a.d.  304. 

SS.  Domnina,  Berenice,  and  Prosdoce,  MM.  in  Syria;  a.d.  305 

SS.    Adauctus,    M.    in  Mesopotamia,    and   Callistiiene,   V.   al 

Ephestis ;  ^ih  cent. 
S.  Ammon,  //.  in  Egypt;  ci?r.  a.j>.  350. 
S.  QuiNTiN,  M.  at  Tours;  end  of  dth  cent. 
S.  AuREA,  V.  Abss.  at  Paris;  circ.  A.D.  666. 
S.  Peter,  B.M.  in  Arabia;  a.d.  743. 
S.  Magdalveus,  B.C.  at  Verdun;  circ.  a.d.  762. 
S.  Francis,  C.  at  Assist  in  Unibria;  a.d.  1226. 


(iST  Cent.) 

[Ado,  Notker,  and  other  Latin  Martyiologies.  Authority: — Mention 
by  S.  Paul  in  his  Epistles,  and  in  the  Acts.] 

RISPUS,  ruler  of  the  Jewish  Synagogue  at 
Corinth,'  was  bajDtized  along  with  his  family  by 
S.  Paul."^  A  Caius  is  mentioned  by  S.  Paul  in 
his  Epistle  to  the  Romans,  and  again  in  the  first 
Epistle  to  the  Corinthians,  "  Gaius,  mine  host,  and  of  the 
whole  Church,  saluteth  you,"^  from  which  we  may  conclude 
that  S.  Paul  lodged  at  Corinth  with  Caius,  and  that  the 
Christians  there  assembled  in  his  house  for  worship. 

Caius  was  baptized  by  S.  Paul.*  "  I  thank  God,"  says  he 
to  the  Corinthians,  "  that  I  baptized  none  of  you,  but  Crispus 
and  Gaius." 

Origen  says  that,  according  to  tradition,  Caius  became 

'  Acts  xviii.  8.  '  I  Cor.  i.  14.  '  Rom.  xvi.  23.  *  i  Cor.  i   14. 



62  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.4. 

Bishop  of  Thessalonica.  The  Apostohc  Constitutions  (vii.  46) 
mention  Crispus,  Bishop  of  yEgina,  but  whether  this  was  the 
Crispus  baptized  by  S.  Paul  is  not  stated. 


(about  a.d.  303.) 

[Gallican  and  German  late  Martyrologies.  Not  known  at  Treves, 
where  they  are  said  to  have  suffered  before  the  1 1  th  cent.  No  mention 
of  them  in  a  Treves  Calendar  of  the  loth  cent.;  two  others  o(  the  nth 
are  also  without  notice  of  them.  In  one  of  the  I2th,  on  Oct.  4,  is  this 
entry:  "  Tyrsus,  Palmatius."  In  one  of  the  13th,  on  Oct.  5  :  "  Palma- 
tius  and  his  Companions";  and  on  the  6th:  "  Innumerable  Martyrs." 
A  Treves  Breviary  of  the  14th  cent,  has,  on  Oct.  4,  "  Tyrsus,  duke,  and 
his  Companions,  MM.";  on  the  5th,  "Palmatius  and  his  Companions, 
MM.";  and  on  the  6th,  "Innumerable  Mai'tyrs."  This  arrangement 
was  given  to  them  by  Baldwin,  Archbishop  of  Treves,  who  died  A.D. 
1354.  No  ancient  martyrologist  knew  of  these  martyrs:  they  are  not 
mentioned  by  Bede,  Ado,  U.suardus,  or  any  others.  The  modern  Roman 
Martyrology  omits  Thyrsus,  but  inserts  Palmatius  and  his  companions 
on  Oct.  5.  Saussaye  inserts  Thyrsus  and  his  companions  on  Oct.  4, 
and  Palmatius  and  his  on  Oct.  6.  S.  Boniface  is  mentioned  on  this  day 
in  the  Lubek-Cologne  Calendar  of  the  i6th  cent,  and  in  the  Martyrology 
of  Moyen-Moutier  in  the  Vosges.  The  Acts  of  these  Saints  were  com- 
posed out  of  the  imagination  of  the  author  on  the  invention  of  tlieir  relics 
in  1071.] 

The  earhest  mention  of  martyrs  at  Treves  is  in  the  Acts 
of  SS.  Fuscianus  and  Victoricus,  composed  in  the  6th  cen- 
tury. These  Acts  give  no  particulars ;  and  the  Church  of 
Treves  was  profoundly  ignorant  of  the  fact  that  its  soil  had 
been  watered  by  the  blood  of  martyrs,  till,  in  107 1,  the  monks 
of  S.  Paulinus,  being  desirous  of  increasing  their  collection 
of  relics,  dug  about  their  crypt,  and  found  quantities  of  bones, 
as  might  have  been  expected.  With  these  bones  was  most 
happily  unearthed  a  leaden  tablet,  on  which  was  inscribed  all 



Oct.  4.]  SS.  Domnina,  Berenice,  and  Prosdoce.      63 

the  information  necessar}'.  It  informed  them  that  the  bones 
were  those  of  Thyrsus,  Palmatius,  Maxentius,  Constantius, 
Crescentius,  Justinus,  Alexander,  Soter,  Hormisdas,  Papyrius, 
Constans,  Jovinus,  all  martyrs.  And  to  satisfy  the  most 
sceptical,  one  of  the  bones  having  tumbled  down  from  the 
stretcher  on  which  they  were  being  carried,  showed  signs  of 
fresh  blood,  "  and  it  is  bloody  to  this  day." 

The  genuineness  of  the  tablet  has  been  abandoned  by  most 
antiquaries  of  Treves. 

A  cross  stands  on  the  spot  of  the  supposed  martyrdom  of 
S.  Thyrsus  and  his  companions,  before  the  church  of  S.  Pau- 
linus.  The  Moselle  is  said  to  have  flowed  red  with  blood 
for  many  miles  below  Treves. 

Various  miracles  are  recorded  as  having  been  wrought  by 
the  relics,  which  calculated  to  spread  their  renown.  Portions 
were  eagerly  sought  and  distributed  ;  some  went  to  Prag  ; 
others  to  Paderborn  and  Brunswick ;  some  are  now  at 
Einsiedeln,  others  have  travelled  to  Gratz,  in  Styria. 


(A.D.  305.) 

[Greek  Menology.  Authorltie.s : — Mention  by  Eusebius,  lib.  viii. 
c.  12;  an  oration  by  S.  John  Chrysostom;  S.  Ambrose,  Horn,  xxii.] 

DoMNiNA  and  her  two  daughters,  virgins,  Berenice  or 
Verinna  and  Prosdoce,  in  the  persecution  of  Diocletian 
fled  from  home,  but  were  pursued  ;  and  being  taken  by 
soldiers,  to  escape  from  their  brutality  flung  themselves  into 
a  river  and  were  droNvned. 

►J< ^ 


64  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  4. 


(4TH  CENT.) 
[Greek  Menaea  and  Menology.     Some  Latin  Martyrologies. ] 

Adauctus,  a  citizen  of  Ephesus,  suffered  martyrdom  in 
Mesopotamia,  in  the  persecution  of  Maximin.  His  daughtei 
Callisthene  cut  her  hair  short,  disguised  herself  as  a  young 
man,  and  concealed  herself  in  Nicomedia.  After  eight 
years  she  went  to  Thrace,  and  lodged  with  a  woman  who 
had  a  daughter  with  dehcate  eyes.  Callisthene,  by  careful 
attention,  healed  the  girl,  and  the  mother  desired  to  marry 
the  two,  that  they  might  settle  in  her  house  and  be  the 
comfort  of  her  old  age.  Callisthene  was  then  obliged  to 
tell  her  story.  She  went  next  to  Constantia,  the  wife  of 
Licinius,  and  told  her  her  case,  and  the  empress  procured 
for  her  the  restoration  of  her  father's  property  which  had 
been  confiscated. 

Callisthene  recovered  the  body  of  her  father,  brought  it  to 
Ephesus,  and  built  a  church  over  it. 

S.  AMMON,  H. 

(about  A.D.  350.) 

[Greek  Menology  and  lioinan  Martyrology.  Authorities: — Mention 
in  the  Life  of  S.  Antony,  by  S.  Athanasius,  Socrates,  Sozomen,  and  tlie 
Lives  of  the  Fathers  of  the  Desert.] 

S.  Amoun,  or  Ammon,  was  an  Egyptian  of  an  opulent  and 
noble  family.  At  the  age  of  twenty-two  he  lost  his  father 
and  mother.  He  had  long  resolved  to  live  to  God  alone, 
but  his  uncle,  who  had  been  constituted  his  guardian,  and 


Oct. 4.]  '^'  Ammon.  65 

others  of  his  family  insisted  on  his  marrying.  A  young  man 
of  two-and-twenty,  one  would  have  thought,  was  beyond 
the  age  at  which  he  could  be  constrained.  But  Ammon 
submitted,  with  the  resolution  formed  in  his  heart  to  take  a 
wife  only  to  live  separate  from  her.  He  accordingly  married 
a  young  and  modest  girl,  and  immediately  after  the  conclu- 
sion of  the  ceremony  announced  to  her  that  he  had  taken 
her  hand  with  reluctance,  and  that  he  had  no  intention  of 
fulfilling  the  duties  he  had  that  day  undertaken  towards  her. 
So  far  from  purposing  to  love  and  cherish  her  in  sickness 
and  in  health,  he  proposed  to  live  as  if  he  was  supremely 
ignorant  of  her  existence.  When  he  informed  her  that  he 
desired  that  they  should  not  inhabit  the  same  house,  she 
was  naturally  indignant,  and  protested  that,  though  she 
would  submit  to  be  his  wife  only  in  name,  yet  she  would 
not  endure  the  indignity  of  being  turned  out  of  his  doors  on 
the  very  day  of  their  wedding.  Ammon  consented  to  let 
her  live  in  the  house,  and  even  to  take  her  meals  with  him  ; 
but  otherwise  they  were  to  one  another  as  strangers,  or 
friends  living  on  distant  terms.  He  spent  his  day  in  the 
garden  cultivating  balm,  and  his  night  in  prayer  and 

Thus  passed  eighteen  years.  The  gentle  wife  accommo- 
dated her  ways  to  his,  adored  him  as  a  paragon  of  ex- 
cellence, and  modelled  her  mode  of  life  upon  his.  At  the 
end  of  these  years,  at  her  owti  suggestion,  they  separated, 
and  Ammon  retired  to  the  deserts  of  Nitria  and  she  trans- 
formed his  house  into  a  convent  of  holy  virgins.  Ammon 
speedily  became  renowned  in  the  desert  as  a  master  of  the 
sohtary  life,  and  was  surrounded  by  disciples.  Twice  in  the 
year  he  visited  his  wife,  that  he  might  direct  her  conduct, 
and  that  of  the  community  she  had  founded. 

The  report  of  his  sanctity  having  reached  S.  Antony,  a 
close  friendship  grew  up  between  the  two  hermits  ;   they 

VOL.  XI.  q 

*- * 


66  Lives  of  the  Saints.  roct.4. 

visited  one  another  periodically,  and  took  counsel  together 
as  to  the  manner  in  which  they  should  walk.  S.  Ammon 
died  at  the  age  of  sixty-two,  of  which  twenty-two  were  spent 
in  the  desert. 

Several  anecdotes,  not  however  of  remarkable  interest, 
are  related  of  the  abbot  Ammon ;  but  as  there  were  several  of 
the  same  name,  it  is  not  certain  to  which  of  them  they 
properly  belong.  S.  Antony  is  said  to  have  seen  his  soul 
borne  to  heaven  by  angels. 


(end  of  6th  cent.) 

[Gallican  Martyiologies.  Authority : — The  Lections  in  the  Tours 

QuiNTiN  of  Tours,  not  to  be  confounded  with  his  more 
famous  namesake,  was  a  native  of  Meaux,  who  came  to 
Tours  when  Gunthram  was  King  of  Paris.  The  wife  of  his 
master  fell  desperately  in  love  with  him,  and  because  he  in- 
dignantly rejected  her  overtures  she  compassed  his  murder, 
which  took  place  at  LTndrois,  near  Montresor. 

S.    AUREA,   V.    ABSS. 

(about  a.d.  666.) 

[Usuardus  and  the  Gallican  Martyrologies.  Modem  Roman  Martyro- 
logy.  Saussaye,  on  Oct.  4,  and  again  on  Oct.  5.  The  Acts  are  so  wholly 
fabulous  that  the  Bollandists  have  declined  to  publish  them.] 

If  we  had  only  the  legendary  life  of  the  saint,  we  should 
probably  doubt  the  existence  of  such  a  person  \  but  two 
writers,  S.    Ouen,  in  his  life   of  S.  Eligius,   and   Jonas  oi 



Oct.  4.] 

6".  Aurea.  6y 

Bobbio,  in  his  life  of  S.  Eustace,  both  ^vrite^s  living  at  the 
time,  mention  Aurea  as  abbess  at  Paris,  in  the  7  th 
century.  S.  Ouen  says  she  was  the  daughter  of  Maurinus 
and  Quiria,  and  that  when  Dagobert  I.  built  a  nunnery  at 
Paris  at  the  advice  of  S.  Eligius,  Aurea  was  made  abbess  of 
the  virgins  placed  in  it.  Jonas  of  Bobbio  adds  that  the 
rule  observed  in  this  house  under  Aurea  was  that  which 
S.  Caesarius  of  Aries  gave  to  his  sister  Csesaria  for  the 
government  of  the  great  nunnery  he  had  erected  at  Aries. 

This  is  all  that  is  kno^\^l  of  S.  Aurea  which  can  be  relied 
upon.  Now  hear  her  Acts.  Aurea  was  a  Syrian  maiden, 
who  came  from  the  East  to  Paris,  and  there  was  constituted 
superior  of  three  hundred  virgins.  One  day  she  was  at  a 
country  house  belonging  to  the  abbey,  when  she  heard  that 
her  cellaress  was  dead.  She  hastened  back  to  Paris,  found 
that  this  was  true,  and  that  the  dead  maiden  grasped  the 
cellar  keys  so  tightly  in  her  hand  that  they  could  not  be  got 
from  her.  Aurea  therefore  called  her  back  to  life  again,  to 
surrender  the  keys  of  the  cellar,  and  after  she  had  given 
them  up  dismissed  her  again  to  the  realms  of  death.  On 
another  occasion  the  oven  was  red  hot,  but  there  was  no 
bread  to  be  put  into  it.  Aurea  got  into  the  oven,  and 
swept  the  red-hot  ashes  out  with  the  sleeves  of  her  gown. 
At  that  moment,  miraculously,  all  the  bells  of  the  convent 
began  to  ring.  The  sisters  rushed  tumultuously  to  church 
and  sang  "  Te  Deum."  When  this  hymn  of  praise  was 
ended  they  returned  to  the  oven,  and  found  it  full  of  well- 
baked  loaves. 

After  the  death  of  Aurea,  a  Syrian  maiden,  who  was  born 
blind,  was  informed  in  a  dream  that  if  she  could  touch  the 
relics  of  Aurea,  a  Syrian  damsel  who  had  become  abbess  at 
Paris,  she  would  obtain  her  sight.  She  announced  this  to 
the  bishop  of  the  city  where  she  lived,  and  persuaded  him  to 
start  off  with  her  to  Gaul  in  quest  of  the  body  of  this  Aurea. 

* — jj, 


68  Lives  of  the  Saints.  (-oct.  4. 

The  blind  girl  got  tired  of  the  society  of  the  bishop,  or  the 
bishop  had  had  enough  of  the  girl's  company,  before  they 
reached  Gaul,  so  they  parted,  the  bishop  promising  to  rejoin 
his  fair  companion  with  a  leg  or  an  arm  of  the  saintly 
abbess.  He  pushed  on  to  Paris,  and  there  begged  so 
earnestly  for  a  piece  of  the  dead  Aurea,  that  the  clergy  of 
Paris  consented  to  cut  off  an  arm.  As  they  did  so,  the 
blood  spouted  forth  in  volumes.  Delighted  with  his  miracu- 
lously bleeding  treasure,  the  oriental  prelate  returned  to  the 
spot  where  he  had  left  the  Syrian  maiden,  applied  the 
bleeding  stump  to  her  eyes,  and  she  saw  instantly.  The 
pair  then  returned  to  Syria,  where  they  built  and  endowed  a 
monastery  in  honour  of  the  arm  of  Aurea. 

S.  Aurea  is  said  to  have  pulled  the  stole  off  a  deacon 
during  the  divine  office  because  he  sang  out  of  tune ;  but 
was  reproached  for  her  conduct  by  an  angel,  and  in  self- 
punishment  shut  herself  up  for  seven  years  in  a  cell,  and 
lived  on  only  bread  and  water. 

The  relics  of  S.  Aurea  are  in  the  church  of  S.  Eloi,  at 
Paris,  under  the  custody  of  the  Barnabite  fathers. 


(a.d.  1226.) 

[Roman  and  Franciscan  Martyrologies.  Canonized  by  Gregory  IX., 
in  1228.  Authorities: — (i)  A  Life  by  Thomas  de  Celano,  his  disciple. 
{2)  Another  Life  by  S.  Bonaventura  (d.  1274).  (3)  A  Life,  perhaps  by 
Thomas  Ceprani,  fl  1245.  (4)  An  Appendix  to  the  Life  by  Thomas  de 
Celano,  by  three  associates  of  the  Saint,  Brothers  Leo,  Rufinus,  and 
Angelas  ;  published  by  the  Bollandists.  (5)  "  Speculum  vitse  S.  Fran- 
cisci,"  a  singular  work,  composed  subsequently,  perhaps  in  the  14th 
cent.  There  are  several  editions,  one  of  Metz  of  1509,  another  of  Ant- 
werp of  1620,  a  third  of  Cologne  of  1623,  all  somewhat  differing  from 
one  another.     The  "Speculum"  is  of  no  historical  value  towards  the 


S.  FRANCIS  OF  ASSIST.    After  Cahier. 

Oct.  4. 


Oct.  4.]  S.  Francis  of  Assist.  69 

biography  of  the  Saint.  (6)  Another  singular  book  illustrative  of  the 
extraordinary  cultus  of  S.  Francis  is  the  "Vinea  S.  Francisci,"  pub- 
lished at  Antwerp  in  1518.  (7)  The  "  Fioretti  di  San  Francesco"  is  a 
collection  of  anecdotes  of  the  Saint,  collected  in  the  14th  cent.] ' 

The  quaint  little  town  of  Assist,  in  the  Duchy  of  Spoleto, 
perched  upon  rocks,  was  the  birth-place  of  the  seraphic 
Father  of  the  Franciscan  order.  He  was  born  in  1182,  of 
good,  though  hardly  noble,  parents.  His  father,  Peter 
Bernadone,  was  a  merchant ;  his  mother's  name  was  Pica. 
The  Franciscans,  in  their  eagerness  to  establish  a  close 
uniformity  between  their  founder  and  the  Saviour  of  the 
World,  fabled  that  he  was  born  in  a  stable.  The  stable  is 
now  a  chapel  dedicated  to  San  Francesco  il  Piccolo.^  This 
fable,  however,  arose  after  the  14th  century,  for  then 
Bartholomew  of  Pisa  wrote  his  "  Conformities  of  S.  Francis 
with  Christ,"  a  most  extraordinary  book,  in  which  the 
Messianic  prophecies  are  interpreted  as  applying  to  S. 
Francis.  In  it  he  drew  an  exact  parallel  between  the  Saint 
and  the  Saviour,  but  he  says  nothing  about  the  nativity  in 
the  stable,  whicli  he  certainly  would  have  adduced  had  the 
myth  been  then  in  existence. 

Another  wonderful  legend  of  his  infancy  is,  that  when  he 
was  being  baptized  in  the  church  a  mysterious  and  venerable 
stranger  appeared,  who  took  the  child  in  his  arms  and 
acted  as  his  godfather  at  the  font,  and  then  vanished  in  the 
direction  of  the  Cathedral  of  S.  Rufinus.  According  to 
another  version  of  the  story,  the  mysterious  old  man  was  an 
angel,  who  took  the  child  up  in  his  arms,  signed  its  right 
shoulder  with  the  cross,  and  uttered  a  canticle  which  is  a 
poor  copy  of  the  "  Nunc  Dimittis."  This  is  another  of  the 
fables  circulated  for  the  purpose  of  making  the  analogies 

'  In  the  composition  of  this  life  much  use,  often  verbatim,  has  been  made  of 
Mrs.  Oliphant's  "Francis  of  Assisi "  (Macmillan  and  Co.),  and  to  it  the  reader  is 
referred  for  full  details  of  a  life  abounding  in  beautiful  incidents. 

'  The  Infant  Francis. 


70  Lives  of  the  Saints.  \ot<..^^. 

between  the  life  of  S.  Francis  and  of  Christ  more  exact.  It 
is,  of  course,  in  the  wonderful  book  of  Bartholomew  of  Pisa. 

To  return  to  plain  facts.  At  his  baptism  the  child  was 
called  by  his  mother,  John ;  at  the  time  his  father  was 
absent  in  France  ;  on  his  return  the  name  was  changed 
familiarly  into  Francis.  The  legend  writers  have  invented 
a  host  of  reasons,  all  too  ridiculous  to  deserve  notice.^  The 
real  reason  is  not  hard  to  seek.  At  an  early  age  his  father, 
who,  having  travelled  in  France  on  business  of  merchandise, 
knew  the  value  of  a  knowledge  of  other  languages  besides 
the  mother  tongue,  and  who  destined  his  son  to  succeed  him 
in  his  business,  took  pains  to  have  the  child  instructed  in 
French.  The  young  folks  of  Assisi,  unable  to  appreciate 
the  reasons  of  Peter  Bernadone,  ridiculed  the  boy  for 
speaking  French,  and  called  him,  in  jest  "  Franciscus,"  or 
"  Frenchman."  Later  biographers  say  that  his  acquisition 
of  the  French  tongue  was  miraculous,  but  had  it  been  so,  it 
would  not  have  been  imperfect,  and  Thomas  of  Celano  and 
S.  Bonaventura  inform  us  that  though  he  could  talk  French, 
he  did  not  talk  it  correctly. 

Francis,  in  his  youth,  was  keen  in  the  pursuit  of  money, 
but  no  miser.  He  spent  freely  but  not  extravagantly, 
dressed  handsomely,  and  ate  and  drank  of  the  best.^  He 
was  fond  of  fun  and  cheerful  society,  but  he  never  seems  to 
have  stained  his  youth  with  sins  of  unchastity,  nor  to  have 
been  immodest  in  his  conversation. 

About  the  year  1201  the  city  of  Perugia  was  at  war  with 
that  of  Assisi,  and  in  one  of  the  frays  between  the  rival 
citizens,  Francis  was  captured  and  detained  a  twelvemonth 

'  As  that  when  he  prayed  in  an  ecstasy  he  always  used  the  French  tongue,  which 
he  had  acquired  miraculously — so  Jacques  de  Voragine.  The  same  wise  author  says 
another  reason  was,  because  he  found  experimentally  that  the  name  "  Francis"  had 
wonderful  efficacy  in  scaring  away  devils. 

*  He  was  fond  of  poultry.  After  his  conversion  he  had  himself  led  through  the 
streets  of  Assisi  with  a  rope  round  his  neck,  :ind  his  companions  who  conducted  him 
cried,  "  See  the  man  who  fattened  on  chickens  ! " 


* — >J< 

Oct.  4.]  S.  Francis  of  Assist.  yi 

in  prison  in  Perugia.  On  his  return  to  Assisi,  his  love  of  the 
sober  routine  of  a  merchant's  hfe  gave  way  to  a  taste  for 
arms.  He  had  a  friend  who  proposed  to  go  to  Apulia,  to 
sustain  the  pretensions  of  Walter  de  Brienne  to  the  kingdom 
of  Sicily.  Whilst  the  project  was  shaping  in  his  mind,  he 
went  out  one  day  dressed  in  a  new  suit  of  the  handsome 
clothes  for  which  he  had  a  carnal  inclination.  On  the  way 
he  met  "  a  certain  soldier  of  honour  and  courage,  but  poor 
and  vilely  clad."  The  charity  which  was  habitual  to  him, 
and  the  feeling  of  brotherhood  towards  an  old  man-at-arms 
which  his  new-born  military  ardour  naturally  inspired, 
moved  him  to  a  sudden  enthusiasm.  He  took  off  his  fine 
clothes  and  gave  them  to  the  poor  old  warrior.  "  Thus  he 
at  once  fulfilled  two  offices  of  pity,"  says  Bonaventura,  "  by 
covering  the  shame  of  a  noble  knight  and  relieving  a  poor 
man's  penury." 

This  kindly  act  was  rewarded  on  the  next  night  by  a 
remarkable  dream.  He  thought  he  beheld  a  goodly  palace, 
and  that  he  entered  it  and  found  an  armoury  filled  with 
every  variety  of  weapon,  each  signed  with  the  cross,  and 
flags  and  symbols  of  military  triumph  were  hung  along  the 
walls.  "All  these,"  said  a  voice,  "  are  for  thee  and  for  thy 
soldiers."  Little  did  he  then  imagine  what  this  dream 
portended,  and  that  the  weapons  of  his  warfare  were  not  to 
be  carnal. 

Francis  provided  himself  with  horse  and  suit  of  mail, 
and  set  out  on  his  way  to  Apulia.  He  got  as  far  as  Spoleto, 
but  there  fell  ill,  probably  with  a  relapse  of  the  intermittent 
fever  v/hich  pursued  him  more  or  less  all  his  life,  and  which 
haunts  like  a  ghost  the  fairest  parts  of  Italy.  While  he  thus 
lay,  one  night,  in  the  feverish  succession  of  heat  and  cold,  half 
asleep,  half  stupefied,  he  suddenly  heard  a  voice  which 
questioned  him :  "  Francis,  whom  does  it  profit  most  to 
follow,    the    master    or    the    servant?"      "The    master," 

Ij, ^ 

72  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  4. 

answered  the  sick  man,  promptly.  "Why  then,"  asked  the 
voice,  "  do  you  leave  the  master  for  the  servant,  the  prince 
for  his  subject  ?"  The  young  Francis  said,  like  Saul,  "  Lord, 
what  wilt  thou  have  me  to  do?"  "  Return  to  thy  country," 
answered  the  voice,  "  and  then  it  will  be  told  thee  what  thou 
must  do." 

Such  was  the  story  which  Francis,  in  after  years,  told  his 
followers.  Whether  it  was  a  dream,  or  whether  some  good 
counsellor  had  visited  his  sick  couch,  he  was  not  in  a 
condition  to  say.  Next  morning  the  tertian  ague  left  him, 
after  its  wont,  suddenly.  Perhaps  feeling  that  with  this 
complaint  on  him  he  would  make  but  a  poor  soldier, 
perhaps  impressed  by  the  mysterious  conversation  which 
had  taken  place  in  the  night,  he  remounted  his  horse,  not 
to  go  on  to  Apulia,  but  to  return  to  Assisi. 

He  returned  to  his  former  course  of  hfe,  but  not  with  the 
same  zest  as  formerly.  He  was  just  at  an  age  when  the 
deepest  feelings  of  man's  nature  begin  to  make  themselves 
heard.  The  round  of  drinking  and  frolic,  music  and 
laughter,  did  not  satisfy  the  vague  cra\ings  of  a  soul  capable 
of  lofty  things.  One  evening  he  was  revelling  with  his 
companions.  When  supper  was  over,  the  merry  party  dashed 
out  of  the  hot,  lighted  room  into  the  open  air.  The  dark 
indigo-blue  vault  of  heaven  was  overhead,  besprent  with 
myriads  of  stars,  the  air  was  soft  and  balmy,  and  all  was 
hushed.  Francis  stood  still,  his  sensitive,  poetic  nature  was 
touched  by  the  contrast. 

"  What  ails  you,  Francis  ?  "  asked  one  of  the  revellers. 

"  He  is  star-gazing  for  a  wife,"  joked  another. 

"Ah!"  said  Francis  solemnly,  "for  a  wife  past  all  that 
your  imaginations  can  conceive!" 

His  soul  with  inarticulate  cravings  strained  for  some  great 
love  to  fill  it  and  satisfy  it,  but  what  that  love  was  he  knew 

* »J< 

Oct.  4.]  '5'.  Francis  of  Assist.  73 

Whether  this  was  the  last  of  his  revels  we  are  not  told, 
perhaps  it  was ;  it  marked  the  first  distinct  perception  that  his 
old  life  of  careless  merriment  was  at  an  end  for  him.  From 
this  time  he  was  gradually  drawn  on  towards  the  goal.  He 
was  drawn  by  his  kindliness  of  heart.  He  had  been  profuse 
in  his  charities,  sympathizing  with  misery,  always  ready  to 
do  a  kind  act  to  him  who  needed  it,  but  now  these  impulses 
settled  into  a  systematic  habit  of  charity.  One  class  of 
sufferers  he  had  always  avoided,  from  his  instinctive  love 
of  beauty,  this  was  that  of  lepers.  But  he  determined  to 
overcome  this  repugnance.  One  day  as  he  was  riding  across 
the  valley  he  met  a  poor  leper.  The  moment  for  an  act  of 
self-conquest  was  come.  He  descended  from  his  horse, 
kissed  the  hand  of  the  poor  wretch,  and  filled  it  with 

Whilst  he  was  in  a  state  of  profound  uncertainty,  the 
transition  from  one  state  to  another,  he  went  to  Rome, 
probably  upon  mercantile  business,  which  he  did  not  neglect 
throughout  this  crisis  of  his  inner  Hfe.  He  was  drifting  on 
a  sea  of  doubt,  not  knowing  whither  to  steer.  He  had 
broken  from  his  old  moorings,  but  he  had  found  no  port. 
He  was  sick  at  heart,  dissatisfied  with  himself,  with  Hfe,  with 
the  world,  but  his  vocation  was  not  clear  to  him.  His  mind 
even  seems  to  have  been  slightly  thrown  off  its  balance.  He 
was  ready  to  obey  any  impulse,  however  strange,  in  the  vague 
expectation  that  he  would  hit  at  last  on  the  road  that  would 
lead  him  to  peace  and  happiness.  As  he  was  wandering 
through  the  basilica  of  S.  Peter's  at  Rome,  in  this  unsettled 
condition,  he  was  struck  with  the  poverty  of  the  offerings 
made  at  the  shrines.  He  at  once  thrust  his  hand  into  his 
purse,  pulled  out  all  the  money  in  it,  and  threw  it  in  at  the 
grating  before  the  tomb  of  the  Apostles.  The  money  fell 
with  such  a  noise  that  it  attracted  the  attention  of  all  who 
were  near.  Francis,  ashamed  of  his  act,  as  if  one  of  ostenta- 


74  Lives  of  the  Saints.  j-oct.  4. 

tion,  though  no  such  motive  had  prompted  him,  hastened 
out  of  the  church.  Then  he  saw  the  steps  crowded  with 
beggars.  Another  fit  of  enthusiasm  came  over  his  disturbed 
heart,  he  pkicked  off  his  clothes,  changed  them  with  a 
beggar  for  his  rags,  and  seated  himself  for  the  rest  of  the  day 
on  the  steps  of  the  cathedral,  begging  with  the  squalid  and 
hungry  crew. 

There  could  be  no  more  striking  indication  of  the  chaos  of 
all  his  ideas,  than  this  ready  yielding  to  a  succession  of  un- 
reasonable impulses. 

He  returned  to  Assisi,  having  finished  his  business  ;  but  it 
was  not  to  the  joyous,  careless  life  of  former  days.  The 
current  of  his  life  gradually,  imperceptibly,  swept  into  the 
new  channel  of  piety — not  of  active  charity  only,  but  of  deep 
meditation  on  God  and  the  mystery  of  Redemption.  The 
sublime  life  of  Christ  in  all  its  simplicity  and  self-abnegation, 
and  the  death  on  the  Cross  which  concluded  that  long  sacri- 
fice, seized  upon  his  soul,  as  sometimes  the  influence  of  a 
living  leader  will  fire  a  young  imagination  with  enthusiasm 
and  self-devotion.  "And  I,  if  I  be  hfted  up,  will  draw  all 
men  after  me."  Those  words  of  Our  Lord  were  fulfilled  in 
Francis.  His  heart,  which  had  gone  forth  begging  for  a  love 
to  which  to  cling,  found  its  object  in  the  Incarnate  Son  of 
God.  No  anxiety  about  his  own  salvation  seems  to  have 
distressed  Francis.  He  forgot  himself  in  the  ecstasy  of  his 
love  for  his  Saviour.  He  had  found  what  he  desired,  and  it 
was  more  than  he  had  dreamed  of.  The  Gospel  narrative 
pondered  over  by  Francis  was  so  real,  that  he  longed  to 
follow  every  step  of  the  Life  of  Lives.  Having  found  a  quiet 
cave  in  a  wood  or  thicket,  away  from  the  roads,  he  was  wont 
to  retire  thither,  accompanied  by  a  friend,  whom  he  left  out- 
side. There  he  would  spend  hours  of  devotion  and  con- 
templation ;  and  when  he  issued  forth,  his  companion  was 
struck  by  the  alteration  in  his  countenance,  it  had  become 


^ ^ 

Oct.  4,]  S.  Francis  of  Assist,  75 

so  pale  and  haggard.  Francis  was  walking  in  darkness, 
waiting  to  be  pointed  out  his  way ;  his  old  life  was  impos- 
sible to  him  now,  its  landmarks  removed,  its  pleasures 
emptied  out,  its  apples  turned  to  dust.  It  was  his  hour  in 
the  wilderness ;  and  so  far  as  his  friends  and  relations  could 
see,  an  eclipse  had  fallen  upon  the  bright  promise  of  his 

But  the  character  of  Francis  was  not  one  that  would  allow 
him  to  rest  thus — he  must  find  something  to  do.  His  future  was 
determined  by  his  next  step,  and  that  by  an  act  which  certainly 
shows  how  completely  disturbed  his  mental  state  was  at  the 
time.  There  was  a  little  church  dedicated  to  S.  Damian  at 
Assisi,  which  had  fallen  into  disrepair.  This  deserted  church 
attracted  Francis,  and  he  was  often  wont  to  seek  it  for  pri- 
vate prayer.  The  ruinous  condition  of  the  sacred  building 
forced  itself  on  his  notice,  and  then  suddenly  flamed  up  in 
him  the  resolve  to  restore  the  dilapidated  sanctuary.  But 
this  very  natural  resolution  arose,  according  to  his  bio- 
graphers S.  Bonaventura  and  the  Three  Companions,  from 
a  very  wonderful  event,  of  which,  however,  Thomas  de 
Celano,  writing  only  three  years  after  the  death  of  the  Saint, 
knew  nothing,  so  rapidly  do  legends  grow.  According  to 
the  story,  Francis  was  kneeling  in  the  crumbling  old  church, 
before  an  image  of  the  Crucified,  when  the  image  said  to 
him,  "Francis,  seest  thou  not  that  my  house  is  in  ruins? 
Go,  and  restore  it  for  me."  "With  good  will.  Lord," 
answered  the  eager  suppliant,  thinking  that  the  church  re- 
ferred to  was  the  little  chapel  of  S.  Damian,  and  not  the 
Cathohc  Church,  which  in  the  West  was  tottering,  and  would 
have  fallen,  had  not  S.  Francis  and  S.  Dominic  been  raised 
up,  as  two  pillars,  to  support  it  on  their  shoulders. 

Francis  sprang  from  his  knees,  seized  with  the  impulse  to 
repair  the  church  of  S.  Damian, — an  impulse  as  sudden  as 
that  which  made  him  empty  his  purse  into  the  tomb  of  the 

* ■ * 


y6  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  4. 

Apostles,  and  change  his  clothes  with  a  beggar ;  and  with 
the  same  unreasoning  precipitation  he  hastened  home, 
carried  off  several  bales  of  cloth  from  his  father's  warehouse, 
to  which  he  had  no  right,  conveyed  them  to  Foligno,  and  there 
sold  them,  together  with  the  horse  which  had  brought  them 
thither.  Then  he  ran  with  the  money  to  the  church  of 
S.  Damian,  and  offered  it  to  the  priest  who  ministered  there 
This  worthy  man,  surprised  at  the  large  sum  offered,  and  th 
excitement  of  the  young  man,  before  receiving  it  asked  ques 
tions  about  how  he  had  come  by  it,  and  elicited  the  facts. 
When  he  ascertained  that  Francis  had  no  right  to  the  money, 
he  refused  to  receive  it,  and  Francis,  disappointed  and  angry, 
tossed  the  bag  containing  it  into  the  corner  of  a  built-up 
window,  there  to  lie  among  the  dust  and  rubbish  which  were 
as  valueless  as  it  had  proved  to  be. 

Francis,  knowing  he  had  done  wrong,  was  afraid  to  face 
his  father,  and  begged  the  priest  to  take  him  in.  This  he 
consented  to  do  3  but  his  honesty  made  him  resolute  in  his 
refusal  to  receive  the  money.  Francis  remained  some  days 
in  the  presbytery,  out  of  spirits  and  bewildered.  Before 
long,  Bernadone  discovered  the  place  of  his  son's  retreat. 
He  was  greatly  exasperated  at  what  Francis  had  done,  and 
having  collected  his  neighbours,  he  made  a  raid  upon  San 
Damiano,  to  recover  his  son  and  his  money.  Francis  took 
refuge  in  a  dark  cellar,  where  he  lay  concealed  for  several 
days.  He  stayed  there  long  enough  to  reach  the  depths  of 
despondency,  and  at  last  to  recover  sufficient  moral  courage 
to  face  the  difficulty.  He  therefore  issued  from  his  voluntary 
dungeon,  pale  and  worn  by  his  seclusion,  and  the  poor  fare 
with  which  he  had  been  supplied,  and  left  San  Damiano  a  very 
different  figure  from  the  "  felix  mercator "  who  had  carried 
his  money  and  heart  to  God's  house,  in  the  exuberance  of 
enthusiasm,  a  short  time  before. 

When  he  appeared  in  the  streets,  and  was  recognized,  a 


Oct.  4.]  'S'.  Francis  of  Assist.  'j'j 

popular  tumult  arose.  The  townsfolk,  among  whom  he  had 
been  a  great  favourite,  crowded  round  him  with  threats  and 
insults.  He  was  pelted  with  stones,  and  pursued  with 
shouts  of  derision.  The  noise  of  the  commotion  reached 
the  ears  of  Pietro  Bernadone  in  his  dark  shop,  and  he  issued 
forth,  flaming  with  indignation  and  resentment.  His  gallant 
son,  whom  he  had  proudly  said  was  more  like  a  prince  than 
a  merchant,  who  had  been  the  favourite  of  Assisi  and  the 
hope  of  his  house,  had  now  become  a  squalid,  wretched 
fanatic.  He  rushed  into  the  street,  mad  with  shame  and  rage, 
and  falling  upon  Francis  with  all  the  fury  of  outraged  love 
and  pride,  drove  him  home  with  blows  and  curses  to  the 
house  where  he  had  been  born.  He  was  shut  up  in  a  dark 
prison,  bound  as  a  criminal,  and  compelled  to  endure  the  bitter 
reproaches  of  his  incensed  father.  A  few  days  after,  Berna- 
done went  out  on  business,  and  then  the  mother  crept  to  her 
boy;  she  unloosed  his  chains  and  unbarred  the  door,  and  bid 
him  depart.  It  was  in  love  that  she  sent  him  forth,  but  yet 
it  was  banishment  from  his  home.  Francis  went  back  to 
San  Damiano  without  a  word  of  complaint,  having  thus  had 
the  bonds  of  nature  snapt  from  him  one  by  one.  Thence- 
forth there  was  no  choice  left  for  him;  no  looking  back, 
had  he  desired  it.  The  little  presbytery,  the  poor  priest,  the 
old  church  falling  into  ruins — such  were  the  only  friend  and 
refuge  left  to  him  in  the  world.  When  Pietro  returned  and 
found  his  son  gone,  he  was  not  softened,  but  pursued  him 
with  unwavering  virulence.  He  appealed  to  the  magistrates 
to  recover  for  him  his  son  and  his  money.  Francis,  by  this 
time,  had  recovered  his  courage.  There  is  something  in  ex- 
cessive violence  which  weakens  persistence,  and  even,  if  that 
be  possible,  neutralizes  the  most  just  ground  of  complaint. 
The  young  man  had  repented,  and  had  been  punished 
severely  ;  and  now  his  spirit  was  roused.  He  rephed  to  the 
summons  of  the  magistrates,  that  he  was  now  a  servant  of 


78  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  4. 

God,  and  independent  of  their  jurisdiction.  Pietro  then 
carried  his  appeal  to  the  bishop.  "  I  will  go  readily  to  the 
bishop,"  said  Francis ;  and  accordingly,  in  the  episcopal 
palace  he  met,  probably  for  the  last  time,  his  unyielding 
father.  Public  opinion  had  now  begun  to  turn  against  the 
harsh  Pietro,  who  demanded  not  only  the  restoration  of  his 
money,  but  also  a  public  renunciation  of  all  claim  to  any 
share  of  the  family  property  from  his  once  favourite  boy. 
The  bishop  exhorted  Francis  to  restore  the  money.  "  Give 
it  back  to  him,"  said  he  ;  "  for  whatever  is  acquired  by  un- 
just means,  God  refuses  to  accept.  Therefore,  my  son,  have 
faith  in  God,  and  act  like  a  man." 

These  words  soothed  and  encouraged  the  young  penitent. 
His  father's  relentless  persecution  had  stirred  his  indignation 
and  contempt.  This  same  father,  who  pursued  him  so  piti- 
lessly about  a  miserable  sum,  the  result  of  one  day's  sale, 
had  formerly  grudged  him  no  extravagance.  "  Not  only  the 
money,"  said  Francis,  "  but  everything  that  can  be  called 
his,  even  the  clothes  he  gave  me,  I  will  restore."  And 
throwing  off  his  gay  garments,  he  piled  them  in  a  heap  in 
the  midst,  placing  the  money  on  the  top  of  all.  Then  he 
turned,  half  naked,  yet  delivered  by  his  passion  from  all 
sensitiveness  or  shame.  "  Bear  witness  all  present,"  he 
cried,  "  I  have  restored  to  Pietro  Bemadone  all  that  was 
his.  Up  to  this  time  I  have  called  him  my  father,  I  call 
him  so  no  more.     God  alone  is  now  my  father." 

The  bishop  threw  his  mantle  over  the  naked  shoulders  of 
the  youth,  and  tenderly  embraced  him.  And  a  scene  so 
strange  and  touching  moved  every  heart.  The  father,  still 
indignant  and  full  of  bitterness,  collected  the  money  and 
the  clothes,  and  went  forth  carrying  the  remains  of  the  son 
who  was  henceforth  dead  to  him. 

A  labourer's  rough  frock  was  obtained,  and  Francis,  clothed 
in  it,  departed.     It  was  winter,  and  the  snow  was  on  the 


^ — >J. 

Q^^  ^  ]  S.  Francis  of  Assisi.  79 

ground,  but  Francis  departed  to  the  woods,  and  wandered 
among  the  snow-laden  trees,  singing  in  French  the  praises 
of  God.  He  found  refuge  in  a  monastery,  where  for  some 
time  he  laboured  in  the  kitchen.  He  stayed  there  till  his 
one  garment  was  worn  out,  and  then  he  rambled  off  to 
Gubbio,  to  an  old  friend,  to  beg  another.  After  this  follows 
an  indefinite  period  of  wandering,  during  which  he  gave 
himself  up  to  the  nursing  of  lepers,  and  entire  subjection 
of  his  own  will  and  carnal  inclination. 

When  he  had  thoroughly  achieved  the  conquest  of  him- 
self, he  returned  to  San  Damiano,  to  commence  the  work 
which  lay  near  his  heart.  He  brought  stones  from  the 
quarries,  hewed  them,  shaped  them,  and  built  them  into  the 
walls  of  San  Damiano ;  he  was  indefatigable  over  his  task. 
He  dragged  heavy  stones  up  the  hill  on  his  shoulders, 
worked  the  mortar,  laid  the  courses,  and  plastered,  all  with 
his  own  hands.  The  townsfolk  looked  on  in  wonder.  By 
degrees  their  ridicule  died  away,  and  he  was  treated  with 
reverence  and  awe.  By  degrees  the  citizens  lent  assistance, 
and  so  he  succeeded  in  restoring  the  church. 

It  was  whilst  engaged  on  this  pious  task  that  the  kindly 
priest  of  San  Damiano  provided  certain  delicacies  for  the 
young  man,  knowing  how  daintily  he  had  been  brought  up. 
Francis  was  shocked  at  this  indulgence  of  his  palate.  In 
his  fervour  he  almost  rebuked  the  kindness  of  his  fatherly 
friend: — "You,  a  priest,"  he  said,  "and  thus  lend  yourself 
to  human  weakness  ! " 

And  in  his  excitement  he  seized  a  dish  and  ran  into  Assisi, 
begging  from  door  to  door  scraps  which  would  have  been 
bestowed  on  paupers.  The  Assisan  housewives  who,  with 
an  amazement  beyond  words,  gave  their  alms  to  that  strange 
petitioner,  knew  all  his  story ;  they  knew  his  daintiness  of 
old,  and  they  knew  also  the  reason  why  he  had  conquered 
it.    When  he  had  collected  scraps  enough  for  his  meal,  the 

* -^ 


So  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  4. 

once  fastidious  Francis  returned  to  the  presbytery  with  the 
broken  crusts  upon  his  plate,  to  eat  them  with  what  appetite 
he  could.  At  first,  disgust  took  possession  of  him,  and  he 
turned  from  the  unpalatable  meal,  but  afterwards,  going 
back  to  it  with  renewed  courage,  he  consumed  it  all,  and  rising 
with  joyful  heart,  told  the  priest  that  thenceforth  it  would 
be  unnecessary  to  make  provision  for  him ;  he  had  found 
out  the  means  of  supplying  his  own  bodily  wants,  without 
interfering  with  his  work  for  God. 

Thus,  as  it  were  by  accident,  the  first  principle  of  the 
Rule  of  S.  Francis  was  established.  But  no  idea  of  any 
Rule  was  then  in  his  mind.  When  the  church  of  S.  Damiano 
was  finished,  Francis  restored  two  others,  a  church  of  S.  Peter, 
and  that  of  S.  Maria  degU  AngeH,  at  the  Portiuncula,  which 
became  from  that  time  his  home. 

This  work  occupied  him  two  years.  Up  to  this  time  he 
had  lived  a  curious,  semi-ecclesiastical  life.  But  he  was  still 
untonsured ;  it  does  not  seem  to  have  occurred  to  him  to 
make  himself  a  monk  of  any  of  the  existing  rules.  He  lived 
alone,  free  to  follow  his  own  devices.  But  the  day  which 
was  to  fix  his  destiny  approached.  He  had  been  converted 
in  1206;  and  it  was  in  1208,  when  he  was  hearing  mass 
one  day  in  the  little  church  he  so  loved,  that  something 
in  the  Gospel  struck  him  as  it  had  never  done  before. 
When  the  mass  was  over  he  begged  the  priest  to  expound 
it  to  him.  The  words  which  suddenly  smote  on  his  con- 
science as  a  new  and  special  message  were  these :  "  Provide 
neither  gold,  nor  silver,  nor  brass  in  your  purses,  nor  scrip 
for  your  journey,  neither  two  coats,  neither  shoes,  nor  yet 
staves.  And  as  ye  go,  preach,  saying,  '  The  kingdom  of 
heaven  is  at  hand.'  " 

"  Here  is  what  I  have  wanted,"  said  Francis,  "here  is 
what  I  have  long  sought;"  and  leaving  the  church,  he 
divested  himself  of  his  shoes,  cast  away  his  staff,  loosed 



Oct.  4]  S.  Francis  of  A  ssisi.  8i 

the  leathern  girdle  from  his  waist,  and  supplied  its  place  by 
a  piece  of  cord,  the  first  thing  that  was  ready  at  hand.  Thus 
again,  half  by  accident,  another  distinction  of  the  unformed 
Order  came  into  existence.  But  what  was  more,  this  mes- 
sage to  his  soul  conveyed  to  it  an  object,  gave  it  a  purpose, 
for  which  it  had  groped  during  the  years  of  probation.  His 
mouth  was  opened  to  preach  the  Gospel  to  the  poor.  He 
went  forth  out  of  the  little  church  of  the  Portiuncula  on 
that  S.  Barnabas  Day,  1208,  as  a  preacher,  and  thus,  un- 
aware, began  a  mission  which  was  to  move  whole  kingdoms, 
and  dominate  the  lives  of  multitudes  of  men.  Nobody 
could  be  less  aware  of  this  than  the  humble  Francis.  He 
began  his  preaching  everywhere  with  the  salutation,  "  The 
peace  of  God  be  with  you,"  and  was  heard  by  all.  "  His 
words  were  like  fire,"  says  Celano,  "  piercing  the  heart." 
His  first  disciple,  according  to  Celano  and  the  Three  Com- 
panions, was  a  certain  nameless  boy  of  Assisi,  but  as  no 
further  mention  of  him  or  particulars  concerning  him  occui 
in  any  of  the  lives  of  S.  Francis,  it  is  probable  that  he  fell 
away  from  the  young  Order.  The  next  to  join  Francis  was 
a  citizen  named  Bernardo  di  Quintavalle,  a  man  of  wealth 
and  learning.  He  distributed  all  his  goods  among  the  poor, 
and  placed  himself  unreservedly  at  the  disposal  of  the  saint. 
The  next  to  offer  himself  as  a  disciple  was  Pietro  de  Catanio, 
a  canon  of  the  Cathedral  of  Assisi ;  both  these  men  of  posi- 
tion and  fortune  were  received  together,  and  eight  days  after, 
another  citizen  of  Assisi,  called  Egidio,  presented  himself  as 
a  candidate.  As  soon  as  Egidio  had  received  the  brown 
habit  of  the  new  Order,  Francis  took  him  as  his  companion 
on  an  apostolic  journey  into  the  Marches  of  Ancona.  They 
went  along  the  sunny  roads  together  singing  praise  to  God, 
and  "as  it  happened  that  S.  Francis  had  not  yet  begun 
publicly  to  preach  to  the  people,  he  went  along  admonishing 
and  reproving  men  and  women  by  the  way,  saying  simply, 

VOL.  XI.  6 

^ _ ^ 

with  tenderness,  '  Love  and  serve  God,  and  do  penance,  as 
is  meet,  for  your  sins;'  and  Brother  Egidio  said,  '  Do  what 
my  spiritual  father  says  to  you,  because  wliat  he  says  is  the 
best.'  ■' 

S.  Francis  seems  then  to  have  had  some  forecasting  ol 
what  his  society  would  become,  for  he  said  to  his  companion, 
"  Son,  our  Order  will  be  like  the  tisher,  who  puts  his  net 
into  the  waters  and  takes  a  great  multitude  of  fishes,  keeping 
the  larger  ones,  and  leaving  the  smaller."  At  this  Egidio 
marvelled,  for  the  whole  Order  then  consisted  of  himself, 
Bernardo,  Pietro,  and  their  friends. 

But  others  now  began  to  flow  into  the  community,  and  as 
soon  as  his  disciples  had  reached  the  number  of  seven,  S. 
Francis  sent  them  out  to  preach  by  twos,  as  our  Lord  had 
sent  His  disciples.  He  made  them  an  affectionate  address 
before  they  separated ;  "  Go,"  said  he,  according  to  Bona- 
ventura,  "  proclaim  peace  to  men ;  preach  repentance  for 
the  remission  of  sins.  Be  patient  in  tribulation,  watchful  in 
prayer,  strong  in  labour,  moderate  in  speech,  grave  in  con- 
versation, thankful  for  benefits."  And  to  each,  separately, 
as  he  took  leave  of  him,  he  said,  "  Cast  thy  care  upon  the 
Lord,  and  He  will  sustain  thee." 

The  preachers  met  with  all  the  ordinary  varieties  oi 
reception.  Some  hailed  them  as  messengers  from  heaven, 
others  mobbed  them  as  maniacs,  but  wherever  they  went 
they  roused  the  public  mind,  sometimes  to  interest,  some- 
times to  opposition,  always,  at  least  to  wonder.  And  already 
this  bold  pictorial  lesson  of  men  wedded  to  poverty,  pre- 
sented before  a  world  which  was  corrupted  by  the  greed  of 
gain,  had  begun  to  tell.  Up  to  this  time  the  little  company 
had  lived  together  by  the  simple  exercise  of  their  own  will, 
without  any  rule  or  formal  bond  uniting  them.  Francis  was 
their  natural  leader,  it  was  he  who  had  drawn  them  by  his 
example  out  of  the  world,  and  to  whom  they  looked  as  their 


* ^ 

Oct.  4.]  S.  Frmicis  of  Assisi.  8, 


guide ;  but  they  were,  as  yet,  under  no  legitimate  subjection 
to  him,  nor  were  they  bound  to  the  Hfe  of  hardship  which 
they  had  vokintarily  adopted. 

When  the  httle  house  which  they  inhabited  at  the  Porti- 
uncula  was  so  full  that  there  was  scarcely  room  for  them  all 
to  lie  doAvn  in  it,  it  became  necessary  to  give  to  the  family  a 
constitution.  Francis  felt  this,  and  was  troubled.  He  went 
forth  at  night  to  pray  and  meditate  over  the  matter.  On 
one  such  occasion,  Celano  informs  us,  he  had  retired  to 
his  accustomed  devotion,  his  heart  heavy  with  thought  and 
anxiety,  and  in  his  depression,  able  to  say  nothing  but 
"  God  be  merciful  to  me  a  sinner,"  when  a  certain  prevision 
of  what  his  order  would  become  came  on  him  and  filled  his 
soul  Avith  unspeakable  ecstasy.  When  he  returned  to  his 
brethren,  he  bade  them  rejoice  with  him.  "Be  comforted, 
my  dearest  ones,"  he  cried  ;  "  rejoice  in  the  Lord,  and  be 
not  doAvncast  because  we  are  few,  for  it  has  been  shown  to 
me  by  God  that  you  shall  increase  to  become  a  great 
multitude,  and  shall  go  on  increasing  to  the  end  of  the 
world.  I  see  a  multitude  of  men  coming  towards  me  from 
every  quarter,  French,  Spaniards,  Germans,  and  English, 
each  in  his  different  tongue  encouraging  the  others." 

So  the  rule  was  drawn  up,  consisting,  like  the  other 
monastic  rules,  of  the  three  great  vows  of  poverty,  chastity, 
and  obedience,  differing  only  in  so  far  that  the  poverty 
ordained  by  Francis  was  absolute.  In  other  rules,  though 
the  individual  was  allowed  to  possess  nothing,  the  com- 
munity had  often  rich  possessions,  but  among  the  Fratres 
Minores  there  was  not  to  be  so  much  as  a  provision  secured 
for  the  merest  daily  necessities.  Day  by  day  they  were  to 
live  by  God's  providence,  eating  what  they  were  given  in 
charity,  taking  no  thought  how  they  were  to  be  fed  or 
wherewithal  clothed. 

Another  grand  distinction  of  the  rule  drawn  up  by   S. 


84  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oa.  4. 

Francis  was  the  occupation  it  prescribed  to  its  members. 
They  were  not  to  shut  themselves  up  or  to  care  first  for 
their  own  salvation.  They  were  to  preach — this  was  their 
special  work ;  they  were  to  be  the  heralds  of  God  to  the 
world,  to  proclaim  the  coming  of  His  kingdom.  Cloistered 
seclusion  was  not  to  the  taste  of  S.  Francis.  So  far  as  we 
can  make  out,  he  had  thought  little  of  himself — even  of  his 
own  soul  to  be  saved — all  his  Hfe.  The  trouble  on  his  mind 
had  been  what  to  do,  how  sufficiently  to  work  for  God,  and 
to  help  men.  His  fellow-creatures  were  dear  to  him  :  he 
gave  them  his  cloak  from  his  shoulders  many  a  day,  and 
the  morsel  from  his  own  lips;  and  would  have  given  them  the 
heart  from  his  bosom  had  that  been  possible.  He  was 
not  of  the  world,  but  yet  he  would  not  be  taken  out  of  the 

As  soon  as  the  rule  was  completed,  Francis  presented  it 
to  the  Bishop  of  Assisi,  who  stumbled  at  the  prohibition  of 
all  possessions.  "  Your  life,"  said  the  bishop,  "  without  any 
goods  in  the  world  seems  to  me  most  hard  and  terrible." 
"  My  lord,"  answered  Francis,  "  if  we  had  possessions  we 
should  need  arms  to  protect  them."  There  was  force  in  this 
response.  The  bishop  knew  the  violence  and  rapacity  of 
the  Umbrian  lords,  and  he  withdrew  his  objections. 

Francis,  with  his  companions,  now  went  to  Rome  to 
obtain  the  confirmation  of  the  rule  from  the  Pope.  Ac- 
cording to  the  account  of  Bonaventura,  Francis  approached 
Innocent  HI.  whilst  walking  on  the  terrace  of  the  Lateran, 
lost  in  thought.  The  Pope,  annoyed  at  the  invasion  of  his 
privacy,  waved  the  poor  stranger  away  impatiently.  But 
that  night  he  saw  in  a  dream  the  great  church  of  S.  John 
Lateran  tottering  to  its  fall,  when  two  men  hasted  to  set 
their  shoulders  to  support  it.  In  one  of  these  Innocent 
recognized  the  brown-dressed  stranger  of  the  day  before, 
the  other  he  afterwards  saw  in  S.  Dominic. 


Qct.^.]  S.  Fi^ancis  of  Assisi.  85 

Next  day  he  sent  for  S.  Francis  and  had  his  rule  ex- 
amined; objections  were  again  raised  against  the  prohibition 
of  all  property,  but  Francis  overruled  them.  Innocent 
approved  the  rule,  and  gave  to  the  members  of  the  new 
order  the  tonsure,  so  that,  though  not  priests,  they  might  be 
considered  clerks. 

The  joy  of  the  little  band  was  extreme.  When  they  had 
received  the  Pope's  blessing,  and  that  sign  of  consecration, 
they  set  out,  shoeless,  staffless,  without  a  penny,  or  a  purse 
to  put  one  into,  without  a  crust  of  bread  for  their  journey, 
upon  their  way  home.  But  though  they  were  on  their  way 
back  to  Assisi,  they  were  not  about  to  resume  their  lodging 
in  the  shed  at  the  Portiuncula;  for  what  reason  we  are  not 
told  ;  perhaps  the  permission  to  do  so  had  been  temporarily 
withdrawn  from  them.  They  went  slowly  upon  their  way, 
and  lingered,  Celano  tells  us,  for  a  fortnight  near  the  town 
of  Orta,  preaching  daily  in  the  city,  and  begging  their 
food.  They  then  proceeded  "  by  cities  and  castles  ;  "  now 
entering  a  walled  and  guarded  mediaeval  town,  where,  in  the 
piazza,  where  the  markets  are  held,  the  brethren  in  their 
brown  habits  stood  round  their  leader  as  he  poured  forth 
addresses,  burning  from  his  heart,  upon  the  astonished 
crowd ;  now  toiling  up  the  steep  paths  to  some  great  feudal 
castle  where  the  men-at-arms  would  wonder  and  gibe  at 
them  as  they  preached  of  righteousness,  temperance,  and 
judgment  to  come.  The  words  of  Francis  found  a  ready 
response,  however,  in  these  untamed  hearts,  and  we  hear  of 
one  whole  castle  full,  lord  and  lady,  ofificers  and  retainers, 
casting  themselves  at  the  feet  of  Francis,  and  begging  to  be 
allowed  to  follow  him  in  the  path  of  perfect  renunciation. 
It  was  this  which  startled  Francis  into  the  foundation  of  his 
Third  Order,  an  order  intended  for  laymen  and  laywomen, 
living  in  the  world,  and  requiring  no  sacrifice  beyond  that 
of  the  heart.     S.  Francis  was  too  wise  in  his  perfect  natural- 


86  Lives  of  the  Saints.  \q>ch. 

ness  and  sincerity,  to  believe  it  possible  that  the  common 
uses  of  the  world  could  be  abandoned,  and  the  ordinary 
duties  thrown  away,  by  a  sudden  impulse  such  as  this 
affecting  a  crowd.  He  calmed  down  his  excited  audience 
by  the  promise  of  a  rule  to  be  established  for  them,  and  an 
order  into  which  they  could  enter  without  shaking  off  the 
responsibilities  and  ties  of  their  position  in  the  world. 

When  S.  Francis  and  his  companions  reached  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Assisi,  they  stopped  at  a  deserted  hut  on  the 
wayside,  at  a  place  called  Rivo-Torto,  and  there  they  re- 
mained for  some  time.  Here  their  food  seems  to  have 
consisted  for  the  most  part  of  biscuits  only,  bread  having 
failed  in  their  daily  quests.  It  was  apparently  while  living 
in  this  place  that  the  brethren  asked  from  their  leader  a 
form  of  prayer.  They  had  no  ecclesiastical  books  out  of 
which  to  say  the  canonical  hours  ;  and  they  were,  moreover, 
untrained  laymen,  not  accustomed  to  the  elaborate  offices  of 
the  clergy.  The  prayers  S.  Francis  prescribed  to  them 
were  the  "  Our  Father,"  and  the  prayer,  "  \Ve  adore  Thee,  O 
Christ,  in  all  Thy  churches  which  are  in  all  the  world,  and 
we  bless  Thee,  because  Thou  hast  by  Thy  Holy  Cross 
redeemed  the  world."  When  they  saw  cross  or  church, 
however  far  off,  they  knelt  down  and  humbly  repeated  these 
two  prayers — their  entire  vocabulary  of  worship. 

After  a  stay  of  some  time  at  Rivo-Torto,  the  little  church 
and  plot  of  ground  surrounding  it  at  the  Portiuncula  was 
given  to  S.  Francis  by  the  Benedictines  of  Subiaco,  to  whom 
it  belonged,  and  the  little  confraternity  moved  to  it,  as  their 
place  of  permanent  rest.  The  Portiuncula  thus  became  the 
cradle  and  home  of  the  Franciscan  Order,  henceforth  as 
famous  as  Monte  Subiaco  itself. 

In  this  house  the  brethren  do  not  seem  to  have  had  any 
formal  division  of  their  time — so  many  hours  for  study, 
so   many  for   work,    so  many   for  manual  labour — as   was 


the  case  in  the  older  Orders.  They  were  to  hear  mass  once 
a  day  if  possible ;  they  went  and  came  freely,  begging  yet 
bestowing ;  giving  to  any  whom  they  might  encounter,  who 
were  as  poor  as  themselves,  of  that  bread  of  charity,  which, 
to  Francis,  was  as  the  bread  of  angels.  Money  they  were 
bound  not  to  touch  under  any  conditions,  not  even  for  the 
relief  of  the  poor. 

By  this  time,  not  much  more  than  three  years  from  the 
moment  when  the  pale  penitent  was  hooted  through  Assisi 
amid  the  derisive  shouts  of  the  people,  and  driven  with 
blows  and  curses  into  confinement  in  his  own  father's  house, 
we  find  that  it  had  already  become  his  custom  on  Sunday  to 
preach  in  the  Cathedral,  and  that,  from  his  little  convent  at 
the  Portiuncula,  Francis  had  risen  into  influence  in  the 
whole  country.  Already  the  mind  of  the  people,  so  slow  to 
admit,  but  so  ready  to  accommodate  itself  to  anything 
novel,  had  used  itself  to  the  sight  of  the  brethren  in  their 
snuff-coloured  habits,  and,  leaping  from  one  extreme  to  the 
other,  instead  of  madmen,  began  to  consider  them  saints. 
"  Because  they  possessed  nothing  earthly,"  says  Bonaven- 
tura,  "  loved  nothing  earthly,  and  feared  to  lose  nothing 
earthly,  they  were  secure  in  all  places ;  troubled  by  no  fears, 
distracted  by  no  cares,  they  lived  without  trouble  of  mind, 
waiting  without  solicitude  for  the  coming  day,  or  the  night's 

We  find  many  little  anecdotes  of  the  life  of  S.  Francis  at 
this  period  in  the  "  Fioretti."  In  every  sketch  the  popular 
chronicler  gives  of  the  interior  of  the  convent,  there  is  some 
glimpse  of  S.  Francis  stealing  out  into  the  wood  to  pray. 
This  wood,  in  the  narrative,  occupies  the  position  which  a 
secluded  convent  garden  holds  in  monastic  stories.  Pro- 
bably the  Portiuncula  had  not  even  such  a  refuge.  There 
is  a  little  door  which  leads  to  the  wood  in  the  convent  wall, 
and  through    it   we   see   constantly   the  figure   of  Francis 

88  Lives  of  the  Saints.  locx.t,. 

pass,  to  disappear  within  the  sacred,  mysterious  woodland 

In  the  community  at  this  time  there  was  a  certain 
Brother  Richerio,  one  of  the  humbler  members  of  the  com- 
munity, who  had  a  great  longing  for  the  affection  of  Francis, 
and  at  the  same  time  entertained  one  of  those  timid  fancies 
which  so  often  accompany  love,  that  for  some  secret  reason 
Francis  thought  badly  of  him  and  did  not  return  his  regard. 
The  poor  brother  went  sadly  about  his  usual  occupations, 
turning  over  and  over,  in  troubled  musings,  the  doubt  which 
embittered  his  life.  One  day,  as  he  passed  the  cell  where 
his  leader  was  praying,  Francis  suddenly  called  him.  "  Let 
not  this  temptation  disturb  you,  my  son,"  he  said,  with  his 
natural  cordial  tenderness;  "for  you  are  dear  to  me,  and 
even  amongst  those  whom  I  hold  most  dear.  You  know 
that  you  are  worthy  of  my  friendship,  therefore  come  to  me 
in  confidence  whensoever  you  will,  and  from  friendship 
learn  faith."' 

On  another  occasion  the  same  insight  into  the  feelings  of 
others,  occasioned  by  his  warm  sympathy,  made  S.  Francis 
aware  that  one  of  the  brethren,  who  had  injured  his  health 
by  excessive  fasting,  was  "  so  pinched  with  hunger,  that  on 
a  certain  night  he  was  unable  to  sleep.  He  got  up  imme- 
diately, took  some  bread,  and,  going  to  the  cell  of  the 
starving  brother,  began  to  eat,  inviting  him  to  share  his 
frugal  supper.  The  sufferer,  thus  delivered  from  the  shame 
of  yielding  to  his  own  innocent  and  natural  craving,  ate, 
and  was  rescued  from  that  supremacy  of  bodily  sensations 
which,  though  few  ascetics  have  confessed  it,  as  often  ac- 
companies extreme  abstinence  as  indulgence.  This  truth 
S.  Francis  seems  to  have  perceived  for  others,  if  not  for 
himself.  He  called  the  brethren  together  in  the  morning, 
and  told  them  what  had  passed,  recommending,  it  would 
seem,  his  own  example  to  their  imitation,  that  they  might 

^ . ■ ^ 

* ^ 

Oct.  4.]  S.  Francis  of  Assist.  89 

succour  each  other  when  austerity  went  beyond  due  Umits  ; 
but  also  exhorting  them  to  "  follow  discretion,  which  is  the 
charioteer  of  all  virtues." 

We  may  add  one  more  incident,  and  that  of  a  different 
kind,  to  the  particulars  of  the  hfe  of  our  saint  in  this  its 
second  phase.  He  had  renounced  all  things,  not  only  the 
lusts  of  the  flesh,  if  they  had  ever  existed  in  him,  but  also 
the  tenderer  charm  of  the  affections,  which  were  so  much 
more  likely  to  hold  fast  such  a  spirit.  He  had  given  up 
without  hesitation,  as  would  appear,  all  the  indefinite  sweet- 
ness of  youthful  hopes.  But,  nevertheless,  he  was  still 
young,  still  a  man,  with  human  instincts  and  wishes,  the 
tenderest  nature,  and  an  imagination  full  of  all  the  warmth 
and  grace  of  his  age  and  his  country.  It  does  not  appear 
that  he  ever  put  into  words  the  musings  which  caught  him 
unawares.  But  one  night  he  rose  suddenly  from  the 
earthen  floor,  which  was  his  bed,  and  rushed  out  into  the 
night  in  an  access  of  passion  and  despair.  A  certain  bro- 
ther who  was  praying  in  his  cell,  peering,  wondering,  through 
his  little  window,  saw  him  heap  up  seven  little  figures  of 
snow  in  the  clear  moonhght.  "  Here  is  thy  wife,"  he  said 
to  himself;  "these  four  are  thy  sons  and  daughters,  the 
other  two  are  thy  servant  and  handmaid  ;  and  for  all  these 
thou  art  bound  to  provide.  Make  haste,  then,  and  provide 
clothing  for  them,  lest  they  perish  with  cold.  But  if  the 
care  of  so  many  trouble  thee,  be  thou  careful  to  serve  the 
Lord  alone."  What  piteous  human  yearning  is  manifested 
in  this  little  scene  !  The  gentle  heart,  all  sympathy  and 
love,  for  one  moment  had  gone  forth  in  imagination  to  see 
himself  by  the  fireside  with  a  loving  wife  and  little  ones 
about  his  knee;  for  one  moment  the  agony  of  seeing  the  ten- 
derest, hohest  love  that  God  has  planted  on  earth,  cast 
aside  by  him  for  the  greater  love  of  God,  made  itself  felt. 
Was  there  some  face  of  an  Assisian  maiden  loved  of  old  that 

* ^ 


90  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  4. 

rose  then  to  haunt  him  ?  Or  was  it  but  an  ideal  vision,  like 
those  of  the  unborn  faces  of  children,  that  thus  presented 
itself  before  him  ?  We  cannot  tell.  Francis  says  no  word 
of  the  trial  that  goes  on  in  his  heart.  He  dissipates  the 
dream  by  the  chill  touch  of  the  snow,  and  then  the  curtain 
of  prayer  and  silence  falls  over  him,  and  the  convent  walls 
close  black  around. 

It  is  a  remarkable  peculiarity  of  the  history  of  S.  Francis, 
that  whereas  every  Saint  in  the  calendar,  from  S.  Antony 
downwards,  is  sometimes  troubled  with  visions  of  voluptuous 
delight,  only  Francis,  in  his  pure  dreams,  is  tempted  by  the 
modest  joys  of  wife  and  children,  the  most  legitimate  and 
tenderest  love. 

In  the  meantime  the  first  twelve  had  begun  to  grow  into 
a  great  army ;  and  as  soon  as  the  new  members  were  suffi- 
ciently well  known  to  make  apparent  any  special  talents  there 
might  be  in  them,  they  were  sent  forth,  two  and  two,  into  new 
places,  those  Avho  could  preach  being  licensed  by  S.  Francis, 
according  to  the  power  given  him  by  Pope  Innocent.  They 
followed  the  evangelical  precept  with  strict  literalness.  If 
there  was  a  priest  who  would  receive  them,  they  went  to 
that  priest  \  if  not,  they  asked  for  the  most  worthy  in  the 
place,  and  dwelt  with  him  till  they  had  drawn  a  little  band  of 
new  brethren  round  them,  and  a  habitation  had  to  be  found 
for  yet  another  community. 

The  first  Chapter  of  the  Order  took  place,  apparently,  in 
1 2 12,  only  six  years  from  the  conversion  of  S.  Francis.  This 
general  assembly  was  a  most  necessary  refreshment  to  the 
brethren,  who  had  wandered  over  the  face  of  the  country, 
from  shore  to  shore,  during  all  winter  and  spring.  And 
henceforth,  every  Pentecost  saw  the  Order  reassemble,  at 
first  in  little  groups,  Assisians,  Perugians,  neighbours  from 
all  the  towns  of  Umbria,  but  growing  daily,  till  thousands 
came  to  camp  around  the  Portiuncula. 


The  year  1212  saw  a  new  development  of  the  Order,  in 
the  estabhshment  of  a  sisterhood  in  connection  with  the 
Society.  The  story  of  S.  Clara  has  been  already  given 
(Aug.  12),  and  need  not  be  repeated  here.  Clara  was  the 
first  fruits  of  the  Mendicant  Order  amongst  women,  the 
founder  of  the  Poor  Clares,  the  second  Order  of  S.  Francis. 
The  application  of  the  new  Rule,  which  was  based  not  only 
upon  individual  but  corporate  poverty,  was  harder  as  applied 
to  women  than  it  was  to  men.  The  brides  of  Christ  were 
cloistered,  and  unable  to  go  out  and  beg  their  daily  bread, 
as  were  their  brethren ;  for  religious  fervour,  even  at  its 
highest  pitch,  had  not  yet  conceived  the  possibility  of  a  young 
and  beautiful  girl  like  Clara  going  forth  publicly  to  serve  the 
world,  and  receive  from  it  her  humble  subsistence.  To 
Clara  and  her  sisters  was  given  the  passive  part ;  theirs  it 
was  to  support  the  brethren  by  their  prayers,  to  stand  by  and 
watch  and  offer  the  sacrifice  of  all  things,  spending  their  time 
in  supplications  for  a  world  which  did  not  pray  for  itself,  as 
the  brethren  spent  their  lives  and  strength  in  preaching  and 
active  succour. 

This  was  the  beginning  of  one  of  thode  tender  and  touching 
friendships  which  are  to  the  student  of  history  like  green 
spots  in  the  desert ;  and  which  give  to  the  man  and  the 
woman  thus  voluntarily  separated  from  all  the  joys  of  life  a 
certain  human  consolation  in  the  midst  of  their  hardships. 
The  two  saints  can  have  seen  each  other  but  seldom,  for  it  was 
one  of  the  express  stipulations  of  the  Franciscan  Rule  that  the 
friars  should  refrain  from  all  society  with  women,  and  have  only 
the  most  sparing  and  reserved  intercourse  even  with  their 
sisters  in  religion.  And  Francis  was  no  priest,  directing  the 
spiritual  life  of  his  daughter  in  the  faith.  But  he  sent  to  her 
to  ask  enlightenment  from  her  prayers,  when  any  difl!iculty 
was  in  his  way.  He  went  to  see  her  when  he  was  in  trouble. 
That  he  was  sure  of  her  sympathy  in  all  things,  of  her  prayers 

(j« — ■ _ ^ 


92  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [o^.^. 

and  spiritual  aid,  whatsoever  he  might  be  doing,  wheresoever 
he  might  be,  no  doubt  was  sweet  to  Francis  in  all  his  labours 
and  trials.  As  he  walked  many  a  weary  day  past  the  church 
of  S.  Damian,  every  stone  of  which  was  familiar  to  him, 
and  many  laid  with  his  own  hands,  must  not  his  heart  have 
warmed  at  the  thought  of  the  sister  within,  safe  from  all  con- 
flict with  the  world,  upon  whose  fellow-feeling  he  could  rely 
as  absolutely  as  man  can  rely  only  on  woman  ?  The  world 
has  jeered  from  its  earliest  age  at  the  possibility  of  such 
friendships,  and  yet  they  have  always  existed — one  of  the 
most  exquisite  and  delicate  of  earthly  ties.  Gazing  back  into 
that  far  distance  over  the  graves,  not  only  of  those  two 
friends,  but  of  a  hundred  succeeding  generations,  a  tear  of 
sympathy  comes  into  the  student's  eye.  He  is  glad  to  be- 
lieve that,  all  those  years,  Francis  could  see  in  his  comings 
and  goings  the  cloister  of  S.  Clara ;  and  that  this  sacred  gleam 
of  human  fellowship — love  purified  of  all  self-seeking,  tender, 
visionary,  celestial  affection — sweetened  their  solitary  lives. 

The  year  1212  had  been  a  most  eventful  one  in  his  life. 
He  had  been  able  to  recognize  and  identify  his  Order  as 
rapidly  rising  in  importance,  sanctioned  by  the  Pope,  though 
as  yet  only  verbally,  and  attracting  the  sympathy  and  atten- 
tion of  the  Church.  His  bishop,  the  Cardinal  of  San  Paolo, 
and  other  great  ecclesiastics,  had  been  moved  by  the  truth 
and  fervour  of  the  man  to  recognize  in  him  one  of  those  born 
reformers  who  arise  now  and  then  in  the  world.  His  tirst 
great  difficulties  were  over ;  and  the  community,  even  were 
he  taken  away  from  it,  was  strong  enough  and  sufficiently 
well  organized  to  stand  by  itself.  In  these  circumstances  it 
was  not  of  rest  that  he  thought.  He  resolved  on  undertaking 
a  mission  in  the  East,  in  the  track  of  the  Crusaders.  He  set 
out,  but  the  attempt  failed,  and  he  returned  for  the  Pente- 
costal Chapter  without  having  accomplished  anything.  Next 
year  he  set  out  for  Spain,  to  preach  to,  and,  as  he  hoped. 


* »i( 

Oct.  4.]  S.  Francis  of  A  ssisi.  93 

convert,  the  Moors.  But  this  expedition  was  likewise  without 
result.  About  the  time  of  his  return  from  Spain,  Francis 
met  and  made  the  acquaintance  of  Cardinal  Ugolino,  Bishop 
of  Ostia,  who  afterwards  became  the  first  protector  of  the 
Order.  He  was  the  Pope's  legate  in  Florence.  Ugolino 
seems  to  have  persuaded  S.  Francis  to  abandon,  at  least  for 
the  present,  his  fmitless  expedition,  and  to  confine  his  atten- 
tion to  the  consolidation  of  the  Order  at  home.  A  Council 
was  to  be  held  in  Rome  in  the  folloAving  year,  and  no  better 
opportunity  could  be  found  for  the  final  settlement  of  the 
important  business  of  obtaining  a  written  confirmation  of  the 

In  1 2 15  the  fourth  great  Lateran  Council  assembled,  and 
in  it  the  rule  of  the  Franciscans  was  publicly  sanctioned  by 
Innocent  III.  and  the  assembled  bishops.  It  was  not  even 
now  confirmed  by  a  bull,  as  was  afterwards  done  by  Inno- 
cent's successor,  but  a  public  recognition  was  accorded  it, 
which  sufiiced  for  the  complete  estabHshment  of  the  Order  in 

It  is  supposed  to  be  there  that  S.  Dominic  and  S.  Francis 
met.  Dominic,  whilst  praying  in  a  church  in  Rome,  saw,  in 
vision,  our  Lord  rise  from  the  right  hand  of  the  Father  in 
wrath,  wearied  at  last  with  the  contradiction  of  sinners,  with 
a  terrible  aspect,  and  three  lances  in  his  hand,  each  one  of 
which  was  destined  for  the  extermination  of  a  special 
class  of  offenders.  But  while  the  dreamer  gazed  at  this 
awful  spectacle,  the  Virgin  Mother  arose  and  pleaded 
for  the  world,  declaring  that  she  had  two  faitliful  servants 
whom  she  would  send  forth  into  the  world  to  bring  sinners 
to  the  feet  of  the  Saviour.  One  of  these  was  Dominic  him- 
self ;  the  other  was  a  poor  man,  meanly  clad,  whom  he  had 
never  seen  before.  This  vision  deeply  impressed  the  devout 
Spaniard.  Next  morning,  while  he  mused  on  the  dream 
which  had  been  sent  to  him,  his  eye  fell  all  at  once  upon  a 

4, -^ 


94  Lives  of  the  Saints.  \_oo..i,. 

stranger  in  a  brown  tunic,  of  aspect  humble  and  modest, 
coming  to  the  same  church  to  pray.  Dominic  at  once  ran 
to  him,  fell  on  his  neck, and  kissed  him,  saying  :  "Thou  art 
my  companion  ;  thy  work  and  mine  is  the  same.  If  we  stand 
by  each  other,  nothing  can  prevail  against  us." 

The  silent  years  between  12 14  and  1219  contain  no  public 
incidents  in  the  life  of  S.  Francis,  but  the  narrative  abounds 
in  beautiful  stories  of  his  private  life,  of  his  tenderness, 
kindness,  humanity,  and  of  the  beautiful  courtesy  of  his 
character.  He  Avas  a  man  overflowing  with  sympathy  for 
man  and  beast,  for  all  God's  creatures,  wherever  and  howso- 
ever he  encountered  them.  Not  only  was  every  man  his 
brother,  but  every  animal,  the  sheep  in  the  fields,  the  birds 
in  the  branches,  the  brother-ass  on  which  he  rode,  the  sister- 
bees  which  took  refuge  in  his  kind  protection.  He  was  the 
friend  of  everything  that  suffered  or  rejoiced ;  no  emotion 
went  beyond  his  sympathy ;  his  heart  rose  to  see  the  glad- 
ness of  nature,  and  melted  over  the  distresses  of  the  smallest 
and  meanest  creature  on  the  face  of  the  earth.  Some  of  the 
anecdotes  related  of  him  in  his  relation  to  the  dumb  animals 
are  as  follows. 

"  The  blessed  Francis,  returning  from  beyond  the  sea,  was 
travelling  through  the  Marches  of  Venice,  and  heard  a  vast 
multitude  of  birds  singing  among  the  bushes.  And  when  he 
saw  them  he  said  to  his  companions,  '  Our  sisters,  the  birds, 
are  praising  their  Maker.  Let  us  then  go  into  their  midst 
and  sing  to  the  Lord  the  Canonical  Hours.'  And  when 
they  had  gone  into  their  midst,  the  birds  moved  not  from 
the  place ;  but  as,  on  account  of  their  chirping  and  twit- 
tering, the  brethren  were  not  able  to  hear  each  other,  the 
holy  man  turned  to  the  birds  and  said,  '  Sisters,  cease  your 
song  until  we  have  rendered  our  bounden  praise  to  God.' 
And  they  at  once  were  silent,  and  when  the  praises  were 
finished  resumed  their  song." 







From  a  Painting  by  Giotto. 

Oct.  4. 

On  another  occasion,  when  he  was  preaching  in  the  town 
of  Alvia,  the  swallows,  with  their  perpetual  screaming,  in- 
commoded the  audience.  Francis  had  gone  up  to  a  piece 
of  high  ground,  that  he  might  be  seen  of  all,  and  had  asked 
for  silence  from  the  assembled  people.  But  the  birds  were 
flitting  all  about  in  aiiy  circles,  making  their  nests,  chirping, 
and  calling  to  each  other  overhead  in  the  blue  heaven  of 
the  Italian  sky.  When  it  became  apparent  that  these  sweet 
disturbers  of  the  peace  prevented  their  human  companions 
from  hearing  the  word  of  God,  the  preacher  turned  and 
courteously  saluted  the  little  nest-builders.  "  My  sisters," 
he  said,  "  it  is  now  time  that  I  should  speak.  Since  you 
have  had  your  say,  listen  now  in  your  turn  to  the  word  of 
God,  and  be  silent  till  the  sermon  is  finished."  It  is  need- 
less to  say  that  he  was  perfectly  obeyed. 

Other  instances  of  the  sense  of  safety  which  the  very 
presence  of  so  holy  and  kind  a  soul  diffused  around  him 
abound  in  the  early  biographies.  One  day,  at  the  village 
of  Gubbio,  a  live  leveret  was  brought  to  him,  probably  as 
part  of  his  day's  provision.  When  he  saw  the  little  crea- 
ture, his  gentle  heart  was  moved  to  pity.  "  Little  brother 
leveret,  come  to  me,"  he  said  ;  "  why  didst  thou  suffer  thy- 
self to  be  taken?"  The  trembling  animal  immediately 
escaped  out  of  the  hands  of  the  brother  who  held  it,  and 
fled  to  Francis,  taking  refuge  in  the  folds  of  his  gown.  From 
this  shelter  he  disentangled  it,  set  it  free  on  the  ground,  and 
gave  it  leave  to  depart.  The  same  story  is  told  of  a  wild 
rabbit,  which  took  refuge  with  him  in  an  island  on  the  lake 
of  Perugia.  "  It  still  returned  into  the  father's  bosom,  as  it 
it  had  some  hidden  sense  of  the  pitifulness  of  his  heart," 
says  Bonaventura. 

"Once  he  was  seated  in  a  little  boat  on  the  Lake  of  Rieti, 
near  a  certain  part,  when  a  fisherman,  catching  a  large  tench, 
brought  it  to  Francis.     And  he,  taking  it  kindly  and  cheer- 



96  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  4. 

fully,  began  to  call  it  brother,  and  putting  it  into  the  water 
again,  he  began  devoutly  to  bless  the  name  of  God ;  and  all 
the  while  that  he  continued  in  prayer  the  fish  played  about 
in  the  water  round  the  boat,  and  departed  not  from  the  spot 
till  the  saint  of  God  gave  him  leave." 

Lambs  were  the  special  objects  of  his  regard.  On  one 
occasion,  while  walking  silently  along  the  road  in  one  of  his 
many  journeys,  he  noticed  a  single  lamb  feeding  amidst  a 
herd  of  goats.  It  was  like  our  Lord  amidst  the  Pharisees, 
he  thought ;  and  he  could  not  bear  to  leave  the  emblem  of 
his  Master  in  the  midst  of  the  rude  bearded  flock.  But 
Francis  had  nothing  to  offer  as  the  price  of  it,  except  his 
brown  habit.  A  merchant  coming  up,  and  hearing  his  diffi- 
culty, bought  the  lamb  and  presented  it  to  Francis.  It  was 
near  the  city  of  Osimo,  where  he  was  going  to  preach,  and 
he  resumed  his  journey  with  joy  and  thanks,  leading  with 
him  the  white  lamb  that  was  like  his  Lord.  The  bishop 
wondered  at  this  unusual  addition  to  the  party ;  but  Francis 
made  his  little  companion  the  subject  of  his  discourse,  and 
so  set  forth  the  divine  story  as  to  move  all  hearts.  When, 
however,  Francis  and  his  brethren  had  got  as  far  as  San  Seve- 
rino  on  their  further  way,  the  lamb  became  something  of  a 
burthen  to  the  travellers,  and  was  finally  left  at  a  convent 
with  a  community  of  sisters,  who  received  the  charge  of  it 
with  joy.  Some  time  after,  the  sisters  sent  to  the  saint  a 
gown  made  of  its  wool,  which  he  received  with  unfeigned 
delight.  At  home,  at  the  Portiuncula,  a  lamb  was  one  of 
his  daily  companions.  "  The  holy  man  taught  it  that  it 
should  always  praise  God,  and  give  no  offence  to  the 
brethren,"  says  the  simple  narrative. 

He  was  overtaken  by  darkness  one  night  with  a  com 
panion  on  the  borders  of  the  Po.  The  road  was  dangerous, 
and  the  river  swollen.  The  brother  who  accompanied 
Francis  was  seized  with  alarm  as  the  darkness  closed  around 


^ . _ ^ 

Oct.  4.]  S.  Francis  of  A  ssisi.  97 

them.  "  Father,  pray  that  we  may  be  delivered  from  this 
peril,"  he  cried.  "  God  is  powerful,"  answered  Francis  ;  "  if 
it  please  Him  to  dispel  the  darkness  and  bestow  on  us  the 
blessing  of  light,  He  will  do  so."  He  had  scarcely  spoken 
the  words  when  a  flash  of  summer  lightning  kindled  the  skies, 
exhibited  to  them  the  rolHng  stream,  the  road,  and  the  dis- 
tant hostel  to  which  they  were  bound.  Then  the  wayfarers 
lifted  up  their  voices  and  sang  the  praises  of  God, 

One  night  Francis  lay  in  his  cell,  weak  and  worn  with 
fever,  when  there  came  upon  him  a  longing  to  hear  some 
music.  Fie  had  loved  it  from  his  earliest  days,  and  it  was  a 
necessity  to  his  poetic  nature.  He  said  nothing,  however, 
of  the  longing  in  his  breast.  "  The  decorum  of  religion," 
says  Bonaventura,  *'  forbade  his  asking  for  it  at  the  hand  of 
man;"  and  it  is  difficult  to  imagine  that  Brothers  Bernard 
or  Elias,  even  had  he  asked  it  of  them,  could  have  charmed 
his  ear  with  harp  or  lute.  But  as  he  lay  awake  one  night  in 
his  weakness,  suddenly  his  desire  was  granted  to  him.  "  He 
heard  the  sound  of  a  harp,  of  wonderful  harmony,  and 
most  sweet  melody."  The  sound  went  and  came,  as  if 
the  player  were  moving  to  and  fro  under  the  convent 

In  the  year  12 19  took  place  a  famous  Chapter  of  the 
whole  Order,  when  probably  every  member  of  the  society 
was  present  at  Assisi.  It  was  the  first  time  that  an  actual 
numerical  estimate  of  the  strength  of  the  Order  was  made, 
and  then,  according  to  numerous  testimonies,  it  amounted 
to  five  thousand.  A  certain  need  of  general  legislation  seems 
to  have  shown  itself,  and  necessitated  such  a  great  assembly. 
The  brethren  came  pouring  in  at  Pentecost  from  all  sides, 
without  purse  or  penny  to  put  therein  among  the  entire 
crowd,  the  end  of  their  journey  being  a  little  church  and 
convent,  poor  as  themselves,  where,  instead  of  a  supply  of 
provisions  enough  for  so  great  a  multitude,  there  was  not 

VOL.  XI.  y 

*- ^ 


9 8  Lives  of  the  Saints.  foct.4. 

store  enough  of  fragments  laid  up  to  sustain  the  founder  and 
his  little  nucleus  of  friars  beyond  a  single  day. 

The  Portiuncula  is  situated  on  one  of  the  lowest  slopes  of 
the  Apennine  hills,  and  below  stretches  the  plain,  blazing 
under  the  Italian  sun,  which  was  the  only  guest-chamber 
Francis  could  provide  for  his  visitors.  Here  they  erected  a 
quantity  of  little  tents  made  of  straw  thatch,  or  matting  and 
rushes  \  such  shelters  from  the  sun  as  may  still  be  seen  about 
the  Italian  fields  rudely  propped  up  on  posts,  as  no  doubt 
were  the  huts  of  the  brethren.  From  this  peculiarity  the 
Chapter  derives  its  name,  Siorearum — the  assembly  of  the 
straw  huts.  They  were  arranged,  we  are  told,  in  distinct 
lines,  according  to  the  provinces  from  which  the  brethren 
came.  The  scene  is  set  before  us  in  the  "Fioretti"  with  all  the 
reahty  which  Avould  naturally  belong  to  the  narrative  of  an 
eye-witness.  And  if  we  can  trust  the  anonymous  chronicler. 
Cardinal  Ugolino  was  present,  and  also  S.  Dominic,  watching 
with  curious,  critical  eyes,  how  the  other  Order  was  man- 
aged. Francis  had  made  no  provision  for  the  crowd  which 
surrounded  him ;  he  had  dared  to  throw  his  entire  brother- 
hood upon  the  bounty  of  Providence,  and  met  them  cheer- 
fully, without  a  crust  to  give  them,  with  a  faith  which,  even 
to  his  fellow  saint,  seems  to  have  for  the  moment  appeared 
more  rash  than  sublime.  With  many  illustrious  visitors 
looking  on,  S.  Francis  addressed  his  brethren  camped 
around  him,  swarming  among  the  narrow  passages  that 
divided  the  coverts  of  straw  :  "  My  children,"  he  said,  "  we 
have  promised  great  things  to  God,  and  greater  things  still 
have  we  been  promised  by  God ;  let  us  observe  those  things 
that  we  have  promised  Him,  and  He  for  His  part  will  surely 
perform  what  He  has  undertaken." 

As  he  spoke,  there  were  seen  trains  of  horses  and  waggons 
coming  towards  the  Portiuncula.  A  sudden  impulse  of 
generosity  and  charity  had  moved  the  citizens  of  Perugia, 


Oct.  4.]  '^-  Francis  of  Assisi.  99 

Spoleto,  Foligno,  and  Assisi  to  send  supplies  of  provisions 
to  the  assembled  friars.  Bread,  wine,  beans,  and  game 
poured  into  the  camp,  as  though  the  Lord  had  made 
windows  in  heaven,  and  had  showered  abundance  where 
before  was  dearth.  S.  Dominic  seeing  this,  felt  that  he  had 
been  wrong  in  doubting  the  faith  of  Francis  and  the  bounty 
of  Providence,  and,  falling  on  his  knees  before  the  saint, 
exclaimed,  "  Truly,  God  has  a  special  care  for  this  poor 
family,  and  I  knew  it  not." 

In  this  great  conclave  the  organization  of  the  Order  was, 
for  the  first  time,  formally  established.  "  Ministers  were 
elected  and  sent  out  with  the  brethren  into  all  the  provinces 
of  the  world  in  which  the  Catholic  faith  is  observed,"  say 
the  Three  Companions. 

Francis  had  theoretically  established  the  office  of  Minister 
when  he  framed  his  rule,  and  had  chosep  the  title  in 
accordance  with  the  humility  which  it  was  his  desire 
should  always  guide  his  followers.  He  would  not  permit 
them  to  assume  the  title  of  abbot  or  prior,  but  desired  that 
the  Superior  of  each  community  should  be  simply  the 
Guardian,  and  the  Provincial  the  Minister  or  servant  of  all. 
But  though  these  offices  had  been  theoretically  established, 
this  is  the  first  occasion  of  the  institution  of  members  of 
the  community  to  them.  The  community  had  grown  too 
extensive  to  be  kept  any  longer  under  one  single  head. 
Each  Provincial  was  to  rule  the  guardians  of  the  several 
convents  in  his  province,  and  the  Provincials  were  re- 
sponsible to  the  General  or  head  of  the  whole  Order  at 

As  soon  as  the  Chapter  was  over,  S.  Francis  set  out  on  his 
long-cherished  mission  to  the  East.  The  crusading  army 
under  the  saintly  king  Louis  was  then  in  Egypt,  occupied  at 
the  time  in  the  siege  of  Damietta.  S.  Francis  sailed  for 
Egypt,    entered   the   Christian  host,    and   passed   daringly 

* ^— ->i, 


lOO  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.4. 

through  the  open  country  swept  by  Arabs,  with  the  de- 
liberate purpose  of  being  taken  prisoner  and  confronted 
with  the  Sultan,  Melek-el-Khamed.  He  was  captured  and 
brought  to  the  Sultan,  Avhen  he  at  once  opened  his  mouth 
and  preached  to  him  Christ  crucified.  The  Arab  sat  and 
listened,  with  admiration  of  the  courage  and  enthusiasm  of 
the  Christian  fakeer,  but  no  results  followed,  and  when,  after 
a  stay  of  a  few  days  in  the  Moslem  army,  Francis  sadly 
became  aware  that  his  preaching  was  ineffectual,  he  with- 
drew to  the  Christian  army,  the  Sultan  giving  him  free  leave 
to  dej^art,  and  S.  Francis,  "  seeing  that  he  could  not  gain 
much  fruit  in  these  parts,  resolved  to  return  home."'  He 
accordingly  abandoned  the  unfruitful  mission,  and  returned 
by  ship  to  Venice.  He  would  seem  to  have  been  met  at 
Venice  by  some  of  the  brethren,  who  conducted  him  home. 
Among  them,  we  are  told,  was  a  certain  Leonard,  a  man  of 
noble  family  of  Assisi.  One  day  as  they  took  their  journey 
homewards,  Francis,  worn  out  with  his  fatigues,  mounted 
an  ass  to  relieve  the  tedium  of  the  way,  and  Fra  Leonardo 
walked  behind  him  in  silence.  He  too  was  weary,  and  he 
mused  in  sullen  anger  at  the  fact  that  he,  a  noble,  was 
obliged  to  trudge  behind  the  ass  on  which  the  merchant's 
son  was  seated. 

"It  is  true,"  said  Francis,  suddenly  getting  down;  "1 
ride  and  you  walk,  and  this  is  against  all  congruity."  He  had 
read  his  thoughts  in  the  cloudy  brow,  and  eye  that  shunned 
his  kind  glance. 

As  S.  Francis  was  on  his  way  back  to  Assisi,  he  reached 
Bologna.  His  friend,  Cardinal  Ugolino,  was  there,  in  the 
discharge  of  a  mission  from  the  Pope  to  Lombardy ;  and 
there,  moreover,  was  a  community  of  the  Minorites,  for 
which,  since  Francis  had  last  been  there,  a  new  house  had 
been  built.  The  community  had  been  established  nine  years 
before,  by  Brother  Bernard ;  and  it  had  grown  till  the  little 


^ ^ 

Oct.  4.]  S.  Francis  of  Assisi.  10 1 

house  in  which  it  had  first  settled  had  become  too  small  to 
contain  it. 

Francis  arrived  in  Bologna  on  the  Feast  of  the  Assumption, 
1220.  The  first  act  of  the  traveller  was,  not  to  seek  out  his 
friends  and  brethren  and  rest  from  his  fatigues,  but  to  make 
his  way  to  the  Piazza,  to  preach  to  the  people  the  precious 
Word  of  God.  A  certain  Thomas  of  Spoleto,  at  that  time 
student  at  Bologna,  afterwards  archdeacon  of  the  cathedral 
in  his  native  town,  has  left  us  an  account  of  the  scene.  He 
went  after  the  brown  friar  to  the  square  before  the  little 
palace,  and  watched  him  closely  with  curious  eyes.  His 
bodily  presence  was  mean,  the  student  thought,  his  person 
contemptible,  his  looks  unimposing.  He  stood  up  amid  the 
intent  and  eager  crowd,  where,  among  peaceable  citizens, 
and  women  and  children,  were  the  ruffling  retainers  of  the 
nobles,  and  took  for  his  text  the  words,  "Angels,  Men,  Devils." 
The  Word  of  God  poured  like  a  stream  of  fire  from  the 
mouth  of  the  preacher,  and  was  so  effectual  that  many 
nobles  whose  dissensions  kept  the  whole  local  world  in 
misery,  and  filled  the  streets  with  blood,  gave  each  other 
their  hands  for  the  moment  and  made  temporary  peace  in 
the  softening  of  their  hearts. 

When  he  had  ended,  the  crowd  rolled  after  Francis,  with 
tears  and  cries  of  joy,  as  he  humbly  took  his  way  to  the 
palace  of  the  cardinal  legate,  his  firm  and  ancient  ally. 
On  turning  round  at  the  palace  gates,  the  eyes  of  the  lover 
of  poverty  encountered  a  sumptuous  building,  newly  erected, 
and  bearing  all  the  evidence  of  wealth.  It  was  the  convent 
of  the  Minorites,  the  spectators  told  him.  S.  Francis, 
thunderstruck  by  this  discoveiy,  averted  his  face  with 
indignant  and  vehement  emotion.  "What?"  he  cried;  "is 
this  the  house  of  Christ's  poor?  Have  the  Brothers  Minor 
such  great  and  splendid  palaces?  I  do  not  recognize  this 
as   a  house    of  ours,   and  I   cannot  acknowledge   as   my 

^ ^ 


I02  Lives  of  the  Saints.  \oc\..^. 

brethren  those  who  live  in  it."  When  he  had  uttered  these 
words,  he  commanded  all  who  would  retain  the  name  of 
Minor  to  quit  the  house,  and  leave  to  the  rich  the  things 
which  belonged  to  them.  So  indignant  was  he,  and  fierce 
with  the  sudden  anger  of  the  naturally  gentle,  that  the  breth- 
ren in  terror  precipitated  themselves  out  of  their  fine  house, 
even  the  sick  getting  themselves  carried  out  on  the  shoulders 
of  the  strong,  and  laid  down  anywhere  in  the  open  air,  rather 
than  encounter  the  gentle  father's  sudden  fury. 

The  cardinal,  however,  came  in  at  this  moment  of  con- 
fusion and  distress.  He  interfered  on  behalf  of  the  unfortu- 
nates, who  lay  gasping  and  pallid  on  the  stones,  jolted  out  of 
breath  by  their  rapid  descent.  He  took  his  friend  aside, 
and  represented  to  him,  with  all  the  kindly  special  pleading 
of  a  peacemaker,  that  size  and  space  could  hurt  no  man, 
that  the  sick  had  better  air,  the  studious  more  perfect  quiet, 
in  the  large  house  ;  that,  after  all,  it  did  not  belong  to  the 
brethren  at  all,  but  to  the  benefactor  who  had  built  it  for 
them,  and  permitted  them  the  use  of  it ;  and  finally,  when 
all  other  arguments  failed  to  satisfy  the  disturbed  founder, 
that  he  himself  would  remove  all  difficulties  by  taking  pos- 
session of  the  building  in  the  name  of  Rome.  Subdued, 
but  not  overcome,  Francis  permitted  the  sick  folk  to  be 
carried  back  to  their  quarters.  But  he  would  not  himself 
enter  the  too  splendid  house.  He  went  away,  sad  and 
wroth,  and  took  shelter  with  the  Dominicans.  With  them 
he  dwelt  apart  for  some  days,  sore  and  heavy  at  heart.  One 
of  the  Preaching  Friars,  compassionating  not  only  the  solitary 
lodger  in  his  convent,  but  also  the  abashed  and  penitent 
Minors,  took  upon  him  to  persuade  the  master  to  return  to 
his  disciples.  After  much  discussion,  Francis  forgave  the 
brethren,  but  not  the  erring  minister,  Giovanni  de  Stiacchia, 
who  had  not  only  permitted  this  sumptuous  building  to  be 
erected,  but  had  set  up  a  school  of  study  more  adapted  to 


Oct.  4.]  S.  Francis  of  A ssisi.  103 

the  atmosphere  of  an  university  than  to  the  rule  of  the 
Order.  Francis  dissolved  the  school,  enjoined  the  monks  to 
turn  their  thoughts  to  prayer  and  preaching,  and  not  towards 
the  accumulation  of  vain  knowledge  \  and  went  his  way, 
leaving  pardon  behind  him,  but  carrying  with  him  the  first 
sharp  sting  of  division — the  sense  that,  already,  degeneration 
and  innovation  had  stolen  into  his  Order.  It  would  seem 
that,  as  soon  as  his  back  was  turned,  Brother  Giovanni  re- 
estabhshed  his  school. 

After  this  stormy  episode  came  a  time  of  peace.  Cardinal 
Ugolino  and  Francis  retired  together  to  a  little  hermitage 
among  the  hills,  belonging  to  the  CamaldoHtes,  and  there 
dwelt  together  for  some  little  time  in  meditation  and 

Fortified  by  this  retreat,  S.  Francis  descended  from  the 
hills  to  his  convent  just  before  the  assembling  of  the  Chapter 
on  the  Feast  of  S.  Michael.  When  the  pilgrim  appeared  at 
his  favourite  convent,  he  perceived  EHas,  who  had  been 
constituted  head  of  the  Order,  come  forth  to  welcome  him, 
"  in  a  careful  and  elaborate  dress,"  long  hood,  wide  sleeves, 
and  a  rich  fringe  to  his  garments.  Francis  called  at  once  for 
a  tunic  like  that  of  Elias,  and  putting  it  on,  with  exaggerated 
attention  to  its  picturesque  effect,  took  upon  himself,  at  the 
same  time,  all  the  airs  of  a  lofty  dignity,  and  saluted  the 
brethren  with  a  "  Good  morrow,  sirs,  "  instead  of  with  the  cus- 
tomary "  Peace  be  with  you."  Then  he  threw  off  the  dainty 
robe,  saying  :  "  This  becomes  a  false  brother ;"  and  resuming 
his  own  worn  and  ragged  gown,  seated  himself  in  the  midst 
of  the  brethren.  After  this,  S.  Francis  repealed  the  inno- 
vations which  Elias  had  introduced  into  the  Order,  with  one 
exception — Elias  had  forbidden  the  eating  of  meat  by  the 
Minorites  ;  this  piece  of  asceticism  Francis  allowed,  but  with 

In  the  Chapter  which  followed,  the  historians  of  the  Order 

^- . —4, 


I04  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Od.  4. 

assert  that  Elias  was  set  aside  from  his  place,  and  Pietro  de 
Catania,  one  of  the  earliest  of  Francis's  followers,  elected  in 
his  stead.  At  the  same  time,  the  character  of  Elias  must 
have  commanded  a  certain  respect  from  Francis,  who  saw 
that  Elias  was  a  man  of  restless  and  masterful  spirit,  yet  could 
not  fail  to  admire  his  prudence,  knowledge  of  the  world,  and 
enthusiastic  asceticism.  It  was  in  the  year  122 1  that  the 
Third  Order  of  the  Franciscans  came  into  being.  When 
S.  Francis  preached  to  those  living  in  the  world,  he  made 
their  ungodliness,  their  sinfulness,  and  absorption  in  worldly 
cares,  intolerable  to  them  by  his  burning  words,  and  the 
universal  compunction  burst  all  bounds  of  prudence.  But 
he  was  himself  too  reasonable  to  permit  all  his  converts  to 
precipitate  themselves  into  the  ascetic  life  of  nun  and  friar. 
He  knew  that  the  world  must  still  go  on  and  fulfil  its  every- 
day labours,  whatever  might  be  suggested  by  the  enthusiasm 
of  a  moment ;  and  he  was  not  himself  led  away  by  any 
fanatical  impulse  of  proselytism.  When  the  excited  people 
wept,  and  besought  him  to  permit  them  to  follow  him,  he 
silenced  them  with  tranquillizing  words.  "  Remain  in  your 
homes,"  he  said,  "  and  I  will  find  for  you  a  way  of  serving 
God."  That  way  was  the  Third  Order.  "  He  persuaded 
the  people  to  remain  at  home,  and  to  live  there  in  the  fear  of 
God  and  the  practice  of  Christian  virtues,  promising  to  make 
out  for  them  a  form  which  they  could  keep  without  leaving 
the  condition  of  life  to  which  God  had  called  them."  Thus 
it  was  the  object  of  the  Third  Order  to  meet  the  needs  of 
devout  persons  still  living,  and  compelled  by  duty  to  live,  in 
the  world ;  people  who  could  not  aspire  to  the  cloister — 
but  with  hearts  careful  and  troubled  about  many  things,  with 
husbands  and  wives  to  think  of,  and  houses  and  lands,  with 
the  care  and  maintenance  of  children  and  dependents  upon 
their  shoulders — who  yet  were  inspired  with  a  desire  to  serve 
God  above  all. 



Oct.  4.j  S.  Francis  of  Assist.  105 

The  vow  exacted  was  a  simple  and  solemn  promise  to  keep 
God's  commandments,  and,  over  and  above,  to  avoid  balls 
and  theatres.  The  brethren  were  forbidden  to  bear  arms, 
except  in  case  of  danger  to  their  country  or  the  Church. 
They  were  to  avoid  all  oaths,  except  in  matters  of  necessity. 
Lawsuits  were  also  forbidden  them,  and  all  the  arts  of  conciH- 
ation  and  peacemaking  encouraged.  On  four  days  of  the 
week,  moreover,  they  were  to  eat  no  meat.  For  their  prayers, 
they  were  to  repeat  seven  times  at  each  canonical  hour,  the 
Lord's  Prayer,  followed  by  a  Gloria  Patri.  In  every  place 
where  a  congregation  of  the  Third  Order  was  estabhshed,  a 
priest,  who  was  a  member  of  the  Society,  Avas  appointed  to 
be  its  overseer  and  guide.  Each  member,  at  his  death,  was 
entitled  to  a  funeral  attended  by  all  his  brethren.  There 
were  three  grand  masses  said  solemnly  for  the  Brothers  and 
Sisters,  alive  and  dead,  every  year.  It  may  easily  be  perceived 
what  a  wonderful  bond  was  thus  created — a  tie  which  con- 
nected people  of  every  class  and  condition,  binding  them 
to  mutual  succour  and  support;  and  how  incalculable 
was  the  tacit  aid  given  by  this  mass  of  lay  supporters  to 
the  action  of  the  consecrated  brethren,  the  Friars  Minor 
themselves.  It  rose  into  instant  distinction  and  importance, 
and  was  joined  by  a  crowd  of  noble  and  powerful  personages. 
S.  Louis  of  France,  his  mother  and  \\dfe,  were  all  members  of 
it.  And  so  was  S.  Elizabeth  of  Hungary,  and  many  other 
princesses,  who,  after  lives  of  much  Christian  charity  and 
fervent  devotion  in  their  natural  sphere,  transplanted  their 
zeal  and  sanctity  into  the  stricter  enclosure  of  the  professed 
sisterhood.  Wherever  the  Preaching  Friars  penetrated  in 
their  absolute  poverty,  breaking  upon  the  slumbering  imagi- 
nation and  torpid  faith  of  the  world  as  with  a  sign  from 
heaven,  the  laity  crowded  into  this  religion,  which  was 
possible,  which  did  not  require  the  renunciation  of  other 
duties,  and  yet  linked  them  to  the  hoHest  men  on  earth,  and 



gave  them  the  support  of  a  definite  rule.  This  great  insti- 
tution, however,  was  not  the  astute  and  elaborate  scheme  of 
a  great  intelligence,  but  the  sudden  device  of  a  tender.  Chris- 
tian spirit.  It  seems  doubtful  whether  S.  Francis  was  ever 
aware  what  a  fruitful  idea  he  had  initiated.  His  fertile  and 
inventive  mind  threw  out  great  suggestions  unconsciously. 
The  female  branch  of  his  Order  was  instituted,  it  is  evident, 
solely  because  of  the  one  young  enthusiast  in  whose  piety 
he  interested  himself  with  all  the  warmth  that  belonged  to 
his  nature ;  and  the  Third  Order  sprang  into  being  in  the 
same  curiously  accidental  way,  that  the  brimmings-over  of  a 
sudden  and  general  spiritual  impression  might  not  be  lost. 
In  1 220  occurred  a  scene,  curious  and  touching,  on  which 
legend  fondly  dwells,  a  scene  which  bears  some  resemblance 
to  one  in  the  life  of  S.  Benedict.  The  great  father  of  Western 
Monachism,  it  will  be  remembered,  had  a  dearly  loved  twin- 
sister,  Scholastica,  whom  he  met  only  once  a  year.  In  the  last 
year  of  their  lives  Benedict  supped  with  her  one  evening, 
and  when  supper  was  ended  rose  to  leave,  but  Scholastica 
implored  hira  to  stay  ;  and  when  he  refused,  she  prayed  to 
God,  and  a  storm  burst  over  her  convent  which  made  it  im- 
possible for  him  to  leave  that  night.  They  spent  it  in  talking, 
with  radiant  faces,  of  the  heavenly  joy  which  was  to  receive 
both  within  a  space  of  a  few  days, 

S.  Francis  had  a  sister  in  religion,  a  woman  who  stood 
to  him  in  the  tender  bonds  of  spiritual  communion,  and  this 
was  S.  Clara.  This  holy  woman  felt  a  great  longing  to  be 
with  S.  Francis  and  eat  with  him.  But  he  constantly 
refused.  At  length  his  companions,  seeing  how  distressed 
she  was  at  his  persistent  refusal,  said  to  him :  "  Father,  it 
seemeth  that  this  sternness  is  not  in  accordance  with  Divine 
charity;  hearken  now  unto  Clara,  a  virgin,  holy  and  beloved 
of  God.  It  is  but  a  little  thing  that  she  asks  of  thee,  to  eat 
with  her ;  and  she,  at  thy  preachin  g,  forsook  all  that  the 
world  offers  of  joy,  and  society,  and  wealth." 

Oct.  4.]  S.  Francis  of  A ssisi.  107 

Then  S.  Francis  answered:  "As  it  seemeth  right  to  you, 
so  let  it  be.  But  in  order  that  Clara  may  be  very  greatly 
comforted,  let  the  feast  be  held  in  the  church  of  S.  Mary  of 
the  Angels,  for  it  was  therein  that  she  took  the  vows  and  be- 
came the  bride  of  Christ." 

When  the  appointed  day  arrived,  S.  Clara  went  forth  from 
her  convent  with  one  companion,  and  came  to  S.  Mary  of 
the  Angels,  and  took  her  place  until  the  time  of  dinner. 
S.  Francis  caused  the  table  to  be  spread  on  the  earth,  and  he 
sat  down  beside  S.  Clara,  and  one  of  the  companions  of 
S.  Francis  sat  beside  the  nun  who  accompanied  S.  Clara; 
and  then  all  the  rest  of  the  company  gathered  themselves 
round  the  table.  During  the  first  course,  S.  Francis  began 
to  speak  of  God  so  sweetly,  so  tenderly,  that  all  were  rapt  in 
ecstasy,  with  eyes  and  hands  raised  to  heaven,  forgetful  of 
their  meal,  thinking  only  of  God.  Legend  has  vulgarised 
this  beautiful  story,  and  adds  that  to  the  men  of  Assisi  it 
seemed  as  though  the  church  was  on  fire,  and  they  ran  with 
water  to  extinguish  the  flames,  but  found  that  the  fire  was 
only  the  ardour  of  the  devotion  of  those  within. 

When  the  repast  was  ended,  S.  Clara  returned  to  S.  Da- 
mian's,  greatly  comforted.  This  was  her  only  meeting,  for 
other  purposes  than  those  of  ghostly  counsel,  with  her  friend 
and  father ;  and  one  can  readily  imagine  the  gentle  excite- 
ment which  filled  her  bosom  as  she  went  down  the  hill  to 
the  Portiuncula.  Clara  had  been  only  seventeen  when  she 
made  her  last  eventful  journey  to  the  shrine  of  S.  Mary  of  the 
Angels.  Her  last  recollections  of  the  humble  little  church 
must  have  shown  like  a  dream  in  the  distance — the  brethren 
with  their  candles,  the  darkness  outside,  the  shaving  off  of  her 
curls,  and  the  putting  on  of  the  coarse  garment  that  severed 
her  connection  with  the  world  and  its  pomps.  No  doubt  it 
was  a  strange  pleasure  to  the  experienced  nun  to  see  once 
more  the  place  where,  ten  years  before,  she  had  made  her 

^ ■ ■'^ 


io8  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  4. 

In  the  same  year,  S.  Francis  retired  to  Monte  Gargano  to 
revise  his  rule,  previous  to  submitting  it  to  the  Pope  for  final 
confirmation.  When  he  had  completed  it,  in  the  winter  of 
1223,  he  went  to  Rome,  and  there  by  the  friendly  patronage 
of  Cardinal  Ugolino,  he  was  introduced  to  the  Pope,  Hono- 
rius  III.,  and  obtained  the  formal  ratification  of  the  Rule,  in  a 
bull  dated  November  29.  Having  thus  fulfilled  the  object 
of  his  mission,  Francis  made  another  request  to  the  Pope, 
of  a  different  character.  He  asked  to  be  allowed  to  intro- 
duce into  the  Franciscan  churches  representations  of  the 
manger  of  Bethlehem  at  Christmas,  so  as  to  seize  on  the 
popular  imagination,  and  impress  the  unlearned.  He  ob- 
tained the  requisite  permission,  and  then,  going  to  Grecia,  a 
little  place  not  far  from  Assisi,  he  had  a  stable  with  manger 
and  straw  erected  in  the  church ;  ox  and  ass  were  introduced, 
and  every  arrangement  was  made,  when  the  solemn  Christmas 
night  arrived,  for  giving  to  the  people  a  visible  representation 
of  the  occurrences  of  the  night  at  Bethlehem.  The  people 
crowded  to  the  village  church  with  tapers  and  torches,  and 
the  friars,  standing  before  the  crib,  chanted  carols.  In  the 
midst  of  this  glowing  and  agitated  scene,  Francis  himself 
stood  rapt  by  the  side  of  the  manger,  in  which  his  faith 
could  picture  to  itself  the  first  cradle  of  his  Lord,  throughout 
the  whole  night,  sighing  for  joy,  and  filled  with  an  inex- 
pressible sweetness.  His  friend  Giovanni,  looking  on,  had 
a  vision  while  he  stood  apart  gazing  and  wondering  at  the 
saint.  Giovanni  said,  or  dreamed,  that  a  beautiful  child, 
dead  or  in  a  trance,  lay  in  the  manger,  and  that  as  Francis 
bent  over  the  humble  bed  the  babe  slowly  awoke,  and 
stretched  out  its  arms  towards  him.  It  was  the  child  Christ, 
dead  in  the  hearts  of  a  careless  people,  dead  in  the  slumber 
of  a  wicked  world,  but  waking  up  to  a  new  life,  and  kindling 
the  whole  drowsy  universe  around  Him,  at  the  touch  and 
breath  of  that  supreme  love  which  was  in  His  servant's  heart. 


Oct. 4]  S.  Fraiicis  of  Assisi.  109 

The  crib  of  Bethlehem,  since  so  popular  in  churches  on 
Christmas  Eve,  was  another  of  those  happy  ideas  of  Francis 
which  exactly  met  a  want  of  the  times.  Northern  Italy  was 
infested  with  Manicheism,  a  heresy  which  denied  the  Incar- 
nation, and  which,  by  the  austere  lives  of  some  of  its  pro- 
fessors, excited  the  admiration  of  the  ignorant.  Francis,  by 
means  of  his  representations  of  the  scene  at  Bethlehem, 
brought  the  Incarnation  prominently  before  the  minds  of 
the  people ;  the  Holy  Crib  became  an  object  of  passionate 
admiration,  excited  the  devotion  of  the  people,  and  proved 
of  incalculable  service  in  the  cause  of  the  truth,  doing  in- 
finitely more  harm  to  heresy  than  all  the  burnings  which 
were  cruelly  dealt  out  to  the  Manichees  by  prelates  and 

Another  of  Francis's  happy  inspirations  was  the  com- 
position of  vernacular  hymns ;  he  was  the  first  to  adopt 
his  native  tongue  as  the  language  of  sacred  poetry,  he 
sounded  the  first  notes  of  that  music  which  was  to  reach 
its  richest  expression  in  the  mouth  of  Dante. 

S.  Francis  had  reached  the  age  of  forty-two  when  a  mys- 
terious event  occurred  in  his  life,  which  marked  him  out 
among  the  other  saints  of  the  calendar  in  a  special  and 
extraordinary  manner.  A  certain  noble,  Orlando  of  Chiusi, 
gave  to  S.  Francis  a  rocky  height,  Monte  Alverno,  on  his 
lands,  as  a  kind  of  hermitage  and  place  of  retreat.  Francis 
accepted  the  gift,  and  pleased  with  the  description  given  him 
of  its  solitary  beauty,  determined  to  spend  there  his  autumnal 
season  of  fasting  before  the  Feast  of  S.  Michael.  He  ac- 
cordingly started  with  three  of  the  brethren,  Fra  Matteo,  Fra 
Leo,  and  Fra  Angelo ;  the  two  latter  are  our  informants  con- 
cerning much  that  occurred  in  his  life,  being  two  of  the 
three  companions  who  \vrote  his  biography.  The  rough 
road  exhausted  Francis,  and  before  mounting  the  heights 
of  Alverno  he  threw  himself  to  rest  under  an  oak.     Then, 

* ^ 


no  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  4. 

suddenly,  a  multitude  of  birds  came  fluttering  round  him, 
and  threw  themselves  on  their  new  lord  with  every  demon- 
stration of  welcome ;  upon  his  head  and  shoulders  and  arms, 
in  his  cowl,  and  everywhere  about  him,  while  his  compa- 
nions stood  by  wondering.  "  Dearest  brethren,"  said  the 
gentle  apostle,  with  great  delight  and  gladness,  "  I  think 
it  must  be  pleasant  to  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ  that  we  should 
dwell  in  this  solitary  place,  since  our  brothers  and  sisters, 
the  birds,  are  so  glad  of  our  coming."  Thus  harmoniously, 
with  tender  delight  and  joy,  was  the  sacred  seclusion  begun. 
A  glorious  Italian  sky  was  above,  the  beech  and  chestnut 
and  here  and  there  a  mighty  oak  breaking  the  monotony  of 
the  great  rocks  and  wild  ravines,  and  four  poor  men,  as 
dependent  upon  God  as  were  the  birds,  held  up  aloft  on  the 
tops  of  the  hills  to  pray  for  the  far-ofif  world,  of  which  not 
even  a  sound  could  reach  them  in  their  solitude — how  im- 
pressive is  the  scene  !  Francis  withdrew  himself  to  a  little 
cell  under  a  beech  tree  that  had  been  erected  for  him.  They 
were  all  used  to  endure  the  weather,  exposure  to  heat  and 
cold ;  and  food  they  were  promised  by  Orlando,  who  had 
given  them  the  mountain.  Thus  they  were  left  utterly  free 
for  their  devout  occupations.  Before  this  time  Francis  had 
received  a  warning  from  heaven  that  he  should  live  only  two 
years  longer ;  and  it  is  evident  that  his  strength  was  much 
impaired,  and  the  body  of  which  all  his  life  he  had  been  so 
careless  was  beginning  to  avenge  itself.  The  clouds  that 
gather  round  the  setting  sun  were  collecting  about  him, 
though  he  was  still  little  over  forty.  We  are  informed  by 
Celano  and  the  other  early  biographers  that  he  had  sought 
the  direction  of  God  in  his  devotions  by  the  method  which 
he  had  already  so  often  adopted,  of  solemn  reference  to  the 
Holy  Scriptures,  the  book  being  first  solemnly  laid  upon 
the  altar,  and  the  cross  made  over  it.  Each  time  the 
volume   opened  at   the    narrative  of  the    Lord's   Passion. 


— ^ * 

Oct.  4.]  S.  Francis  of  Assist.  in 

The  deduction  which  Francis  drew  from  this  was,  that 
he  was  to  pass  into  the  kingdom  of  heaven,  Uke  his  Master, 
through  much  tribulation. 

Francis  had  retired  to  his  liut  under  the  beech  tree,  as 
already  related,  and  there  he  remained  rapt  in  prayer.  His 
disciples,  who  have  left  us  an  account  of  what  followed,  tell 
us  that  they  heard  his  voice  in  the  wood  by  turns  mur- 
muring, not  any  eloquence  of  prayer,  but  those  habitual 
words  which  he  said  d;iy  by  day:  "What  art  thou,  dearest 
Lord,  my  God?  and  what  am  I,  a  vile  worm  and  unworthy 
servant?"  It  was  on  Holy  Cross  Day,  Sept.  14,  that  this 
ecstasy  reached  its  highest  point,  when,  whilst  Francis 
prayed,  there  appeared  over  him  a  great  figure  as  of  a 

This  solemn  and  wonderful  apparition  had  the  arms  ex- 
tended, and  feet  conjoined,  as  if  fixed  to  a  cross.  It  had 
six  wings,  two  of  which  were  elevated  over  the  head,  two 
extended  as  if  for  flight,  and  the  other  two  veiling  the  entire 
body.  "  When  the  blessed  servant  of  the  Most  High  saw 
the  vision,"  says  Thomas  of  Celano,  "  he  was  filled  with 
great  wonder,  but  could  not  understand  what  its  meaning 
was.  Much  and  greatly  did  he  rejoice  to  see  the  benign 
aspect  with  which  the  seraph  gazed  on  him,  for  its  beauty 
was  indescribable ;  but  the  bitterness  of  the  cross  and  pas- 
sion thus  shown  to  him  filled  him  with  grief  and  fear.  Thus 
he  arose  both  sad  and  glad,  and  considered  anxiously  what 
the  vision  might  mean.  And  when  he  could  find  nothing  by 
which  it  might  be  understood,  and  the  novelty  of  the  vision 
overwhelmed  his  heart,  there  began  to  appear  in  his  hands 
and  feet  signs  of  nails  such  as  he  had  just  seen  in  the  holy 
Crucified  One  who  stood  over  him." 

Celano  wrote  three  years  after  the  death  of  S.  Francis. 
The  Three  Companions  give  the  story  in  almost  the  same 
words,  the  only  difference  being  that  the  seraph  does  not ' 

^ 4f 


112  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  4. 

itself  display  the  form  of  the  cross,  but  "  carried  within  its 
wings  the  form  as  of  a  beautiful  man  crucified,  the  hands  and 
feet  extended  as  on  a  cross,  showing  forth  most  clearly  the 
image  of  our  Lord  Jesus.  .  .  .  And  when  this  vision  dis- 
appeared a  wonderful  ardour  remained  in  his  soul ;  and  in 
his  flesh  still  more  marvellously  appeared  the  stigmata  of  the 
Lord  Jesus  Christ,  which  the  man  of  God  carried  concealed 
to  his  death,  not  willing  to  publish  the  secret  of  God." 

S.  Francis  does  not  seem  to  have  mentioned  what  had 
happened  to  him  to  any  one  on  the  mountain,  not  even  when 
the  time  had  come  to  go  home,  and  the  four  went  slowly 
back,  much  hindered  by  his  weakness.  When  they  had  re- 
turned to  the  Portiuncula,  he  was  still  silent,  though  with 
signs  about  him  which  attracted  the  wondering  curiosity  of 
the  brethren.  Fra  Illuminato,  whose  counsel  had  been 
resorted  to  by  Francis  on  several  occasions,  saw  (Bona- 
ventura  tells  us)  that  something  marvellous  had  happened 
to  his  master.  "  Brother,"  he  said,  "  not  only  for  thine  own 
sake,  but  for  the  sake  of  others,  the  Divine  mysteries  are 
made  known  to  thee.  And  therefore  it  seems  right  that 
thou  shouldst  not  conceal  what  thou  hast  heard  and  seen." 
At  these  words,  adds  Bonaventura,  the  holy  man  was  moved, 
and  related  with  great  fear  all  the  course  of  the  vision,  and 
added  that  things  had  been  said  to  him  which  he  must 
never  repeat  to  mortal  man. 

The  story  of  the  stigmata  is  involved  in  some  difficulties, 
but  there  seems  to  be  no  reason  for  disbelieving  in  it.'  It  is 
but  an  instance  of  the  marvellous  power  exercised  by  the 
soul,  in  a  state  of  exaltation,  over  the  body,  when  the  latter 
has  been  exhausted  by  asceticism,  and  is  naturally,  perhaps, 
disposed  towards  hysteria. 

'  The  evidence  has  been  very  carefully  and  impartially  sifted  by  Mrs.  Oliphant  in 
her  "  Life  of  S.  Francis,"  from  which  this  biography  is  to  a  great  extent  condensed. 


—         >^ 

Oct.  4. J  S.  Francis  of  A  ssisi.  113 

After  the  return  of  S.  Francis  to  his  convent,  he  concen- 
trated his  failing  powers  on  the  continuance  of  his  work.  The 
pitcher  was  broken,  and  the  hght  streamed  through  at  every 
crevice.  "  Of  all  his  body  he  made  a  tongue,"  says  Celano. 
He  spoke  not  only  by  the  voice,  which  sometimes  failed 
through  feebleness,  but  through  the  very  sufferings  of  the 
worn-out  frame.  A  certain  haste  would  seem  to  have  been 
upon  him  in  this  last  remnant  of  his  life.  Death  was  coming, 
but  so  long  as  God  had  work  for  him  to  do,  he  would  not 
suffer  himself  to  rest.  Francis  suffered  from  loss  of  sight, 
and  in  the  hopes  of  having  this  removed,  endured  cautery. 
The  operation  took  place  at  Rieti,  and  there  he  remained 
some  time.  He  was  on  his  way  home,  and  had  reached  the 
town  of  Nursia,  at  the  foot  of  the  Apennines,  when  his  com- 
panions saw  that  his  remaining  strength  was  leaving  him,  and 
that  the  shadow  of  death  was  falling  upon  him.  There  they 
therefore  halted ;  but  the  people  of  Assisi,  in  terror  lest  their 
saint  should  die  elsewhere  than  within  their  walls,  sent  to 
insist  on  his  being  brought  home ;  and  the  dying  man  was 
conducted  to  the  bishop's  palace  in  Assisi,  in  the  midst 
of  a  cavalcade  sent  by  the  Senate  to  meet  and  guard  him. 
A  few  days  before  his  death  he  had  himself  carried  to  the 
Portiuncula.  As  the  litter-bearers,  with  their  burden,  pro- 
gressing slowly  down  the  hill,  came  in  sight  of  that  humble 
but  blessed  spot,  Francis,  turning  to  the  group  of  brethren 
that  surrounded  him,  warned  them  to  hold  this  cradle  of  the 
Order  in  all  reverence  and  honour.  "  See,  my  sons,"  said 
the  dying  father,  "  that  ye  never  give  up  this  place."  Pro- 
bably it  was  at  the  same  time,  and  before  entering  the  humble 
house  he  loved  so  well,  that  he  caused  his  bearers  to  set  down 
the  litter  on  the  ground,  and  turning  to  where  Assisi,  the 
home  of  his  youth,  rose  white  upon  the  hill,  gave  his  blessing 
to  the  town  which  had  nurtured  and  cherished  him. 

When  he  had  entered  the  convent,  he  betook  himself  to 

VOL.  XI.  8 

^ . ^ 


114  Lives  of  the  Samts.  \,ot^.^. 

the  other  duties  of  a  dying  man.  He  called  for  pen  and  ink, 
and  with  Angelo  sitting  by  his  bedside  to  write,  dictated  his 
last  will.  It  is  not  so  much  a  will  as  a  record.  Its  chief 
purpose  seems  to  have  been  to  impress  on  the  minds  of  his 
spiritual  heirs,  with  a  prevision  of  the  strifes  which  were 
coming,  the  schisms  that  would  tear  the  young  society,  the 
duty  of  absolute  obedience  to  the  principles  of  the  Rule. 

When  S.  Francis  had  thus  finished  all  his  external  busi- 
ness, he  turned  to  the  lesser  circle  of  the  convent,  and  of  his 
own  private  friends.  There  was  a  lady  who  was  dear  to  him, 
a  certain  Signora  Giacobba  di  Settisoli,  and  he  bade  Angelo 
write  a  letter  to  her  at  his  dictation,  begging  her  to  come  to 
him.     Angelo  resumed  his  pen  and  wrote  : 

"  I  would  thou  shouldest  know,  dearest  friend,  that  the 
Blessed  Christ  hath,  by  His  grace,  revealed  to  me  that  the 
end  of  my  life  is  near  at  hand.  Wherefore,  if  thou  wouldest 
find  me  alive,  when  thou  hast  received  this  letter,  hasten  to 
come  to  S.  Mary  of  the  Angels.  For,  shouldest  thou  come 
after  Saturday,  thou  wilt  not  find  me  living.  And  bring  with 
thee  cloth,  or  haircloth,  in  whicli  to  wrap  my  body,  and  wax 
for  my  burying.  I  pray  thee,  also,  to  bring  me  the  cakes 
which  thou  wast  wont  to  give  me  when  I  was  sick  at 

When  he  had  gone  thus  far,  he  stopped  short,  raised  his 
eyes  to  heaven,  and  bade  the  writer  cease,  adding  that  Gia- 
cobba was  already  on  the  way,  bringing  all  that  he  desired. 
Almost  immediately  the  porter  came  to  announce  her  arrival, 
with  her  sons  and  servants,  and  to  ask  whether  she  should 
be  admitted.  The  cakes  he  had  asked  for  were  made  of 
almonds  and  honey — almond  rock.  There  is  something 
infinitely  touching  in  this  movement  of  human  weakness — 
the  one  last  simple,  child-like  liking,  half  appetite,  half  remi- 
niscence, stimulated  by  the  aft'ectionate  wish  to  give  his 
friend  something  to  do  for  him. 


*^ — ^ 

Oct.  4.]  S.  Frmicis  of  Assisi.  115 

This  story  is  only  told  by  Wadding,  the  late  annalist,  who 
adds  that  Giacobba  ministered  to  her  friend  during  the  few 
days  that  he  lived  :  but  the  Bollandists  doubt  the  truth  of  the 
story.  They  question  whether  S.  Francis,  after  so  urgently 
commending  to  the  brethren  the  observance  of  his  Rule, 
would  allow  of  the  transgression  of  one  of  its  laws  towards 
liimself,  for  it  is  strictly  forbidden  that  a  woman  should  enter 
the  doors  of  a  convent  of  friars.  There  can  be  no  doubt, 
however,  about  the  authenticity  of  the  interrupted  letter, 
whether  it  was  thrown  aside  by  reason  of  weakness,  or 
whether  it  was  indeed  anticipated  by  the  arrival  of  the 
person  to  whom  it  was  addressed. 

It  is  related  by  Pisanus  that  S.  Francis  called  all  the  breth- 
ren to  sup  with  him  the  night  before  he  died ;  broke  bread, 
after  blessing  it,  and  distributed  it  among  them,  but  that 
Elias,  the  traitor,  refused  to  eat,  and  went  out.  This  story 
deserves  no  credence ;  it  was  invented  at  the  time  when  a 
superstitious  effort  was  made  to  represent  the  life  of  S.  Francis 
as  a  reproduction,  even  in  minute  details,  of  the  life  of  Christ. 
The  truth  was,  no  doubt,  that  he  summoned  to  him  all 
the  brethren,  and  gave  them  his  dying  advice  and  blessing. 
When  he  had  said  all  he  had  to  say,  he  commanded  thfe 
Gospels  to  be  brought  to  him,  and  the  passage  to  be  read 
beginning,  "Before  the  Feast  of  the  Passover,"  the  commence- 
ment of  the  13th  chapter  of  S.  John.  When  the  reading  was 
ended,  he  began,  with  broken  voice,  to  sing,  "Voce  mea  ad 
Dominum  clamavi,"  the  141st  Psalm  (A.  V.  142)  :  "  1  cried 
unto  the  Lord  with  my  voice;  yea,  even  unto  the  Lord  did  I 
make  my  supplication.  I  poured  out  my  complaint  before 
him  :  and  showed  him  of  my  trouble.  When  my  spirit  was 
in  heaviness  thou  knewest  my  path :  in  the  way  wherein  I 
walked  have  they  privily  laid  a  snare  for  me.  I  looked  also 
upon  my  right  hand :  and  saw  there  was  no  man  that  would 
know  me.     I  had  no  place  to  flee  unto  :  and  no  man  cared 

^ ^ 

for  my  soul.  I  cried  unto  thee,  O  Lord,  and  said :  thou 
art  my  hope  and  my  portion  in  the  land  of  the  living." 

Such,  so  far  as  any  record  informs  us,  were  the  last  words 
ofS.  Francis. 

Sucli  was  the  end  of  the  life  of  S.  Francis  of  Assisi,  a  life 
filled  with  one  great  master-thought,  which  dominated  all 
other  motives  of  humanity  and  impulses  of  nature — the 
desire  to  be  like  Christ.  He  died  on  Saturday,  October 
4th,  and  he  was  buried  in  the  Cathedral  of  Assisi  on  the 
following  day. 

According  to  tradition,  the  body  of  S.  Francis  lies  under 
the  high  altar,  but  no  one  knows  the  precise  spot  of  his 
grave ;  and  a  mysterious  legend  has  crept  about,  whispered 
in  the  twilight  for  ages,  that  far  underneath,  lower  even  than 
the  subterranean  church,  the  great  saint,  erect  and  pale,  with 
sacred  drops  of  blood  on  his  five  wounds,  and  an  awfiil 
silence  round  him,  waits,  rapt  in  some  heavenly  meditation, 
for  the  moment  when  he,  like  his  Lord,  shall  rise  again.  Of 
relics  of  the  Saint  there  are  not  many.  The  convent  at 
Castro-vecchio  pretends  to  possess  a  bottle  of  blood  drawn 
from  the  wound  in  the  side  of  S.  Francis,  which  effervesces 
annually  on  his  festival.  More  blood,  and  some  skin,  at 
Assisi ;  blood,  and  a  bit  of  skin,  at  Monte  Alvemo,  carried 
about  in  procession  annually,  on  the  Feast  of  the  Stigmata. 
The  linen  shirt  and  shoes  of  the  Saint  receive  religious  vene- 
ration at  Assisi,  as  does  also  the  napkin  which  was  laid  on 
his  dead  face,  and  the  bath  in  which  his  corpse  was  washed. 
Florence  boasts  of  possessing  his  habit. 

He  is  represented  in  art  in  the  habit  of  his  Order,  bearded, 
with  the  stigmata,  or  receiving  them  from  a  flying  six-winged 
crucified  cherub. 


Q.J  ^.]  kS.  Charitina.  117 

October  5. 

S.  Thraseas,  B.M.  at  Sinynia  ;  circ.  a.d.  171. 

SS.  Palmatius  and  Others,  MM.  at  Treves;  a.d.  302. 

S.  Peregrin.\,  V.M.  at  Rome ;  circ.  a.d.  303.' 

S.  Charitina,  V.M.  in  Pantus;  circ  a.d.  304. 

S.  Marcellinl'S,  B.  of  Ravenna;  a.t>.  346. 

S.  Apollin.^ris,  B.  of  Valetice  in  Dauphine ;  a.d.  520. 


at  Messina,  in  Sicily  ;  a.d.  541. 
S-  Galla,  ly.  at  Rome  ;  circ.  A.D.  546. 
S.  Ektmia,  V.  Atss.  at  Mende :  jthcent. 

S.  RIkinulf,  Arciuicacon  at  Bodichcn,  in  Westphalia;  circ.  A.D.  857. 
S.  MuKDACH,  H .  in  Argyllshire. 
S.  Froilan,  B.  of  Leon  in  Spain  ;  a.d.  1006. 
S.  Attilan,  B.  of  Zainora  in  Spain;  a.d.  1009. 
S.  Simon,  Count  of  Crepy-en-Valois,  Mk.  at  Bcauvais  ;  a.d.  1082. 
B.  Peter  of  Imola,  Kyit.  of  S.  John  of  Jerusalem,  at  Florence; 

A.D.  1320. 

(about  a.d.  304.) 

[Greek  Menologie.s  and  Modern  Roman  Martyrology.  Another 
Charitina,  or  perhaps  another  commemoration  of  the  same  by  the 
Greeks  on  Jan.  15,  and  Sept.  4.  Authority  : — Mention  in  the  Menolo- 
gies,  and  the  Acts  by  Metaphrastes.  ] 

igp^fH  CHARITINA  was  the  servant  of  a  certain  Clau- 
dius, living  in  Pontus,  perhaps  at  Amisus.  The 
procurator,  Domitius,  having  heard  that  she  Avas 
a  Christian,  sent  orders  to  Claudius  for  her  to  be 
handed  over  to  the  officers  for  trial.  Claudius  was  deeply 
grieved  ;  he  covered  himself  with  sackcloth,  and  bewailed 
her  approaching  fate.  But  Charitina  bade  him  be  of  good 
cheer;  though  as  yet  unbaptized,  she  was  a  Christian  at 
heart,  and  would  suffer  for  Christ,  and   beseech  Him   to 

'  Relics  at  Laibach  in  Carinthia. 



1 1 8  Lives  of  the  Saints.  ^q^  ^ 

accept  her  sufferings,  and  for  their  sake  shed  graces  and 
pardon  on  the  head  of  her  master  and  his  household.  This 
is  not  the  only  instance  which  the  Acts  of  the  Martyrs  reveals 
to  us,  of  the  tenderest  love  existing  between  the  masters  and 
mistresses  and  their  slaves  in  the  old  Roman  world. 

Claudius,  when  he  gave  up  the  girl  to  the  soldiers,  said  to 
her :   "  Remember  me  before  the  Heavenly  King." 

She  was  brought  before  the  magistrate,  her  hair  cut  off, 
and  burning  coals  poured  over  her  head ;  she  was  then  flung 
into  the  water,  but  clambered  out.  "  This,"  said  she,  "  is 
my  baptism."  The  governor  then  had  her  teeth  knocked 
out,  and  her  hands  and  feet  cut  off. 

(A.D.  520.) 

[Gallican  and  Roman  Maityrologies,  Ado,  Usuardus,  Hrabanus, 
&c.  confound  him  with  S.  ApoUinaris  of  Ravenna.  Authorities : — 
Mention  in  the  Chronicle  of  Ado  of  Vienne,  and  Agobard  of  Lyons  in 
his  book,  "  De  Judaicis  Superstitionibus."  Also  a  life  of  the  saint  by  a 
deacon  of  S.  ApoUinaris,  who  died  not  many  years  later.  His  name  was 
probably  Eladius.] 

Apollinaris,  Bishop  of  Valence,  in  Gaul,  was  born  of 
noble  parents  at  Vienne,  His  brother  was  the  more  famous 
S.  Avitus.  Archbishop  of  Vienne  after  the  death  of  S.  Isichius, 
his  father,  who  occupied  the  see  till  a,d.  494.  The  mother  of 
S.  Avitus  and  S,  Apollinaris,  and  wife  of  S,  Isichius,  was 
named  Audentia.  A  sister  named  Fuscina  is  praised  for  her 
virtues  by  S.  Avitus,  in  one  of  his  poems.  The  family  was 
noble  and  splendid,  and  was  apparently  that  of  Avitus  the 
emperor,  and  S.  Sidonius  Apollinaris.'    Apollinaris  was  con- 

*  See  August,  p.  244,  vol.  viiL 


* ^ 

Oct.  5.]  '5'.  Apollinaris  of  Valence.  119 

secrated  Bishop  of  Valence  in  499  by  his  brother  Avitus, 
the  Metropohtan. 

The  two  brothers  had  hard  work  in  their  Burgundian  dio- 
ceses to  contend  against  and  root  out  the  popular  Arianism. 
Sigismund,  king  of  Burgundy,  had  renounced  this  heresy, 
but  it  prevailed  amidst  his  subjects. 

In  517  assembled  the  Council  of  Epaon,'  convened  by 
Sigismund  to  ameliorate  the  morals  of  the  clergy  in  his  realm, 
and  to  put  in  force  the  ancient  disciplinary  canons.  In  this 
council,  which  was  attended  by  S.  Avitus  and  S.  Apollinaris, 
Stephen,  fiscal  prefect  of  Burgundy,  was  excommunicated 
for  having  married  Palladia,  his  sister-in-law,  on  his  wife's 
death.  This  so  exasperated  Sigismund  that  he  banished 
the  bishops  from  his  realm.  Eleven  of  the  exiled  bishops 
thereupon  assembled  again  in  synod  at  Lyons,  under  the 
presidency  of  Virentiolus  the  archbishop,  and  renewed  their 
sentence  of  excommunication.  Apollinaris  spent  a  year  in 
exile,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Lyons,  and  was  then  recalled 
by  the  Burgundian  king,  who  having  been  attacked  by  fever, 
thought  it  was  sent  him  in  punishment  for  his  treatment  of 
the  bishops. 

Not  long  after  his  return  to  Valence,  S.  Apollinaris  started 
on  a  journey  to  Aries  and  Marseilles,  to  visit  some  of  his 
relations.  After  his  return  to  his  see,  he  sickened  and  died. 
The  relics  of  S.  ApoUinaris  were  thrown  into  the  Rhone  by 
the  Huguenots,  in  the  i6th  century. 

'  The  position  ol  Epaon  is  not  known  for  certain,  any  more  than  our  English 
Cloveshoe  ;  but  Epaon  is  thought  to  be  represented  by  the  modern  Yenne,  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Flon. 

* »i, 


I20  Lives  of  tJie  Saints.  vocx-.^. 


(A.D.  541.) 

[Roman  Martyrology,  Ado,  Usuardus,  Hrabanus,  &c.  Often  con- 
founded by  martyrologists  with  S.  Placidus,  the  disciple  of  S.  Benedict. 
Authority  : — The  Acts,  a  forgery  of  the  12th  cent.] 

Many  ancient  martyrologies  commemorate  on  this  day 
the  martyrdoms  of  SS.  Placidus,  Eutychius,  and  others,  in 
Sicily.^  No  early  martyxologist,  however,  speaks  of  these 
saints  as  having  been  Benedictine  monks,  nor  states  the  date 
of  their  martyrdoms.  Ado,  Usuardus,  Notker,  &c.  mention 
them  as  Sicilian  martyrs,  but  say  nothing  more  about 

In  1 1 15,  when  Peter  the  Deacon  was  Abbot  of  Monte 
Cassino,  there  appeared  in  Italy  a  certain  Greek  priest  from 
Constantinople,  named  Simeon.  He  had  visited  Sicily,  and 
from  thence  he  made  his  way  to  Salerno.  He  produced  a 
parchment  written  in  Greek,  containing  a  life  and  martyrdom 
of  S.  Placidus,  purporting  to  have  been  written  by  one 
Gordian,  monk  of  Monte  Cassino,  and  companion  of  S.  Pla- 
cidus. Simeon  pretended  that  after  the  martyrdom  of  Placidus, 
Gordian  took  refuge  at  Constantinople  Avith  the  ancestors  of 
Simeon ;  and  that  Justinian,  the  emperor,  hearing  of  his  ad- 
ventures, bade  him  write  a  record  of  the  passion  of  the  Bene- 
dictine martyrs  in  Sicily.  This  Gordian  did,  and  he  gave 
his  original  manuscript  to  his  hosts,  and  it  became  a  family 
heirloom,  which  descended  to  Simeon,  and  Simeon  showed 
it  to  the  Benedictines  of  Salerno.    The  monks,  eager  as  they 

'  The  Epternacht  Mart,  of  the  8th  cent. :  "  In  Sicily  the  nativity  of  Eutychius  and 
of  other  eight."  A  Lucca  Mart.:  "In  Sicily,  Placitus,  Euticius,  and  other  thirty." 
Some  copies  of  the  Mart,  of  Jerome  :  "In  Sicily,  Euticius  and  other  eight,  and  else- 
where Placitus  and  Baricius."  "  In  Sicily,  Placentius  and  Placitus,  Euticius  and 
other  thirty."  Morbach  Mart,  of  gth  cent. :  "  Placitus,  at  Valcntia  Apollinarls,  Euti- 
cius, Victorinus." 


naturally  were  to  hear  glorious  news  of  the  heroism  of  some 
of  the  founders  of  their  Order,  admitted  that  there  were  no 
traditions  in  their  society  confirming  this  wonderful  narrative, 
and  they  refused  to  give  credence  to  it.  Then  the  wily  old 
Greek,  laying  his  hand  on  a  crucifix,  swore  most  solemnly 
by  that  sacred  form  that  the  manuscript  was  genuine,  and 
really  written  by  Gordian,  and  contained  a  true  narrative. 
Some  of  the  monks  yielded  credence  to  the  story ;  but,  as 
Peter,  Abbot  of  Monte  Cassino,  informs  us  in  his  account  of 
the  affair,  John,  Provost  of  S.  Lorenzo,  never  trusted  the  old 
rascal,  but  called  him  a  Greek  impostor. ' 

There  was  present  at  Salerno,  at  the  same  time,  a  monk 
named  John  of  Capua,  who  also  regarded  Simeon  as  a  rogue, 
and  the  manuscript  as  a  forgery  ;  but  after  a  time  he  consented 
to  translate  it  into  Latin,  whether  because  he  abandoned 
his  suspicions,  or  because  the  Abbot  of  Monte  Cassino 
wanted  a  translation,  does  not  transpire.  When  the  Acts,  in 
Greek  and  Latin,  reached  the  headquarters  of  the  Order, 
they  were  generally  regarded  as  apocryphal,  and  Peter  Dia- 
conus,  as  he  tells  us,  at  first  treated  them  as  a  forgery.  How- 
ever, after  a  time  perhaps  he  changed  his  mind,  for  in  his 
twenty-third  year  he  re-translated,  or  rather  re-wrote,  the  life 
and  martyrdom  of  S.  Placidus  and  his  companions.  But  he 
returned  to  his  former  disbelief  in  the  genuineness  of  the 
document,  for  he  composed,  later  in  life,  a  book  on  the 
worthies  of  Monte  Cassino,  and  he  was  careful  not  to  say  a 
word  in  that  of  the  marvellous  story  of  Gordian. 

However,  that  story  seems  to  have  found  favour  with 
others,  and  Stephen  Aniciensis  wrote  the  life.^     But  his  life 

'  "  Dicens,  ilium  delusoiem  Constantinopolitanum  esse."  The  letter  of  Peter  of 
Monte  Cassino,  containing  the  account  of  Simeon,  is  to  be  found  in  Oct.  Cajetan,  De 
Sanctis  Siculis,  t.  i.  p.  183. 

^  The  Bollandists  say  of  him,  "  Stephanas  quidam  Aniciensis,  auctor  caetera  igno- 
tus."  There  was  Stephen,  B.  of  Le  Pay  (Anicium)  in  1220,  but  it  is  hardly  Hkely  that 
he  can  have  been  the  author. 



12  2  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  s. 

is  identical  with  that  of  Peter  Diaconus,  and  it  is  thought 
that  the  abbot,  not  liking  to  stand  godfather  to  the  story  of 
Gordian,  republished  it  under  an  assumed  name. 

In  after  times,  when  the  fabulous  story  became  accepted, 
various  letters  were  forged  to  substantiate  it ;  these — letters 
from  Tertullus,  the  father  of  S.  Placidus,  from  the  Sicilians 
after  his  martyrdom,  and  of  Justinian  and  Pope  Vigilius — 
were  published  along  with  the  Chronicon  Casinense,  in  1603.' 
Unfortunately  the  fraud  was  used  to  support  the  claims 
of  the  Benedictine  monastery  to  certain  lands,  which  they 
held  by  virtue  of  forged  bequests  by  Tertullus  to  S.  Benedict. 
In  the  year  1266,  two  monks  at  Messina,  Raymund  and 
Florellus,  saw  in  vision  S.  Placidus,  in  Benedictine  habit, 
who  ordered  them  to  revive  the  festival  in  his  honour,  ob- 
served anciently  on  October  5th,  but  which  had  fallen  into 
neglect.  According  to  their  story,  they  had  demurred  to 
announcing  to  the  people  the  celebration  of  the  memorial  of 
a  man  of  whom  nobody  had  heard  anything.  Thereupon 
the  vision  extended  to  them  a  book,  containing  an  account 
of  his  life  and  martyrdom.  The  book  was  that  of  Gor- 
dian.''^ From  this  time,  veneration  for  S.  Placidus  and 
his  companions,  monks  and  martyrs,  became  popular  in 
Messina,  and  gradually  infiltrated  the  whole  Benedictine 

In  1588,  Raynaldde  Nare,  knight  of  S.  John  of  Jerusalem, 
began  the  rebuilding  of  the  church  of  S.  John  at  Messina. 
On  digging  the  foundations,  it  was  found  that  the  old  foun- 
dations of  the  church  had  been  laid  in  the  midst  of  a  number 
of  skeletons,  cutting  across  ancient  walls  which  had  formerly 
enclosed  them.  Twenty-eight  skeletons  were  discovered, 
together   with   urns    containing    ashes,   lacrymatories,   and 

'  These  letters  bristle  with  anachronisms.     That  they  are  forgeries  does  not  admit 
of  the  smallest  doubt. 

2  Cajetan,  who  relates  this,  says  he  heard  it  from  Florellus  himself,  his  kinsman. 



Oct.  5.]   6'6'.  Placidus,  Eutychius,  and  Others.     123 

other  objects  usually  accompanying  ancient  interments.  Of 
these  bodies  four  were  enclosed  in  one  cist — three  with  their 
feet  to  the  north,  one  with  feet  to  the  south.  Of  the  other 
skeletons,  one  lay  with  its  feet  to  the  west,  four  with  feet  to 
the  east,  seventeen  mth  feet  to  the  north,  and  two  with  feet 
to  the  south. 

There  had  originally  been  a  quadrangular  wall  enclosing 
the  cist  above  mentioned,  and  nine  of  the  other  bodies,  and 
probably  more ;  but  the  apse  of  the  old  church  had  been 
built  over  the  spot,  irrespective  of  the  sepulchre,  and  had 
broken  through  the  surrounding  wall,  leaving  it  intact  only 
on  the  south  and  west ;  the  cist  touched  the  foundations  of 
the  apse  at  its  north-east  angle.  It  was  at  once  most  rashly 
concluded  that  these  bodies  belonged  to  the  martyred 
monks,  and  those  in  the  cist  were  supposed  to  be  S. 
Placidus,  his  two  brothers,  and  sister. 

The  discovery  of  these  skeletons  created  a  sensation  in 
Messina ;  visions  and  miracles  convinced  the  sceptical,  and 
the  Archbishop  of  Messina  having  appealed  to  Pope  Sixtus 
v.,  the  Pope  gave  judgment  that  the  relics  found  at  Messina 
were  to  receive  sacred  honours  as  those  of  martyrs,  and  that 
their  invention  should  be  celebrated  on  August  3.  Pope 
Sixtus  V.  elevated  the  festival  of  SS.  Placidus  and  his  com- 
panions, monks  and  martyrs,  on  October  5,  into  a  double, 
with  lessons  taken  from  the  Life  by  Gordian,  and  the  festi- 
val was,  by  his  order,  inserted  in  the  Roman  Martyrology 
and  Kalendar.* 

In  1608,  when  excavations  were  made  outside  the  apse, 
more  skeletons  were  discovered,  as  indeed  might  have  been 
predicted  by  anyone  who  had  examined  the  place  of  the 
former  discoveries.     An  account  was  at  once  sent  to  Pope 

'  The  Jesuit  fathers  say:  "  Haec  quidem  Sixtus  V.  ad  promovendum  S.  Placldi  et 
Sociorum  iufidelibus  cultum  :  verum  satisne  prudenter  segessit  in  hoc  negotio  Sixtus? 
Dailletus  enim  in  Vitis  Sanctorum  .  .  .  Pontificem  ilium,  velut  hac  in  re  minus  caute 
versatum,  sugillare  non  veritus  est." — Acta  SS.,  Oct.  iii.  p.  io8. 


124  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.s. 

Paul  v.,  and  he  granted  sacred  honours  to  the  newly  un- 
earthed relics. 

The  story  of  S.  Placidus  is  as  follows : — 

Placidus  was  born  in  515,  and  at  the  age  of  seven  was 
given  by  his  father  TertuUus  to  S.  Benedict.  This  is 
related  by  S.  Gregory  the  Great  in  his  Dialogues.  One  day 
the  little  Placidus  went  to  the  water-side  with  a  crock  to 
fetch  water,  but  letting  go  the  pitcher,  it  slipped  in,  and 
Placidus,  in  attempting  to  recover  it,  fell  in  also.  S.  Bene- 
dict at  that  moment  was  in  his  cell.  He  suddenly  called  to 
him  his  disciple  Maurus,  and  said  to  him :  "  Brother  Maurus, 
run,  for  that  boy  who  has  gone  to  fetch  water  has  fallen 
into  the  pond."  Maurus  asked  a  blessing  and  departed, 
and  reaching  the  water-side  he  ran  out  upon  the  surface  and 
caught  the  hair  of  the  drowning  child,  and  drew  him  safe  to 
land ;  and  then  only  did  he  perceive  that  he  had  walked  on 
the  face  of  the  lake  to  reach  him.  This  incident  is  related 
also  by  S.  Gregory,  and  this  is  all  that  is  really  known  of 
Placidus,  whose  name  does  not  again  occui  in  any  authentic 

The  forged  Acts  by  the  pseudo-Gordian,  however,  make 
him  depart  for  Sicily,  where  he  is  martyred  by  the  Saracens 
along  with  his  brothers  Eutychius  and  Victorinus,  and  his 
sister  Flavia.  and  thirty  companions,  because  they  would  not 
worship  Moloch  and  Remphan,  the  gods  of  the  Saracen 
king,  Abdallah.  It  is  needless  to  point  out  that  the  Saracen 
invasion  of  Sicily  did  not  occur  till  a.d.  832,  when  they  were 

If  the  bodies  found  at  Messina  had  been  those  of  martyrs 
who  had  suffered  in  a  Saracen  invasion,  they  would  not  have 
had  urns  and  lacrymatories  at  their  sides. 

The  pseudo-Gordian  makes  the  Saracen  invaders  come 
from  Spain,  then,  he  says,  in  the  hands  of  these  pagans ;  but 
the  Moorish  occupation  of  Spain  took  place  in  71 1-7 13,  and 


Abdallah,  whom  he  makes  their  king  in  Spain,  was  either 
Abdallah  of  Toledo,  a.d.  870,  or  the  seventh  Caliph,  a.d. 
880-905,  or  the  eighth  Caliph,  a.d.  907-912,  none  of  whom 
sent  expeditions  to  Sicily.  But  the  story  does  not  deserve 
controverting,  it  carries  its  falsehood  in  its  face.  It  is  quite 
unnecessary  to  enter  into  the  particulars  of  the  invention  of 
the  crafty  Greek  Simeon.  That  there  were  martyrs  in  Sicily 
of  the  names  of  Placidus  and  Eutychius,  Simeon  had  learned 
when  at  Messina,  from  the  Martyrologies.  That  he  had  read 
S.  Gregory's  Dialogues  is  also  evident,  for  he  incorporated 
the  narrative  of  the  rescue  of  Placidus  from  drowning  and 
the  name  of  his  father,  in  his  forged  Acts.  But  all  the  rest  is 
pure  invention,  and  he  was  without  the  smallest  justification 
for  identifying  the  Placidus  of  Messina  with  the  Placidus  of 

The  Roman  Martyrology  needs  revision  in  this  matter, 
for  it  says  on  this  day  :  "  At  Messina,  in  Sicily,  the  nativity 
of  S.  Placidus,  monk,  disciple  of  S.  Benedict,  Abbot,  and  of 
SS.  Eutychius  and  Victorinus,  his  brothers,  of  S.  Flavia, 
virgin,  their  sister,  and  of  SS.  Donatus,  Firmatus,  Deacon, 
Faustus,  and  thirty  other  monks,  all  martyrs,  who  were 
massacred  for  Christ  by  the  pirate  Massucha,  a.d.  541." 

S.  GALLA,  W. 
(about  a.d.  546.) 

[Roman  Martyiolog}'.  Authority  : — Mention  by  S.  Gregory  the  Great 
in  his  Dialogues,  iv.  13  ;  and  tlie  letters  of  S.  Fulgentius  to  her.] 

At  the  time  when  the  Goths  were  masters  of  Italy,  there 
lived  in  Rome  a  young  lady  of  high  birth,  daughter  of  the 
consul  and  patrician  Symmachus.  She  was  married  when 
very  young,  and  after  a  year  was  left  a  widow.     On  the 


»J< ,J, 

126  Lives  of  the  Saints,  [Oct.s. 

death  of  her  husband  she  renounced  every  prospect  of 
re-marriage  by  shutting  herself  up  in  a  monastery  near  the 
basilica  of  S.  Peter.  After  some  years  she  was  afflicted  with 
cancer  in  her  breast,  and  suffered  those  agonies  which  none 
know  but  such  as  have  felt  them. 

Galla  was  unable  to  bear  being  left  in  the  dark  in  her  cell, 
and  two  candles  were  kept  burning  beside  her  bed  all  night. 
Her  sleep  was  broken  by  her  anguish,  and  when  in  the  night 
she  woke,  her  mind  was  discomposed  by  want  of  sufficient 
sleep  and  gnawing  pain  that  never  ceased.  One  night 
when  she  opened  her  eyes  she  thought  she  saw  S.  Peter 
standing  between  the  two  tapers.  She  stretched  out  her 
hands  to  him  and  asked  :  "  My  Lord  !  are  my  sins  forgiven 
me?"  "  My  daughter,  be  of  good  cheer,  they  are,"  was  his 
answer.  Now  there  was  in  the  monastery  a  sister  whom 
Galla  loved  dearly,  and  she  pleaded  :  "  I  pray  thee,  suffer 
sister  Benedicta  to  come  with  me."  "  She  shall  follow  thee 
within  thirty  days,"  said  the  Apostle. 

Then  he  vanished,  and  Galla  called  the  mother  and  sisters 
to  her  and  told  them  her  vision.  Three  days  after  she  died, 
and  -within  thirty  days  Benedicta  followed  her. 

Q.  Aurelius  Symmachus,  the  father  of  Galla,  was  a  noted 
man.  Priscian  dedicated  to  him  his  book  on  weights  and 
measures.  His  other  daughter,  Rusticiana,  was  married  to 
the  great  Boethius.  Boethius  thus  describes  her :  "  My  wife 
lives  modest  in  mind,  remarkable  for  her  purity,  and,  that  I 
may  sum  up  in  one  all  her  good  qualities,  in  every  way  like 
her  father."  Procopius  also  speaks  in  high  terms  of  the 
virtue  and  charity  of  Rusticiana.  Another  daughter,  Proba, 
is  mentioned  in  a  letter  written  to  Galla  by  S.  Fulgentius, 
Bishop  of  Ruspe,  on  the  death  of  her  husband.  Pioba  was 
then  a  handmaid  of  Christ. 

An  image  of  8.  Mary,  "in  Porticu,"  it  is  pretended  ap 
pearcd  in  dazzling  light  to  S.  Galla  in  her  own  house  when  she 
^. ^ 

was  giving  alms  to  the  poor.  On  the  strength  of  certain 
MSS.,  which  Benedict  XIV.  thought  were  coeval  with  the 
Saint,  and  which  narrated  this  incident,  he  confirmed  the 
veneration  Sfiven  to  this  ima2:e. 


(about  a.d.  857.) 

[Lubek  and  Cologne  Martyiology  of  1490,  Florarius,  Greven,  Mola- 
nus,  and  the  Bollandists.  Authority  : — A  life  by  Sigeward,  probably  the 
Bishop  of  Minden  in  1 122,  from  an  earlier  life,  which  he  merely  re- wrote ; 
he  dedicated  his  book  to  his  friend  Albin,  apparently  the  contemporaiy 
B.  of  Merseburg.  There  is  a  second  life  in  Latin  by  Gobelinns  Persona 
(15th  cent.),  and  a  German  translation  of  it  of  tliis  same  date  (Kathol. 
Zeitschrift,  viii.  1851),  but  this  is  a  recension  of  the  work-  of  Sigeward.] 

Meinulf  was  the  son  of  noble  Saxon  parents,  in  the  time 
of  Charlemagne.  He  lost  his  father  when  quite  a  child,  and 
his  mother,  Wigtrude,  pursued  by  the  offensive  attentions  of 
her  brother-in-law,  took  refuge  with  Charlemagne.  The 
emperor  stood  godfather  to  Meinulf,  who  was  baptized  at  his 
court.  The  noble  family  of  Buren  claim,  with  what  right  it 
is  not  for  us  to  decide,  that  S.  Meinulf  belonged  to  it.  Popular 
tradition  has  added  some  circumstances  to  the  narrative. 
Meinulf  was  not  born  when  his  mother  resolved  on  flight  to 
escape  the  persecution  of  her  brother-in-law.  She  heard  that 
Charlemagne  was  at  Stadberg,  and  she  was  making  her  way 
to  him  from  her  castle  of  Fiirstenberg,  when  she  was  seized 
with  the  pains  of  labour,  and  Meinulf  was  born  beneath  a 
lime-tree  near  Alt-Bodeken,  which  is  still  shown  and  called 
"  S.  Meinulf's  linden." 

Charles  the  Great  took  charge  of  the  child,  and  had  him 
brought  up  in  one  of  the  schools  he  had  founded,  under 
Badurad,  Bishop  of  Paderborn.     One  day  the  bishop  was 



128  Lives  of  the  Sai7tts.  \oc\.s- 

explaining  to  the  scholars  the  text,  "  Foxes  have  holes, 
and  the  birds  of  the  air  have  nests,  but  the  Son  of  Man  hath 
not  where  to  lay  his  head."  "  The  Son  of  Man,"  said 
Badurad,  "  goes  over  the  world  seeking  gentle  hearts  which 
will  open  to  Him,  and  in  which  He  may  rest.  He  stands 
without  and  knocks  and  seeks  admittance,  but  the  foxes  of 
cunning  have  made  their  lair  within,  or  volatile  thoughts 
have  nested  there,  and  He  turns  away  and  goes  further, 
seeking  an  empty  heart  in  which  He  may  lay  his  head."  The 
words  touched  young  Meinulf.  He  thought  the  Saviour 
stood  at  his  heart  and  knocked  with  His  pierced  hands. 
And  he  bade  Him  enter  and  take  up  His  abode  within.  So 
full  was  he  of  this  idea,  that  he  resolved  to  embrace  the 
ecclesiastical  estate,  and  devote  all  his  thoughts  to  the  Lord 
who  rested  and  reigned  within,  and  banish  the  foxes  and  the 
birds  which  sought  an  entrance.  He  was  ordained  deacon 
and  given  a  canonry  in  the  Cathedral  of  Paderborn,  and 
was  afterwards  advanced  to  the  archdeaconiy. 

He  was  wealthy.  Large  estates  in  Westphalia  belonged 
to  him,  but  he  was  noted  for  his  humility,  gentleness,  and 
abhorrence  of  display.  One  day  he  was  talking  with  his 
cowherd,  when  the  man  told  him  that  there  was  a  spot  in  the 
forest  of  Bodeken,  which  belonged  to  him,  where,  from 
under  an  ancient  oak,  bubbled  up  a  limpid  spring,  and 
"there,"  said  the  cowherd,  "I  have  seen  of  a  night  a 
number  of  deer  congregate." 

Meinulf  had  long  meditated  the  building  of  a  monastery. 
What  if  this  spot  where  the  gentle,  timid  wild  fawns  gathered 
were  the  most  suitable  one  for  a  convent  of  holy  women, 
flying  the  world,  to  gather  about  the  water-brooks  of  salvation  ? 
He  resolved  to  spend  a  night  on  the  spot.  And  when  all 
was  hushed,  and  darkness  fell  on  the  forest,  over  the  glade 
fell  a  thin  white  mist,  which  lay  along  on  the  grass  beside 
the  fountain  like  snow,  and  above  in  the  dark  sky  wheeled 


S.  MEINDLF.    After  Cahier. 

Oct.  5. 

oct.s.]  '^'  Meinulf,  129 

the  Churl's  wain.  From  under  the  black  arches  of  the  forest 
trees  came  fawns  and  deer,  and  drank  at  the  fountain.  And 
presently  the  moon  rose  full  and  shone  down  on  the  open 
space,  and  all  was  as  clear  as  day.  Around,  the  forest  was 
black,  in  the  glade  all  was  brightness. 

Meinulf  resolved  to  plant  on  that  spot  a  monastery  for 
women.  He  made  a  solemn  vow  to  do  so,  and  he  after- 
wards fulfilled  it.  If  we  may  trust  the  story,  once  more  he 
sought  the  glade  before  the  foundations  were  laid,  and  then 
he  disturbed  a  magnificent  stag  which,  starting  up,  stood 
and  looked  at  him,  and  then  bounded  out  of  sight.  And 
Meinulf  thought  he  saw  a  cross  of  light  rising  between  the 
horns  of  the  stag.  Much  the  same  story  is  told  of  S. 
Eustachius  and  of  S.  Hubert. 

When  the  monastery  was  built,  he  richly  endowed  it,  and 
placed  in  it  canonesses  of  Aix-la-Chapelle. 

One  anecdote  only  is  told  of  his  relations  with  these  ladies. 
On  a  cold  winter's  day,  a  young  canoness,  feeling  thoroughly 
chilled,  went  into  an  adjoining  cottage  to  warm  herself  at  the 
fire ;  she  took  the  opportunity  of  removing  her  veil  to  comb 
out  her  hair.  As  she  crouched  over  the  flames  the  veil 
caught  fire,  blazed  up,  and  nothing  was  left  of  it  but  the 
fringe.  The  poor  girl  was  in  dismay  and  began  to  cry.  At 
that  moment  the  cottage  door  opened  and  in  came  S. 
Meinulf  She  covered  her  face  with  her  hands  and  bowed 
it  in  her  lap.  Meinulf  mthout  much  difficulty  obtained  the 
facts  of  the  case.  Then,  so  runs  the  tale,  he  collected  the 
ashes  of  the  veil,  breathed  on  them,  and  it  was  restored 
whole  as  before. 

He  died  at  Bodeken  in  the  monastery  he  had  erected, 
nursed  through  his  last  sickness  by  the  loving  hands  of  the 
sisters  whom  he  had  congregated  there,  and  given  a  refuge 
around  the  fountain  of  life. 

The  Paderborn  Annals  give  a  curious  story,  not  told  by 

VOL.  XI.                                                                        9 
,5, ^ 

^ _ ^ 

130  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  5. 

Siward.  As  his  body  was  being  carried  on  the  bier  to  be 
buried,  suddenly  he  sat  up,  opened  his  eyes,  and  said,  "  Go  to 
the  Bishop  of  Paderborn  and  bid  him  in  no  way  hamper  the 
free  election  of  a  new  Superior."  Then  he  closed  his  eyes, 
lay  down  again  on  his  bier,  and  was  rigid  and  cold. 

Some  miracles  convinced  all  around  of  his  sanctity.  After 
his  burial,  a  pall  was  thrown  over  the  sepulchral  stone,  and 
candles  were  lighted  round  it,  and  night  and  day  the  sisters 
watched  and  prayed.  One  night  the  canoness  deputed  to  keep 
vigil  fell  asleep,  and  when  she  woke,  found  that  a  candle  had 
fallen  on  the  pall  without  setting  fire  to  it.  As  the  pall  was 
of  linen,  this  was  accounted  miraculous.  In  or  about  887, 
Bison,  Bishop  of  Paderborn,  was  saying  mass  in  the  chapel 
of  Bodeken,  when  a  loud  report  was  heard  issuing  from  the 
stone  that  covered  the  tomb,  and  before  mass  was  concluded 
it  had  cracked  into  numerous  pieces. 

Bishop  Bison  thought  the  tombstone  had  split  with  the 
frost,  or  from  a  settlement,  and  ordered  that  another  should 
be  put  in  its  place,  but  the  saint  appeared  to  a  priest,  named 
Mainard,  and  bade  him  rebuke  the  bishop  for  having  at- 
tributed the  marvel  to  a  natural  cause;  and  as  the  second 
tombstone  also  cracked,  and,  according  to  the  testimony  of 
the  sisters,  a  not  unfragrant  odour  issued  from  the  chinks, 
the  body  was  taken  up  and  solemnly  enshrined  as  that  of  a 

(date  uncertain.) 

[Dempster  ;  Scottish  Menology.     Authority  :— Dempster.] 

Dempster  says  that  on  this  day  is  commemorated  S. 
Murdach,  a  hermit,  "  who  had  a  poor  habitation  near  a  lake 
in  Argyleshire,  which  is  called  Kilmurdach." 

^ _ ^ 



Oct.  s] 

S.  Murdach.  131 

A  life  of  him,  in  nine  lections,  is  preserved,  and  the  events 
of  it  are  painted  on  the  walls  of  his  cell.  He  was  the  last  of 
the  bards,  and  was  said  to  be  very  devout  to  the  Virgin,  who 
distinguished  him  by  many  favours."^ 

In  his  Scottish  Menology,  he  tells  an  odd  story  of  this 
Saint.  "  Murdach,  the  Culdee,  surnamed  the  Bard,  so  fer- 
vently worshipped  the  Blessed  Mother  of  God,  that  her 
image,  which  was  decently  dressed,  according  to  custom 
and  popular  devotion,  kicked  off  one  of  her  shoes  to  Mur- 
dach as  a  token  to  him  of  her  benevolence.  He  was  there- 
upon charged  with  theft  and  sacrilege,  when,  as  all  the 
people  were  looking  on,  and  he  was  praying,  he  merited  to 
have  the  image  kick  off  the  other  shoe  to  him.  And  this, 
though  it  occurred  some  thousand  years  ago,  survives  freshly 
in  the  memory  of  the  people." 

We  are  reminded  of  the  image  of  S.  Wilgefortis  and  the 
minstrel,  who  sang  the  praises  of  the  Saint  so  sweetly  that 
the  image  kicked  off  to  him  her  silver  shoe.  The  story  in 
both  cases  traces  back  to  heathen  mythology,  and  images  of 
Perchta,  or  Bertha,  a  Teutonic  goddess,  rejDresented  with 
one  foot  shod,  the  other  bare. 

'  Dempster,  Hist.  Eccl.  P.  ii.  p.  474. 


^ — ^ 

132  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  6, 

October  6. 

S.  Sagarius,  B.M.  at  Laodicea;  circ.  a.d.  175. 

SS.  Faith,  V.M.  and  Comp.  MM.  at  Agen  in  Aquitaine ;  circ. 

A.D.  287. 
S.  Prudentius,  M.  at  Fontaine  de  Beze,  near  Langres, 
S.  Renatus,  B.  at  Sorrento;  tniddle  0/ $th  cetii. 
S.  CuMiNE,  Ab.  of  lona ;  a.d.  66g. 
S.  Failbhe,  Ab.  in  Scotland. 

S.  Ywi,  Deac.  at  Wilton,  near  Salisbury  ;  end  0/  jtk  cent. 
S.  Nicetas,  C.  in  Greece ;  circ.  A.  n.  838. 
S.  Magnus,  B.  ofOderzo;  circ.  a.d.  960. 
S.  Macc.\llin,  Ab.  of  IVaulsor  on  tlie  Meitse ;  a.d.  978. 
S.  Adalbero,  B.  of  Wiirzbttrg ;  a.d.  1090. 
S.  Bruno,  C.   Founder  of  the  Carthttsian  Order,   in    Calabria  ; 

a.d.  iioi. 
S.  Malchus,  B.  of  Lismore ;  a.d.  1125. 

S.  FAITH,  V.M. 

(about  a.d.  287.) 

[Roman  Martyrology.  Sarum,  York,  Hereford,  and  Anglican  Re- 
formed Kalendars ;  some  copies  of  the  Martyrology  of  Jerome,  Usuar 
du.s,  Wandelbert,  Notker,  Ado,  &c.  Authority  :  —The  Acts,  not  trust- 
worthy. The  Acts  of  SS.  Caprais  and  Faith  vary  in  several  particulars 
from  those  of  S.  Faith  alone.  All  versions  of  the  Acts  are  too  late  to  be 
relied  upon.] 

ACIANUS,  governor  of  Spain  under  Diocletian 
and   Maximian,  was   at   one   time   at  Agen,   in 
Aquitania,  and  hearing  that  a  certain  noble  dam- 
sel, named  Faith,  living  in  x'Vgen,  was  a  Christian, 
he  summoned  her  before  his  tribunal  and  ordered  her  to 
renounce  the  faith  of  the  Crucified.     "  From  a  child,"  an- 
swered the  maiden,  "  I  have  served  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ 
with  all  my  heart,  and  have  confessed  his  name." 

Dacian  produced  the  ordinary  arguments,  tried  persuasion 
and  threats  in  vain,  and  then  sentenced  her  to  be  stretched 

^. >j< 

.J,. — >^ 

Oct.  6.]  ^^-  Ctimine.  133 

over  a  fire  on  a  brazen  grate  with  her  hands  and  feet  tied  to 
four  posts.  She  endured  the  agony  with  great  fortitude. 
The  executioners  raked  up  the  coals  under  her  and  poured 
on  fat,  and  the  blaze  rushing  up  enveloped  her.  According 
to  one  version  of  the  Acts,  a  heavy  fall  of  snow  veiled  her 
body  as  it  lay  on  the  burning  bed,  and  the  shower  only 
ceased  when  she  was  dead.  Many  other  Christians,  moved 
by  her  heroism,  surrendered  themselves  and  were  executed 
with  the  sword. 

The  arm  of  S.  Faith  was  anciently  shown  at  Glastonbury. 
The  crypt  of  S.  Paul's  Cathedral,  London,  is  dedicated  to 
S,  Faith,  and  was  at  one  time  enriched  with  some  of  hei" 
relics.     Her  head  is  shown  at  Agen. 

In  art  S.  Faith  is  represented  as  a  maiden  with  a  palm- 
branch  and  a  grate. 


(a.d.  669.) 

[Scottish  Kalendar  of  David  Cameiaiius,  by  Dempster  on  Oct.  i6. 
Ferrarius  in  his  General  Catalogue  of  the  Saints.  Fitz-Simon  in  his 
Catalogue  of  Irish  Saints,  on  this  day.     Irish  Kalendars  on  Feb.  24.] 

CuMiNE,  surnamed  Fionn  or  the  White,  son  of  Ernan,  son 
of  Fiachna,  was  therefore  a  descendant  of  Fergus,  the 
grandfather  of  S.  Columba.  He  went  to  Hy,  or  lona,  and 
on  the  death  of  Suibne,  the  Abbot,  in  657,  he  was  elected  in 
his  room.  He  wrote  a  life  of  S.  Columba  in  134  chapters, 
and  died,  after  having  administered  the  Abbey  for  twelve 
years,  on  February  24,  a.d.  669. 

He  is  not  to  be  confounded  with  Cummian,  the  author  of 
the  Paschal  Epistle,  as  is  commonly  done.  The  latter 
Cummian  was  surnamed  Fada  or  the  Long;  he  died  in  a.d. 
662,  and  is  commemorated  on  November  12. 

134  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct  e. 

(date  uncertain.) 

[Dempster  in  his  Scottish  Menology.     Ferrarius.] 

There  are  five  saints  of  this  name. 

1.  Failbhe,  son  of  Pipan,  son  of  Amalgad,  of  the  noble 
race  of  Conall  Gulban  in  Tyrconnel.  Finan,  Abbot  of  Rath, 
was  his  brother,  and  lona  was  recruited  from  this  stock, 
almost  all  the  early  abbots  being  related  by  blood.  To  that 
abbey  Failbhe  betook  himself  on  the  death  of  S.  Cumine 
the  White,  in  669,  and  became  abbot.  He  is  quoted  by 
his  immediate  successor,  S.  Adamnan.  He  seems  twice  to 
have  revisited  Ireland,  probably  in  connection  with  the  Pas- 
chal controversy.  This  Failbhe  is  generally  commemorated 
on  March  22. 

2.  Failbhe  the  Little  was  born  in  668,  and  succeeded  S. 
Killen  as  Abbot  of  lona  in  748.  Of  him  nothing  is  known, 
save  that  he  died  in  the  eighty-seventh  year  of  his  age  on 
March  10,  a.d.  755,  and  that  he  was  succeeded  by  Sleben, 
son  of  Congal,  of  the  race  of  Conall  Gulban. 

3.  Another  Failbhe  the  Little  was  abbot  of  Clon-Macnois, 
and  died  in  711. 

4.  Failbhe,  son  of  Guari,  was  the  successor  of  S.  Maelrubh^ 
of  Apurcrossan,  (d.  722),  he  perished  by  shipwreck  with 
twenty-two  companions  in  732. 

5.  Failbhe,  Abbot  of  Erdairs,  died  in  766. 
It  is  uncertain  whether  Dempster  meant  to  commemorate 

the  ist,  2nd,  4th,  or  5th.     He  says,  "Abbot  in  Scotland," 
all  four  fall  under  this  designation. 

'  See  Aug.  27,  p.  346. 
^ ^ 

6'.  Yivi — ^.  Nicetas.      '  135 

Oct.  6.: 

S.  YWI,  DEAC. 

(END    OF    7TH    CENT.) 

[Wilson's  Anglican  Martyrology  of  1608,  Castellanus,  Saussaye, 
Ferrarius,  Biicelinus,  Menardus,  and  Mayhew.  In  Northumberland  on 
Oct.  23.     Authority  : — The  Acts  in  Capgravc] 

S.  Ywi  was  the  son  of  a  British  chief  named  Bran,  and  an 
English  mother  named  Egitha.  He  was  brought  up  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Lindisfarne,  and  his  father  in  vain  en- 
deavoured to  persuade  him  to  embrace  the  career  of  arms. 
Ywi  sought  a  better  warfare,  and  enrolled  himself  in  the  army 
of  the  Lord.  He  was  ordained  by  S.  Cuthbert,  and  became 
his  devoted  disciple. 

One  day  when  S.  Cuthbert  was  at  the  altar  saying  mass, 
and  Ywi  was  acting  as  his  deacon,  Ywi  noticed  a  poor  man 
struck  with  ague  who  could  scarcely  support  himself  on 
his  staff.  Ywi  stepped  down  to  him,  caught  him  by  the 
hand,  and  drew  him  to  S.  Cuthbert  at  the  altar,  and  the  man 
was  instantly  made  whole.  He  went  aboard  ship  to  visit  the 
monasteries  of  the  saints  in  Brittany,  and  was  nearly 
wrecked.  The  boat  was  more  than  a  week  at  sea,  and  when 
Ywi  reached  land  he  was  so  ill  that  he  died.  His  body  was 
carried  back  to  England  and  buried  at  Wilton  near  Salis- 
bury.    The  date  of  his  death  cannot  be  fixed  with  certainty. 


(about  a.d.  838.) 

[Greek  Mena-a  and  Menology.    Authority  :— The  perfectly  trustworthy 
account  in  the  Menxa.] 

S.  Nicetas  was  born  of  parents  in  an  elevated  rank  of  hfe, 
in   Paphlagonia,    which    boasted    of   imperial   connexions. 

^ -^ 

ij, — >!«« 

136  Lives  of  the  Satnts.  toct.6. 

Nicetas  is  called  "patrician"  in  all  the  menaeas,  and  he 
seems  to  have  been  about  the  court  of  the  Empress  Irene 
while  quite  a  young  man.  The  menology  of  Basil  affirms 
that  he  was  sent  by  Irene  as  her  representative  to  the  second 
council  of  Nica^a,  but  his  name  does  not  occur  in  the  acts  of  the 
council  as  having  held  there  any  position  of  importance.  He 
was  at  that  time  only  twenty-four  years  old,  and  at  that  age 
is  not  likely  to  have  been  trusted  with  an  office  requir- 
ing matured  discretion.  He  probably  occupied  some  inferior 
position.  Later  he  was  nominated  prefect  of  Sicily,  and 
assisted,  as  we  learn  from  the  Acts  of  S.  Euphemia,  at  the 
translation  of  her  relics. 

In  802,  the  power  of  the  Empress  Irene  was  broken  by 
the  revolt  of  Nicephorus,  the  grand  treasurer,  who  had  been 
raised,  enriched,  and  entrusted  with  the  first  dignity  of  the 
empire  by  her.  Irene  was  ill  in  bed  when  suddenly  the 
streets  rang  with  the  shout,  "  Nicephorus  is  Emperor  !"  and 
her  room  was  invaded  by  the  conspirators. 

Nicephorus  falsely  assured  the  sick  empress  that  he  had 
only  assumed  the  purple  because  he  had  been  forced  to  it. 
Irene  indignantly  rose :  "  I  have  not  forgotten  my  former 
fortune,"  she  said,  with  dignity.  "  An  orphan  in  my  youth, 
God  took  me  in  His  arms  and  placed  me  on  the  throne 
which  I  was  unworthy  to  fill.  I  know  that  my  fall  is  due  to 
my  own  sins.  The  name  of  the  Lord  be  praised  !  To  His 
miglity  hand  I  bow ;  He  has  taken  the  crown  from  me  which 
He  set  upon  my  head,  and  "  —  she  turned  towards  Nice- 
phorus, Nicetas,  and  the  other  conspirators—"  you  know  how 
often  1  have  been  warned  against  the  treachery  you  meditated 
against  me  whilst  I  heaped  benefits  upon  you.  The  event 
has  proved  that  these  warnings  were  not  as  false  as  I  thought 
them.  Had  I  hstened  to  them  and  believed  you  could  have 
been  traitors,  your  ruin  would  have  been  speedy.  I  trusted 
rour  oaths,  I  hoped  and  believed  that  you  were  blameless, 

^ * 

^ ^ 

Oct. 6]  '^-  Nicetas.  137 

to  avoid  the  bitter  necessity  of  chastising  you.  I  have  given 
myse'f  over  to  the  arms  of  the  King  of  kings  and  He  has 
protected  the  empire.  Now  He  will  decide  what  is  to  be- 
come of  my  life.  If  that  be  spared  me,  then  I  ask  but  one 
favour,  permission  to  live  in  my  private  palace  at  Eleutheris, 
which  I  have  built,  in  undisturbed  possession  of  my  goods, 
and  to  spend  the  rest  of  my  days  in  penitence  and  tears." 

Nicephorus  swore  solemnly  to  grant  her  what  she  desired, 
and  to  honour  her  ever  as  Augusta.  But  the  fallen  princess 
found  that  this  oath  was  as  httle  regarded  as  the  former 
oaths  taken  by  the  rebel.  She  was  banished  to  the  island  of 
Lesbos,  where  she  was  forced  to  work  with  her  hands  to  earn 
a  poor  livelihood,  and  after  a  few  months  of  destitution  she 
died  at  the  age  of  eighty,  from  want  and  grief. 

Nicetas  has  been  thought  to  have  joined  in  the  con- 
spiracy, and  indeed  is  charged  with  it  by  Baronius.  But  the 
words  of  Theophanes,  on  which  he  relied,  do  not  necessarily 
implicate  S.  Nicetas  in  such  an  odious  crime.  He  says,  that 
among  the  conspirators  were  "  Nicetas,  the  patrician  and 
domestic  of  the  schools,  and  Sisinius,  the  patrician  and  his 
brother,  of  the  crafty  and  perjured  family  of  the  Triphylhi." ^ 
Nicetas  TriphylUos  was  killed  next  year,  a.d.  803,  in  battle 
against  the  Bulgarians.  The  passage  is  capable  of  two 
meanings — the  conspirators  were  Nicetas,  the  patrician,  and 
Sisinius  and  his  brother  Nicetas,  these  two  latter  being  of  the 
family  of  the  Triphyllii,  or  the  conspirators  were  Nicetas,  the 
patrician,  and  Sisinius,  also  patrician,  and  brother  of  this 
Nicetas,  both  being  of  the  family  of  the  Triphyllii.  We  will 
give  S.  Nicetas  the  benefit  of  the  doubt. 

Many  tyrants  have  reigned  undoubtedly  more  criminal 
than  Nicephorus,  but  none  perhaps  have  more  deeply  in- 
curred the  universal  abhorrence  of  their  people.     His  cha- 

i^ lj( 

1 38  Lives  of  the  Saints.  foct.  e. 

racter  was  stained  with  the  three  odious  vices  of  hypocrisy, 
ingratitude,  and  avarice.  Unskilful  and  unfortunate  in  war, 
Nicephorus  was  vanquished  by  the  Saracens,  and  slain  by 
the  Bulgarians  in  811  ;  and  the  advantage  of  his  death  over- 
balanced, in  the  public  estimation,  the  destruction  of  n 
Roman  army.  On  Michael  Rhangabe  assuming  the  purple, 
Nicetas,  sick  at  heart  at  the  miserable  condition  of  the 
empire,  its  obvious  decline,  and  threatening  ruin,  left  the 
world  and  assumed  the  monastic  habit. 

He  had  asked  permission  to  do  so  of  Nicephorus  and  his  son 
Stauracius,  but  had  been  refused,  and  the  Emperor  Michael, 
when  he  accorded  him  permission  to  assume  the  habit,  bade 
him  enter  the  monastery  of  Chrysonike,  at  the  Golden  Gate, 
and  not  leave  the  imperial  city.  There  Nicetas  remained 
till  the  reign  of  Leo  the  Armenian  (813-820),  but  when  that 
emperor  began  the  destruction  of  the  sacred  images,  Nicetas 
retired  from  the  city,  together  with  several  of  the  brethren, 
to  a  country  villa  which  he  had  given  to  the  monastery.  The 
emperor  having  been  informed  that  they  had  carried  off  an 
image  of  the  Saviour  from  the  city,  and  had  concealed  it 
from  desecration,  sent  to  the  place  where  they  resided  and 
ordered  the  immediate  surrender  of  the  image.  The  monks 
implored  the  soldiers  not  to  ill-treat  the  sacred  icon,  but 
they  broke  into  the  treasury  of  the  church,  seized  the  figure, 
and  flung  it  contemptuously  across  the  back  of  a  horse. 
Orders  were  given  that  Nicetas  should  not  leave  the  place 
where  he  was  till  he  knew  the  emperor's  pleasure.  He  was 
left  unmolested  till  Theophilus  assumed  the  purple  in  829, 
when  the  emperor  sent  to  Nicetas  to  order  him  to  com 
municate  with  Antony,  patriarch  of  Constantinople,  who 
abetted  the  emperors  in  their  iconoclasm.  "This  I  will  not 
do,"  answered  Nicetas ;  "  I  will  not  cease  from  reverencing 
the  image  of  Christ,  do  with  me  what  you  will,  banish  me, 
kill  me,  if  it  please  you." 

* — * 


Oct.  6.] 

►S".  Maccallin.  139 

He  was  thereupon  expelled  the  house.  He  and  three 
brethren  took  refuge  in  a  house  in  the  suburbs  of  Constanti- 
nople, and  spent  there  Lent  and  Easter.  But  an  edict 
having  been  issued  forbidding  the  harbouring  of  such  as 
revered  images,  Nicetas  was  turned  out,  and  as  none  dare 
give  him  shelter,  he  betook  himself  to  a  place  called 
Eribolon,  and  remained  in  hiding  there  with  his  companions 
till  driven  from  it  by  the  incursions  of  the  Saracens.  Then 
they  sought  refuge  in  another  place  called  Zulpa.  Their 
hiding  place  was  again  discovered  and  they  were  ordered  to 
communicate  with  the  iconoclasts  or  depart.  They  were, 
therefore,  again  obliged  to  remove.  Nicetas  found  refuge  at 
Catisia,  where  he  bought  a  little  farm  and,  as  tranquillity 
came  at  last,  he  built  a  church  there  to  the  Angels,  and  spent 
there  the  rest  of  his  days  in  peace. 

(a.d.  978.) 

[Colgan  on  Jan.  21.  In  a  Missal  of  Propers  for  Irish  and  French 
Patrons,  pub.  at  Paris  in  1734,  by  authority  of  Clement  XII.  on  Oct.  6, 
Authorities  : — Mention  in  the  Life  of  S.  Cadroe,  and  in  the  Appendix  to 

S.  Maccallin,  or  Malcallin,  an  Irishman,  visited  France, 
together  with  S.  Cadroe  and  some  others,  in  945  or  946. 
Cadroe  was  of  the  royal  house  of  the  Scots  of  North  Britain. 
He,  and  probably  Malcalhn  A\ith  him,  came  to  Boulogne, 
and  thence  went  to  S.  Fursey's  monastery  at  Peronne,  where 
Cadroe  prayed  to  God  that  he  would,  through  the  merits  of 
S.  Fursey,  point  him  out  a  place  where  he  should  plant  his 
staff  and  rest.  On  the  following  night  the  Saint  appeared  to 
him  in  a  vision,  and  told  him  that  he  must  go  elsewhere. 
Not  far  from  Peronne  there  lived  a  pious  and  wealthy  lady 

^ ^ 

^ _ ^ 

140  Lives  of  the  Saints.  joct.e. 

named  Hersendis,  who  was  very  kind  to  pilgrims.  On  hearing 
that  some  such  persons  had  arrived  in  her  neighbourhood, 
she  sent  to  them,  requesting  that  they  would  visit  her.  They 
complied  with  her  wish,  and  on  conversing  with  her,  said  that 
all  they  wanted  was  a  retired  spot  where  they  might  serve  God 
in  peace  and  work  for  their  bread.  She  then  gladly  offered 
them  a  spot  in  the  forest  called  "  Theorascencis,"  near  the 
river  Oise,  in  the  diocese  of  Laon  and  adjoining  the  frontiers  of 
Hainault,  and  where  there  was  a  church  under  the  invocation 
of  S.  Michael.  They  liked  the  place,  and  Hersendis  got  the 
church  enlarged  and  habitations  erected  for  their  use.  Among 
these  pilgrims,  who  in  all  were  thirteen,  was  Maccallin,  whose 
name  now  occurs  for  the  first  time.  Where  he  met  with  Cadroe 
we  are  not  informed,  nor  whether  he  had  travelled  with  him  all 
the  way  from  Scotland,  but  it  is  not  improbable  that  he  had. 
Wheresoever  it  was  that  these  holy  men  first  met,  they  and 
their  companions  having  settled  at  S.  Michael's,  proceeded 
to  elect  a  superior,  and  S.  Cadroe  was  fixed  upon  for  the  pur- 
pose. But  as  he  could  not  be  persuaded  to  accept  the  office, 
Maccallin  was  compelled  to  be  their  abbot.  After  a  while, 
the  abbot  and  Cadroe  resolved  to  join  the  Order  of  S.  Bene- 
dict ;  and  to  attain  their  purpose,  Maccallin  went  to  Gorz, 
a  monastery  in  the  diocese  of  Metz,  and  Cadroe  to  Fleury, 
on  the  Loire.  When  Maccallin  had  received  the  monastic 
habit,  Hersendis  sent  to  the  Abbot  Agenald,  of  Gorz,  re- 
questing him  to  suffer  Maccallin  to  proceed  to  a  place  she 
had  destined  as  the  seat  of  a  new  monastery.  This  was  Waul- 
sort,  on  the  Meuse,  between  Dinant  and  Givet,  a  spot  of  en- 
chanting beauty,  shut  in  by  limestone  crags  and  rich  forests. 
Maccalhn  accordingly  became  Abbot  of  Waulsort,  without 
surrendering  his  direction  of  S.  Michael's.  Cadroe  became 
his  prior.  But  after  some  time,  Maccallin,  finding  the  direc- 
tion of  two  establishments  more  than  he  could  manage, 
begged  S.  Cadroe  to  become  Abbot  of  Waulsort.     To  this 

^ — »j, 

Oct.  6.]  S.Bruno.  141 

3.  Cadroe  consented  \vith  difficulty,  a.d.  950.  Cadroe  was 
afterwards  Abbot  of  S.  Clement's,  at  Metz,  and  died  in  a.d. 
975,  at  the  age  of  seventy.  His  commemoration  is  on  the 
6th  of  March.  S.  Maccallin,  having  returned  to  S.  Michael's, 
spent  there  the  remainder  of  his  days,  and  died  on  Jan.  21st, 
A.D.  978. 

Another  MaccaUin,  or  Macallan,  bishop  and  confessor,  is 
honoured  in  Scotland  on  September  6,  and  is  mentioned  on 
that  day  by  the  Martyrology  of  Donegal.  He  was  bishop  at 
Lusk  ;  his  Acts  are  preserved  in  MS.  in  Trinity  College,  Dub- 
lin. He  died  about  a.d.  497.  He  is  said  in  them  "  to  have 
twice  visited  Scotland,  and  to  be  in  repute  there." 

S.  BRUNO,  C. 

(a.d.  iioi.) 

[His  office  permitted  in  the  Carthusian  Order  by  Leo  X.  in  1514. 
Canonized  by  Gregory  XV.  in  1623.  Roman  and  Carthusian  Marty r- 
ologies.  Authorities  : — A  Life  by  the  chronologer  of  the  five  first  priors 
of  the  Order,  written  about  1260.  The  encyclical  letter  in  which  the 
death  of  S.  Bruno  was  announced  to  his  disciples.  Mention  by  Guibert 
of  Nogent  (d.  1124).  There  are  other,  later,  lives  of  less  value  :  one  by 
Francis  a  Puteo,  in  1515,  another  in  hexameters  byZacharia  Benedetto, 
A.D.  1508,  &c.] 

S.  Bruno  was  a  native  of  Cologne,  born  of  noble  parents. 
From  childhood  he  is  said  to  have  exhibited  extraordinary 
gravity  and  religious  earnestness.  He  studied  grammar  at 
Laon  or  Bee,  and  was  aftenvards  sent  to  Paris  to  finish  his 
education  in  that  renowned  university.  He  rose  to  distinc- 
tion, taught  philosophy,  and  applied  himself  to  theology. 

On  his  return  to  Cologne,  Anno,  the  archbishop,  gave  him 
a  canonry  in  the  church  of  S.  Cunibert,  and  he  received 
minor  orders  from  his  hands.     At  the  death  of  Anno  he  was 


142  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  e. 

made  canon  of  Rheims,  without  apparently  surrendering 
his  canonry  at  Cologne.  At  Rheims  he  taught  philosophy, 
and  was  advanced  to  be  chancellor  of  the  archdiocese.  On 
the  death  of  Gervaise,  Archbishop  of  Rheims,  in  1069, 
Manasses  de  Gournai  obtained  the  see,  as  it  was  afterwards 
alleged,  by  simoniacal  means.  However  that  may  have  been, 
Bruno  remained  on  good  terms  with  him,  and  accepted  many 
benefices  at  his  hands  ;  but  the  archbishop  had  no  taste  for 
ecclesiastical  studies,  or  love  of  religious  duties.  His  birth 
was  noble,  he  had  been  brought  up  among  knights,  and  he 
preferred  association  with  them  to  the  tamer,  if  more  profit- 
able, society  of  his  clergy.  He  affected  a  splendid  retinue, 
rode  about  accompanied  by  armed  men,  and  to  keep  up  this 
state  laid  taxes  on  his  clergy,  and  kept  back  the  revenues  of 
monasteries.  ''  A  capital  benefice  this  of  Rheims,"  said  he, 
"  were  it  not  for  the  masses  that  have  to  be  sung."  ^ 

Bruno,  perhaps  unable  to  endure  the  conduct  of  his  bishop, 
in  1076  left  Rheims,  and  probably  went  to  Paris,-  where  he 
was  hospitably  received,  together  with  some  other  Rheimois, 
by  one  Adam.  One  day,  whilst  there,  he  was  walking  in  the 
garden  with  Ralph  le  Vert  and  Fulques  the  One-eyed,  and 
they  talked  together  of  the  uncertainty  of  human  prosperity 
and  the  joyc  of  the  religious  life.  The  three  friends  agreed 
together  to  forsake  the  world,  but  not  before  they  had  tried 
to  chastise  the  archbishop  for  his  misdeeds,  and  especially 
for  his  treatment  of  themselves.  Fulques  was  sent  to  Rome 
to  complain  of  Manasses,  and  Bruno  took  refuge  with  the 
Count  of  Roucy,  who  had  also  causes  of  complaint  against 
the  archbishop.  In  1076,  the  appeals  of  those  who  had  been 
excommunicated  by  Manasses  having  become  numerous,  the 
Pope  gave  commission  to  the  Bishop  of  Paris  to  examine 
their  cases  on  the  spot,  and  if  he  found  that  they  had  been 

*  Guibcrt  of  Nogent. 

*  Probably  ;  this  is  not,  however,  certain.     Adam  was  canon  of  Paris. 

1^ -^ 

S.  BRUNO.    After  Cahier. 

Oct.  6. 


Oct.  6.] 

5'.  Bruno.  143 

unjustly  treated,  to  absolve  them  by  the  authority  of  the 
Holy  See.  In  execution  of  these  orders,  Hugh  of  Die,  papal 
legate,  summoned  a  council  to  assemble  at  Autun,  in  1077. 
At  that  council  Bruno  and  another  Manasses,  Provost  of 
Rheims,  lodged  tlieir  complaints  against  the  archbishop,  and 
he  was  suspended  from  his  functions.  Manasses,  in  revenge, 
broke  into  the  houses  of  his  accusers,  pillaged  them,  confis- 
cated their  benefices,  and  gave  or  sold  them  to  others.  But, 
having  received  peremptory  orders  from  the  Pope,  he  was 
forced  to  go  to  Rome  and  clear  himself  of  the  charges  made 
against  him  as  best  he  was  able. 

A  very  striking  incident  in  the  life  of  S.  Bruno,  and  which, 
according  to  Carthusian  tradition,  led  to  his  conversion,  took 
place,  if  there  be  any  truth  in  it,  whilst  he  was  at  Paris  with 
Adam.  There  was  a  certain  canon  of  the  cathedral  of  Paris, 
a  doctor  and  lecturer  in  the  university  of  great  renown  for  his 
learning,  and  generally  regarded  as  a  man  of  blameless  life. 
He  died,  and  all  the  members  of  the  university  attended  his 
funeral.  Whilst  the  body  lay  on  the  bier,  between  flaming 
unbleached  tapers,  the  clergy  chanted  around  it,  and  the 
officiating  priest  recited  the  proper  lesson  from  Job  :  "  Hear 
diligently  my  speech,  and  my  declaration  with  your  ears. 
Behold  now,  I  have  ordered  my  cause ;  I  know  that  I  shall 
be  justified.  Who  is  he  that  will  plead  with  me?  for  now, 
if  I  hold  my  tongue,  I  shall  give  up  the  ghost.  Only  do  not 
two  things  unto  me  :  then  will  I  not  hide  myself  from  Thee. 
Withdraw  Thine  hand  far  from  me  :  and  let  not  Thy  dread 
make  me  afraid.  Then  call  Thou,  and  I  will  answer :  or  let 
me  speak,  and  answer  Thou  me."  At  that  moment  the 
corpse  opened  its  eyes,  rose  slowly  on  the  bier,  and  said  in  a 
low  voice,  "  I  am  accused  at  the  just  judgment-seat  of  God." 

A  horror  fell  upon  all  present;  they  fled  from  the  church,* 

'  According  to  one  version  the  scene  was  in  the  house,  according  to  another  in  the 


144  Lives  of  the  Saints,  [Octe. 

and  the  corpse,  which  had  sunk  back  on  the  bier,  was  left 

Next  day  again  the  funeral  ceremony  was  recommenced. 
With  trembhng  voice  the  priest  began  the  lesson,  "  Hear 
diligently  my  speech,  and  my  declaration  with  your  ears. 
....  Then  call  Thou,  and  I  Avill  answer."  He  paused  ;  his 
nervous  fingers  could  hardly  hold  the  book.  With  an  effort 
he  proceeded,  "  Let  me  speak,  and  answer  thou  me." 

Again  the  corpse  rose,  opened  its  dead  blank  eyes,  no 
colour  shot  into  the  sallow  cheeks,  the  livid  lips  opened,  and 
the  words  issued,  "  I  am  judged  at  the  just  tribunal  of  God." 
And  again  it  fell  back  motionless  as  before. 

The  same  panic  fell  on  priest  and  assistants.  The  service 
was  not  concluded  that  day. 

On  the  third  day  a  crowd  of  wondering  people  attended 
with  faces  blank  with  alarm.  Amidst  the  funeral  trappings 
of  black  and  silver,  the  yellow  unbleached  tapers  seemed  to 
burn  faintly.  A  silence  most  profound  fell  on  all  as  the 
choir  began  to  intone  the  mournful  psalms  for  the  dead. 
And  then  the  lesson  from  Job  was  sung.  "  Your  remem- 
brances are  like  unto  ashes,  your  bodies  to  bodies  of  clay. 
Hold  your  peace,  let  me  alone,  that  I  may  speak,  and  let 
come  on  me  what  will.  .  .  .  Hear  diligently  my  speech,  and 
my  declaration  with  your  ears.  .  .  .  Who  is  he  that  will 
plead  with  me  ?  for  now,  if  I  hold  my  tongue,  I  shall  give  up 
the  ghost.  .  .  .  Then  call  thou,  and  I  will  answer,  or  let  me 
speak,  and  answer  thou  me."  Instantly  the  corpse  sat  up, 
a  look  of  horror  came  into  the  dead  eyes,  and  a  shriek,  "  I 
am  condemned  by  the  just  judgment  of  God,"  rang  through 
the  church.  Then  the  bishop  said  :  "  He  whom  God  has 
condemned,  let  him  not  be  laid  in  holy  ground,  but  be  cast 
forth  and  buried  in  a  dung-heap." 

Bruno,  so  runs  the  tale,  was  present  during  those  awful 
scenes.      The   shock,  the   horror,   overcame  him,  and   he 



Oct.  6.]  -^^  Bruno.  145 

resolved  for  ever  to  quit  the  world,  its  pomps  and  vanities, 
and  live  with  the  just  judgment  of  God  ever  before  his 

Cssarius  of  Heisterbach,  who  flourished  in  1180,  relates 
the  stor}'^,  but  without  mentioning  its  effect  on  S.  Bruno.  It 
is  told  in  the  earliest  life  of  S.  Bruno,  written  about  1260,  by 
a  Carthusian.  It  was  inserted  in  the  Roman  Breviary  in 
one  of  the  lessons  for  the  festival  of  S.  Bruno,  by  order  ot 
Pope  Gregory  XVI.,  but  Pope  Urban  VIII.  had  it  expunged 
as  supported  on  insufficient  evidence. 

In  the  meantime  Manasses  had  succeeded  in  persuading 
Pope  Gregory  VII.  that  the  charges  raised  against  him  had 
been  exaggerated  or  untrue.  The  pope  listened  patiently  to 
the  accusations  made  against  the  archbishop  by  some  of  the 
canons  of  Rheims  and  the  Count  of  Roucy,  and  then  restored 
him  to  the  full  exercise  of  his  rights,  from  which  the  papal 
legate,  Hugh  of  Die,  and  the  council  of  Autun  had  deprived 
him.  Manasses  returned  with  a  papal  brief  to  the  legate, 
bidding  him  reinstate  him  in  his  archbishopric  and  in  no 
way  molest  him.  All  the  malcontents  now  reconciled  them- 
selves to  the  archbishop,  except  Bruno  and  one  named 
Pontius.  Bruno  betook  himself  to  Cologne ;  the  archbishop 
either  refused  or  delayed  to  restore  to  Bruno  the  benefices 
of  which  he  had  despoiled  him,  and  it  was  not  till  the 
expulsion  of  Manasses,  in  1080,  that  he  was  able  to  return 
to  Rheims.  Elinand  of  Laon  at  once  obtained  the  see  from 
King  Henry,  and  held  it  for  two  years,  till  deprived  by 
Gregory  VII.  Bruno,  sickened  with  the  miserable  contests 
which  desolated  Europe,  the  utterly  irreligious  character  of 
several  of  the  prelates,  the  coldness  which  had  invaded  the 
Church,  resolved  to  quit  the  world  without  more  ado.  He 
resigned  his  benefices,  and  in  company  with  six  friends, 
Lantwin,  Stephen  du  Bourg,  Stephen  de  S.  Die,  an  aged 
priest,  Hugh  the  Chaplain,  and  two  laymen,  Andrew  and 

VOL.  XI.  10 

^ »J» 

»J< __ ^ 

146  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  & 

Guerin,  went  forth  in  search  of  a  place  where  they  might  be 
far  from  the  strife  of  the  world,  and  might  live  in  peace  to 

On  midsummer  day,  1086,  Hugh,  Bishop  of  Grenoble, 
saw  seven  men  cast  themselves  at  his  feet,  imploring  him 
to  guide  them  to  a  place  where  they  might  spend  the  rest  of 
their  lives  in  solitude.  There  was  a  wild  spot  in  his  diocese, 
shut  in  by  snowy  mountains,  approachable  only  by  a 
narrow  road  on  the  edge  of  the  ravine.  He  had  visited  this 
spot,  the  resort  of  the  peasants  with  their  cattle  in  the 
summer,  on  one  of  his  peregrinations  of  his  diocese.  It 
had  struck  his  fancy,  and  he  had  dreamt  of  it,  that  he  saw  a 
convent  rise  from  its  grassy  sward,  sprinkled  with  gentian 
and  yellow  anemone,  and  that  seven  stars  had  wheeled 
above,  illumining  it  with  a  sui)ernatural  glory.  When 
Uruno  and  his  companions  asked  his  direction,  his  thoughts 
rushed  at  once  to  this  al])ine  solitude  and  his  dream  con 
cerning  it. 

He  told  them  that  he  knew  a  suitable  valley,  and  invited 
them  to  stay  with  him  for  a  few  days  till  he  had  obtained 
for  them  a  concession  of  the  mountain  wilderness  with  its 
forests  and  meadows  from  Segwin,  Abbot  of  Chaise-Dieu. 

Then  he  conducted  the  seven  postulants  up  the  rocky 
path  to  the  valley  of  Chartreuse,  which  was  thenceforth  to 
give  its  name  to  one  of  the  most  famous  Orders  of  the 

"Never,  perhaps,  was  chosen  a  more  glorious  shrine  ot 
Nature's  making  wherein  to  found  a  retreat  for  the  practice 
of  the  ascetic  type  of  Christian  perfection,  and  which  in  the 
result  proved  the  cradle  of  the  great  Carthusian  Order. 
The  nine  houses  of  this  austere  Order  that  were  suppressed 
in  England,  traced  their  origin,  directly  or  indirectly,  as  well 
as  their  popular  name  of  Charterhouse,  to  the  Chartreuse  of 
Dauphiny.      Of  these  nine   sister   priories,   built   of  solid 

»J<- >i< 

* >f, 

Oct,  6.]  S.Bruno.  147 

masonry,  scarce  a  vestige  remains  to  tell  the  story  of  its 
former  splendour  ;^  and  the  very  sites  of  most  of  them  have 
sunk  into  oblivion.  Yet  the  great  Chartreuse,  though 
anterior  in  date  to  the  oldest  of  Charterhouses,  subsists  to 
this  day,  a  lasting  monument  to  the  character  and  genius  of 
its  founder,  S.  Bruno. 

"  The  lovely  valley  that  lends  to  the  Chartreuse  such 
extrinsic  charms,  and  which,  in  its  turn,  has  been  elevated 
out  of  obscurity  by  tlie  moral  attractions  of  the  cloister, 
will  bear  comparison  with  the  choicest  bits  of  Swiss 
scenery.  The  vale  of  Chamouni,  the  rugged  pass  of  the 
Via  Mala  on  the  heights  of  the  Spliigen,  or  the  group  of 
valleys  from  whose  lap  the  Jungfrau  raises  aloft  her  snowy 
head,  witli  a  gi-ace  befitting  her  graceful  name,  are  hardly 
more  beautiful  than  the  Desert,  as  it  is  called,  of  the  Char- 
treuse. This  desert,  or  wilderness, 'we  approached  from 
S.  Laurent  du  Pont,  through  a  precipitous  ^vinding  defile,  the 
narrow  road  being  hewn  out  of  the  rock,  with  stupendous 
crags  towering  over  head,  and  a  gaping  chasm  below,  from 
the  shingly  bed  of  which  ascends  the  mufl:led  roar  of  an 
alpine  torrent ;  the  grandeur  of  the  whole  scene  enhanced 
by  perpendicular  pine  forests  clothing  the  steep  banks 
of  rock  that  hem  in  this  mountain  pass.  As  you  ascend 
the  steep  corniche  roadway,  which  is  carried  from  time  to 
time  over  the  torrent  by  a  stone  bridge,  delightful  glimpses 
break  upon  the  view  at  each  successive  turn — glimpses  of 
distant  peaks  or  vast  banks  of  sombre  firs,  or  patches  of 
blue  sky  peeping  out  betwixt  overhanging  cliffs. 

"  Gradually  the  nan-ow  gorge,  darkened  even  at  noonday 
by  the  lofty  fir-bound  rocks  that  almost  meet  on  either  side, 
opens  out  into  a  valley  less  confined,  indeed,  but  equally 
beautiful.      The  whitened  summit  of  the  Grand  Som— the 

'  Mount  Grace  Priory,  in  Yorkshire,  near  Northallerton,  is  in  a  singularly  perfect 
state  of  preservation. 

* ^ 

^ ^ 

148  Lives  of  the  Saints.  toct.6. 

Mont  Blanc  of  the  Daupliiny  Alps — now  becomes  more 
easily  discernible  ;  the  rocks  frown  down  upon  you  more 
grandly  than  ever,  and  the  masses  of  tall  pines  are  no  less 
dense.     In  this  wild  spot  stands  the  world-famed  Chartreuse. 

"  Close  behind  the  monastery  rises  the  Grand  Som  itself, 
a  mountain  of  rock  whose  icy  needle-points  either  lose 
themselves  in  clouds,  or  according  to  the  season,  seem,  spire- 
like, to  penetrate  the  sky.  It  is  as  if  a  gigantic  wall  had 
been  expressly  shaped  by  Nature's  own  hand  to  serve  for  a 
majestic  background  to  the  convent.  The  priory  occupies 
the  valley  between  the  Grand  Som,  on  one  side,  and  a  huge 
bank  of  firs  on  the  other ;  a  fine  contrast  being  presented  by 
the  bare,  bleached  crags  and  sharp  peaks  of  the  mountains  at 
the  back  of  the  monastery,  in  juxtaposition  with  the  dark 
tints  of  the  gigantic  fir-bank  facing  it. 

"  Among  the  many  convents  I  have  visited  at  different 
times  and  places,  none  is  comparable,  in  point  of  situation, 
with  the  Great  Chartreuse.  It  reaUzes,  if  any  material  thing 
can  realize,  the  idea  of  the  subHme.  Endless  varieties  of  the 
grandest  mountain  forms  and  cloud-enveloped  peaks; 
fantastic  outlines  of  rugged  rocks ;  impenetrable  woods  made 
up  of  dusky  pines,  beeches,  planes,  and  other  forest  trees, 
throwing  a  rich  garb  of  verdure  over  yawning  precipices ; 
with  the  comparatively  smiling  vale  lying  quietly  ensconced 
in  the  midst  of  the  whole — constitute  a  picture  seldom 
equalled,  and  more  rarely  surpassed."^ 

Such  was  the  place  where  Bruno  laid  the  foundation  oi 
his  Order.  He  immediately  set  to  work  to  build  an  oratory 
and  small  cells  at  a  distance  from  one  another,  like  the 
ancient  Lauras  of  Palestine,  in  which  the  members  of  his 
community  might  live.  For  his  society  was  to  be  one 
distinctively  of  hermits,  of  solitaries,  but  of  solitaries  united 
under  a  common  mle  and  protected  by  their  bond  from 

'  Algernon  Taylor,  "  Scenes  in  French  Monasteries,"  p.  216,  seq. 


^ ^ 

Oct.  6.]  "S".  Bruno.  149 

some  of  the  disadvantages  under  which  hermits  laboured, 
and  the  dangers  to  which  they  were  exposed. 

The  life  of  these  anchorites  was  singularly  austere.  Each 
in  his  own  cell  was  obliged  to  work  at  some  handicraft. 
They  had  no  refectory,  but  ate  in  solitude  what  was  passed 
to  them  through  a  wicket  in  their  doors. 

Peter  the  Venerable,  Abbot  of  Cluni  fifty  years  after 
S.  Bruno,  writes  of  them  :  "  Their  dress  is  meaner  and  poorer 
than  that  of  other  monks ;  so  short  and  scanty,  and  so 
rough,  that  the  very  sight  affrights  one.  They  wear  coarse 
hair  shirts  next  their  skin,  fast  almost  perpetually  ;  eat  only 
bran-bread ;  never  touch  flesh,  even  when  ill ;  never  buy 
fish,  but  eat  it  if  given  them  as  an  alms  ;  eat  eggs  and  cheese 
on  Sundays  and  Thursdays ;  on  Tuesdays  and  Saturdays 
their  fare  is  pulse  or  herbs  boiled ;  on  Mondays,  Wednes- 
days, and  Fridays  they  take  nothing  but  bread  and  water ; 
and  they  have  only  one  meal  a  day,  except  within  the  octaves 
of  Christmas,  Easter,  Whitsuntide,  Epiphany,  and  some  other 
festivals.  Their  constant  occupation  is  praying,  reading, 
and  manual  labour,  which  consists  chiefly  in  transcribing 
books.  They  say  the  lesser  hours  of  the  divine  oftice  in 
their  cells  at  the  times  when  the  bell  rings ;  but  meet 
together  at  vespers  and  matins  with  wonderful  recollection. 
They  say  mass  only  on  Sundays  and  festivals." 

One  custom  is  peculiar  to  the  Order.  Once  a  week  the 
convent  gates  are  opened,  and  all  tlie  solitaries  go  forth  in 
twos  for  a  walk  among  the  mountains,  through  the  forests, 
or  over  the  flowery  meadows. 

S.  Bruno,  who  had  inspired  his  companions  with  the 
desire  of  flying  the  world,  was  regarded  by  them  as  their 
Superior,  and  S.  Hugh  of  Grenoble,  who  had  guided  them  to 
this  retreat,  chose  Bruno  as  his  spiritual  adviser.  Whilst 
Bruno  was  enjoying  the  peace  of  this  beautiful  solitude,  in 
the  hopes  of  ending  his  days  there,  Urban  II.   sent  him 


^- — _ — — 1f 

150  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.e. 

orders  to  come  to  Rome.  Urban  had  been  his  pupil,  and 
he  was  resolved  to  confer  on  his  former  master  some  marks 
of  distinction.  Bruno  was  therefore  called  away  from  his 
beloved  retreat  after  having  tasted  its  delights  for  only  six 
years.  His  grief  at  leaving,  the  sorrow  of  his  companions  at 
the  propect  of  losing  him,  forbid  description.  The  six 
friends  consulted  together  and  resolved  unanimously  not  to 
be  separated  from  their  guide.  If  he  must  go,  they  would 
accompany  him.  They  declared  their  purpose  to  S.  Bruno. 
He  could  not  refuse  his  consent.  They  received  the  bene- 
diction of  S.  Hugh  of  Grenoble  and  departed  for  Rome. 

S.  Bruno  was  received  by  the  Pope  with  every  mark  of 
esteem  and  affection.  He  was  retained  about  his  person, 
and  admitted  into  the  ecclesiastical  council,  that  he  might 
be  consulted  on  matters  of  religion.  His  companions  were 
given  a  lodging  in  the  city,  where  they  endeavoured  to  main- 
tain their  rule  of  life  observed  in  the  Alpine  desert.  But  the 
noise  and  distraction  of  a  great  town  troubled  them:  they 
grew  sad,  their  prayers  seemed  listless,  their  meditations 
pointless ;  they  pined  for  the  cool,  clear  atmosphere  of  the 
mountains,  where,  in  hush  and  isolation,  they  could  pray  and 
muse  on  God  without  disturbance.  They  could  endure  it  no 
longer,  and,  headed  by  I^antwin,  they  entreated  permission 
to  be  restored  to  the  beloved  valley  of  the  Chartreuse.  Bruno 
obtained  permission  for  them  to  depart ;  he  named  Lantwin 
their  prior,  and  the  little  swarm  winged  its  way,  light  of  heart, 
to  the  thyme-scented  banks  of  the  stream  that  flowed  through 
the  Chartreuse. 

Bruno,  though  deprived  of  his  friends,  maintained  a  con- 
stant correspondence  with  them.  He  was  himself  weary  of 
life  in  Rome,  and  pining  for  solitude.  In  vain  did  he  im- 
plore the  pope  to  permit  his  departure ;  his  presence  was 
too  valuable  for  Urban  to  grant  his  request.  In  1090  the 
archbishopric  of  Reggio  fell   vacant,  and  was  offered   to 

^ _ H^ 

1^ _ ^ 

Oct.  6.]  S.Bruno.  151 

Bruno.  But  he  refused  it,  though  taken  into  Calabria  with 
the  hopes  of  persuading  him  to  accept  it.  When  there,  he 
escaped  Avith  some  of  his  companions  to  the  soUtude  of  Torre, 
in  the  diocese  of  Squillace,  whilst  Pope  Urban  was  in  France, 
and  having  obtained  a  grant  of  the  land  from  Roger,  Count 
of  Sicily  and  Calabria,  formed  there  a  new  settlement.  There 
he  was  allowed  to  remain  in  tranquillity  till  his  death,  which 
took  place  in  iioi.  Feeling  his  end  approach,  he  called 
together  his  religious,  and  made  a  general  confession  in  their 
presence ;  then  protested  his  faith  in  all  the  verities  of  the 
Catholic  creed,  especially  in  that  of  the  Real  Presence, 
which  Berengarius  had  then  begun  to  dispute,  and  so  sur- 
rendered his  soul  to  God  before  he  had  reached  his  fiftieth 

His  body  is  in  the  church  of  S.  Stephen,  at  Torre,  but 
portions  of  his  bones  have  been  distributed  among  different 
churches  of  the  Order. 

In  art  S.  Bruno  is  represented  contemplating  the  Crucifix, 
with  the  words  on  a  scroll  issuing  from  his  mouth,  "O 
bonitas  J"  or,  "  Ecce  elongavi  fugiens,  et  mansi  in  solitudine" 
(Ps.  liv.  8).  Sometimes  bearing  an  olive-branch,  or  a  cruci- 
fix the  ends  of  which  are  foliated  with  olive  leaves,  on  account 
of  an  antiphon  in  the  Carthusian  Breviary,  which  likens  him 
to  the  olive  taking  root  and  bearing  fruit  in  the  most  barren 

The  subject  of  the  conversion  of  S.  Bruno  is  a  favourite 
one  with  painters. 

^ >j, 



1 5  2  Lives  of  the  Saiitts.  [Oct.  ^. 

October  7. 

S.  JuSTlNA,  V.M.  at  Padua. 

SS.  Marcei.lus  and  Apuleius,  MM.  at  Rome;  isi  cent. 

S.  EuMENius,  B.C.  at  Alexandria,  a.d.  143. 

SS.  Sergius  and  Bacchus,  3'TM.  in  Syria ;   yd  cent. 

S.Julia,  V.M.  in  Syria;  \th  cent. 

S.  Mark,  Pope  of  Rome,  a.d.  336. 

S.  Leopardin,  Mk.  M.  at  A nbigny  in  France  ;  6t/i  or  -jth  cent, 

S.  Augustus,  P.  Ab.  at  Bourges;  6th  cent. 

S.  DuBTACH,  Ab/>.  0/ Aitnagh,  a.d.  513. 

S.  Palladius,  B.  at  Saintes  in  France,  circ.  a.d.  600. 

S.  OsYTH,  V.M.  at  Chick  in  Essex ;  endo/yth  cent. 


(date  uncertain.) 

[Roman  Martyrology.  Not  found  in  any  ancient  Martyrology.  The 
Acts  are  a  late  mediaeval  forgery ;  also  the  forged  Acts  of  S.  Prosdochi- 
mus,  both  compositions  of  the  12th  cent.] 

HE  only  ancient  writer  who  mentions  S.  Justina 
of  Padua  is  Venantius  Fortunatus,  an  Italian  by 
birth,  but  Bishop  of  Poictiers,  in  the  sixth  century. 
Twice  does  he  mention  the  name  in  connection 
with  Padua,  but  gives  no  particulars  concerning  her.     Two 
sermons  on  S.  Justina  are  attributed  to  S.  Maximus,  but  they 
are  generally  admitted  to  be  much  later,  the  composition  of  a 
monk.  The  Acts  of  S.  Justina  are  one  of  those  audacious  for- 
geries, more  common  in  the  East  than  in  the  West,  pretending 
to  have  been  written  by  an  eye-witness  of  what  he  describes. 
The  writer  of  the  Acts  of  S.  Justina  would  have  himself  re- 
garded as  Prosdochimus,  disciple  of  S.  Peter,  and  first  bishop 
of  Padua.      Some  time  in  the  Middle  Ages  Padua  was  am- 
bitious  to   know  something  about  her   early  bishops  and 
martyrs,  and  a  writer,  more  zealous  than  honest,  composed 

^ _ >J< 


Oct.  7.] 

S.  Justina.  153 

a  set  of  Acts  to  supply  the  deficiency.  First  he  wrote  the 
Acts  of  S.  Prosdochimus,  as  if  by  S.  Maximus,  his  successor 
in  the  see,  and  inserted  therein  the  words,  "  This  same  man, 
S.  Prosdochimus,  wrote  the  passion  of  Justina,  and  com- 
mitted it  to  us  {i.e.  Maximus),  to  be  retained  in  our  memory." 
The  Acts  conclude  :  "  After  his  death,  I,  Maximus,  his  suc- 
cessor, being  chosen  by  all  the  clergy  and  people,  and  con- 
secrated by  the  Roman  bishop,  wrote  down  all  that  I  saw 
and  that  I  heard  of  him."  The  same  hand  wrote  next  the 
Acts  of  S.  Justina,  introducing  them  with  this  audacious 
falsehood  :  "  I  beg  of  you,  whosoever  shall  piously  and  re- 
ligiously hear  or  read  this,  to  remember  in  your  prayers  me, 
a  sinner,  who  was  present,  in  the  Lord's  name,  at  this  mar- 
tyrdom." These  forgeries  are  as  clumsy  as  they  are  wicked. 
The  wTiter  was  profoundly  ignorant  of  history.  He  made 
Nero  succeed  Maximian.  For  Justina  is  martyred  by  Max- 
imian  (a.d.  286-305),  and  Prosdochimus,  who  writes  her 
passion,  is  a  mart}^  under  Nero  (a.d.  54-68),  and  disciple  of 
S.  Peter.  Vitalianus,  father  of  Justina,  is,  moreover,  king 
of  Padua ! 

After  having  stated  this,  it  would  seem  useless  to  narrate 
the  incidents  of  the  passion  of  S.  Justina  ;  but  inasnmch  as 
it  is  possible  that  the  pseudo- Prosdochimus  may  have  Avorked 
ancient  material  into  his  otherwise  valueless  composition,  the 
account  of  her  martyrdom  shall  be  briefly  summarized. 

Justina,  daughter  of  Vitalianus  and  Prsepedigna,  noble 
parents  at  Padua,  believing  in  Christ,  was  left  an  orphan  at 
the  age  of  sixteen.  As  she  was  returning  from  her  villa  in 
the  country  to  Padua  one  day,  she  was  stopped  by  the 
soldiers  of  Maximian  on  the  bridge  over  the  Po,  and  obliged 
to  descend  from  her  chariot  and  follow  them  to  the  court  of 
justice.  She  knelt  on  the  stones,  and  prayed  God  to  pre- 
serve her  innocence,  though  in  the  hands  of  brutal  soldiers. 
The  impression  of  her  knees  on  the  stones  is  shown  at  this 


^___ v^ 

154  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  7. 

day  on  the  bridge.  When  brought  before  Maximian,  she 
showed  the  utmost  courage,  and  he  ordered  her  to  be 
stabbed  to  the  heart  with  a  sword.  In  1 177,  Gerard,  Bishop 
of  Padua,  determined  to  find  the  body  of  S.  Justina,  and 
having  found  a  skeleton  under  the  altar  in  the  church  of  her 
dedication,  placed  it  in  a  shrine,  and  exhibited  it  to  the  vene- 
ration of  the  people.  This  is  probably  the  date  of  the  com- 
position of  the  Acts. 

S.  Justina  is  represented  with  a  palm-branch,  and  her  side 
transfixed  by  a  sword. 



[Roman  Martyrology.  Many  copies  of  the  Mart,  of  Jerome,  Ado, 
Usuardus,  Notker,  &c.  Sarum,  York,  Hereford,  and  Durham  Kalendars. 
The  Sacramentary  of  Gelasius.  Authority  : — The  Apocryphal  Acts  of 
SS.  Nereus  and  Achilles.] 

Marcellus  and  Apuleius  seem  to  be  the  same  as  Nicetas 
and  Aquila,  mentioned  in  the  Clementines  as  disciples  of 
Simon  Magus;  the  Martyrologies  speak  of  them  as  follow- 
ing Simon  till  converted  by  S.  Peter.  On  reference  to  the 
Clementine  Recognitions,  that  most  extraordinary  philo- 
sophical religious  romance  of  the  2nd  century,  we  find  that 
their  names  in  Greek  were  Nicetas  and  Aquila.  The  in- 
ventor of  the  Acts  of  SS.  Nereus  and  Achilles  adopted  their 
story  into  his  composition,  and  crowned  them  with  martyr- 
dom.    They  are  purely  apocryphal  personages. 



Oct.  7.]  SS.  Sergius  and  Bacchus.  155 

(about  a.d.  301.) 

[Martyrology  of  Jerome.  Roman  and  most  Latin  Martyrologies. 
Hereford  Kalendar.  By  the  Greeks,  and  Russians,  and  Copts  on  the 
same  day.  The  Syriac  Chiu-ch  on  Dec.  9  and  Aug.  21.  Authorities  : — 
The  Acts  in  Greek  and  Latin,  not  contemporary,  and  not  wholly  trust- 
worthy. ] 

In  431,  the  church  built  over  these  martyrs' bodies  at  Ra- 
saphe,  in  Syria,  was  falling  with  age,  and  it  was  restored  by 
Alexander,  the  bishop.  Evagrius  describes  the  tomb  in  the 
church  as  plated  with  silver,  in  the  middle  of  the  6th  century. 
The  Emperor  Justinian  and  the  Empress  Theodora  gave  a 
gold  cross  to  the  church  in  honour  of  the  martyrs. 

Sergius  and  Bacchus  were  two  officers  in  the  household  of 
the  Emperor  Maximian.  One  day,  when  the  Emperor  went 
into  the  temple  of  Jupiter  to  offer  sacrifice,  he  noticed  that 
his  two  officers  had  remained  outside.  Suspecting  the 
reason,  he  sent  for  them  and  ordered  them  to  unite  with  him 
in  adoring  the  great  god  Jupiter.  They  refused,  and  Max- 
imian ordered  them  to  have  their  military  insignia  plucked 
off,  and  that  they  should  be  dressed  in  women's  clothes, 
and  so  conducted  through  the  streets  of  the  city.  They 
bore  this  indignity  with  great  firmness.  Then  Maximian 
sent  them  to  Antiochus,  governor  of  the  province  of  Augusta 
Euphratorum,  to  Rasaphe,  and  there  Bacchus  was  scourged 
till  he  died ;  and  Sergius,  after  having  been  made  to  walk  in 
boots  with  nails  in  the  soles  so  as  to  tear  his  feet,  was  exe- 
cuted by  the  sword.  There  is  a  church  at  Rome  dedicated 
to  these  saints. 



156  Lives  of  the  Saints,  [Oct.7. 

(about  a.d.  600.) 

[Gallican  Martyrologies.  Veneration  for  this  saint  dates  from  the  loth 
cent.     Authority : —  Gregory  of  Tours.  ] 

S.  Palladius,  called  S.  Pallais  in  French,  was  of  noble 
birth.  When  he  was  consecrated  Bishop  of  Saintes  is  not 
known,  but  he  was  present  in  the  synod  of  Paris  held  in 
573,  as  his  signature  is  found  attached  to  its  decrees.  A 
synod  was  held  in  579  at  Saintes,  at  which  he  also  probably 
assisted,  but  its  canons  have  not  been  preserved. 

In  584  a  youth  named  Gundobald,  brought  up  with  long 
flowing  hair,  after  the  manner  of  the  Frank  princes,  was 
presented  by  his  mother  to  Childebert  I.  as  the  natural  son 
of  his  brother  Clothair  I.  "Behold,"  said  she,  •''thy  nephew. 
I  present  him  to  thee,  because  he  is  abhorred  of  his  father, 
Clothair.  He  is  thy  flesh,  therefore  receive  him."  Childe- 
bert, who  was  sonless,  accepted  the  charge,  and  Gundobald 
remained  with  him.  But  when  news  of  this  reached  Clothair, 
he  sent  messengers  to  his  brothei-'s  court  demanding  the 
youth,  and  when  Gundobald  was  brought  to  him  he  repudiated 
him  as  his  son,  and  ordered  his  long  locks  to  be  shorn  off. 
But  after  the  death  of  Clothair,  Gundobald  was  again 
received  by  Childebert.  But  he  was  captured  by  Sigebert  of 
Austrasia,  and  his  hair  again  cut  short.  He  was  sent  to 
Cologne,  but  having  escaped,  he  made  his  way  to  Narses, 
who  was  then  in  Italy,  and  there  he  married  and  had  a 
family.  From  Italy  he  went  to  Constantinople,  and  after 
some  delay  in  the  capital  of  the  East,  he  returned  to  Gaul, 
and  was  well  received  by  Theodore,  Bishop  of  Marseilles, 
and  accepted  as  king  by  Mummolus  the  patrician,  and 
Desiderius,  Duke  of  Provence.    Thence  he  went  to  Limoges 


Oct.  7.]  -S".  Palladius.  157 

and  was  proclaimed  king  at  Brive-la-Gaillarde.  He  received 
the  allegiance  of  the  nobles  and  citizens  at  Angouleme, 
I'oulouse,  and  Bordeaux.  The  Bishop  of  Bordeaux  was 
Bertram,  related  to  Guntrani/  King  of  Orleans,  on  his 
mother's  side. 

Whilst  Gundobald  was  at  Bordeaux,  the  Bishop  of  Dax 
on  the  Adour  died.  Thereupon  the  pretender  nominated 
Faustian,  priest  of  Dax,  to  the  vacant  bishopric,  Nizier, 
Count  of  Dax,  complained  to  Chilperic,  King  of  Soissons, 
as  the  bishopric  had  been  promised  to  him.  But  Gundobald 
ordered  the  consecration  of  Faustian  by  the  Bishop  of 
Bordeaux,  assisted  by  Palladius  of  Saintes,  and  Orestes  of 
Bazas.  Dax  was  under  the  metropolitan  throne  of  Eause 
and  not  of  Bordeaux,  so  that  the  three  bishops  had  trans- 
gressed canonical  order  by  the  consecration  of  Faustian. 
Saintes  was  in  the  metropolitan  diocese  of  Bordeaux,  and 
therefore  S.  Palladius  may  have  thought  himself  bound  to 
obey  his  archbishop.     But  the  act  involved  him  in  trouble. 

In  the  same  year,  585,  Guntram  of  Orleans  sent  an  arm)^ 
against  Gundobald.  A  battle  was  fought  at  Cominges, 
which  ended  in  the  total  rout  and  slaughter  of  the  troops  of 
the  pretender,  and  the  death  of  Gundobald  himself.  The 
bishops  who  had  sided  with  him,  and  had  consecrated 
Faustian,  were  brought  to  Orleans,  where  Guntram  was,  to 
answer  for  their  conduct. 

Palladius  perhaps  told  the  truth.  "  Bertram,  the  metro 
politan,  was  afflicted  with  sore  eyes  and  could  not  well  read. 

'  To  facilitate  understanding  a  perplexing  period  of  history,  the  following  table  will 
prove  of  advantage  : — 


Theodobert,  Chlodomir,  Childebert,               Clothair  I.  =^S.  Radegund 

d.  552.  d.  534.  d.  55S.                       d.  561.       I 

Claribert,  Guntram,  Chilperic,                          Sigebert, 

K.  of  Paris,  K.  of  Orleans,  K.  of  Soissons,              K.  of  Aiistrasia, 

d.  572.  .  593.  d.  584.                              d.  575. 


158  Lives  of  the  Saints.  \(^zx..^. 

I  had  been  brought,  against  my  desire,  to  Dax,  as  a 
captive.  I  could  not  do  otherwise  than  obey  him  whom 
apparently  the  majority  of  the  Gallic  nobles  acknowledged 
as  king."  Orestes  shuffled  and  denied  his  participation  in 
the  ceremony.  The  king  was  highly  incensed  at  the 
answer  of  Palladius,  and  could  hardly  be  persuaded  to  allow 
Bertram  and  Palladius  to  sup  with  him.  When  the  two 
bishops  entered  tlie  banqueting  hall,  the  king  turned  to 
Bertram  and  said  with  a  sneer,  "  We  thank  you  for  having 
kept  faith  with  us.  Beloved  father,  it  befits  you  to  know 
that  you  are  our  kinsman  on  our  mother's  side,  and  therefore 
you  were  the  last  person  who  should  have  introduced  that 
foreign  pest  Gundobald  into  our  kingdom."  Then  looking 
at  Palladius  he  roared  forth :  "  And  to  you,  Bishop  Palladius, 
we  owe  great  thanks.  Shame  on  you  !  This  is  the  third 
time  that  you  have  forsworn  yourself  to  me,  and  you  a  bishop  ! 
And  you  excuse  yourself  and  my  kinsman  by  letters  to  me 
whilst  inciting  others  against  me.  God  judge  between  us  ! 
I  have  ever  sought  to  protect  you  bishops,  and  you  have 
ever  wrought  subtly  against  me."  Then  turning  to  Nicasius  of 
Angouleme  and  Antidius  of  Agen,  he  said :  "  Let  me  know 
what  good  you  have  done  to  your  country,  or  to  my  crown, 
by  your  intrigues,  most  holy  fathers."  Then  he  washed  his 
hands  and  sat  down  to  table,  grace  having  been  said,  and 
the  clouds  passed  from  his  brow. 

During  the  supper,  the  king's  son  Childebert  was  intro 
duced,  and  Guntram  besought  the  bishops  to  pray  for  his 
prosperity.  Palladius  seized  the  opportunity.  He  rose 
from  his  seat  and  poured  forth  an  eloquent  prayer  over  the 
child's  head,  invoking  for  him  a  long  life,  the  rout  of  his 
enemies,  and  extension  of  the  boundaries  of  his  kingdom. 
Guntram  was  delighted,  and  Palladius  and  his  metropolitan 
ivere  temporarily  restored  to  his  favour. 

The  matter  of  Faustian  could  not,  however,  be  disposed 
>J< ____^ 


Oct.  7.] 

kS.  Palladius.  159 

of  without  a  council.  There  was  another  trouble  exercising 
men's  minds  at  the  time.  A  Gallican  bishop  had  dared  to  as- 
sert that  a  woman  had  not  a  legitimate  claim  to  be  called  homo. 

A  council  or  synod  assembled  at  Macon  in  585,  and 
Bertram,  Palladius,  and  Orestes  were  condemned  to  pay 
annually  a  hundred  pieces  of  gold  for  the  maintenance  of 
their  bishop  Faustian  in  episcopal  splendour,  but  he  was 
not  suftered  to  fill  the  see,  which  was  given,  as  had  been 
promised,  to  Nizier,  Count  of  Dax.  The  bishop  who  had 
disputed  the  humanity  of  woman  was  denounced. 

But  though  Palladius  had  for  a  time  regained  the  king's 
favour,  Guntram  soon  returned  to  his  former  mistrust  of 
him  and  vexation  at  his  conduct.  One  Sunday,  not  long 
after  the  feast  at  which  the  Bishop  of  Saintes  had  i^rayed  for 
his  son,  the  king  entered  the  cathedral,  when  finding  that 
Palladius  was  at  the  altar,  he  exclaimed,  angrily,  "  What  ! 
this  perfidious  and  unfaithful  fellow  trusted  to  utter  holy 
words,  and  minister  in  holy  things  ?  I  will  leave  the  church 
at  once."  And  he  turned  to  depart.  There  was  a  com- 
motion. Some  of  the  clergy  interfered  :  "  Sire  !  j^ou  suffered 
him  to  give  a  blessing  at  the  banquet,  permit  him  now  to 
continue  the  service,  as  he  has  already  begun  it ;  and  should 
he  hereafter  oftend,  let  him  be  dealt  with  according  to  the 
sacred  canons."'  Then  Gimtram  consented  to  remain,  but 
reluctantly,  and  with  a  sullen  countenance. 

Palladius  was  again,  however,  invited  along  with  the  Bishop 
of  Bordeaux,  his  metropolitan,  to  the  king's  table,  when  a  most 
unseemly  quarrel  broke  out  between  the  Bishop  of  Saintes 
and  his  metropolitan  over  their  cups.  Each  accused  the 
other  of  adultery,  fornication,  and  perjury,  amidst  the 
laughter  of  many  of  those  present,  but  the  lamentations  of  a 
few.^     It  is  almost  to  be  hoped  that  the  metropolitan  and 

'  "  Cum  iterate  ad  convivlum  regis  Palladius  atque  Bertchramnus  adsciti  fuissent 
coramoti  iuvicem  multa  sibi  de  adulteriis  ae  fgrnicatione  exprobrarunt,  nonnuUa  etiam 


his  suffragan  were  drunk  at  the  time,  for  if  they  had  been 
sober  they  would  hardly  have  made  such  open  charges 
without  some  grounds. 

On  the  return  of  Palladius  to  his  diocese  after  the  synod 
of  Macon,  he  fell  upon  some  of  his  clergy  who  had  found 
fault  with  his  proceedings,  had  them  beaten  severely,  and 
plundered  their  houses. 

Not  long  after,  Antesius,  an  officer  of  Guntram,  extorted 
from  him  a  farm  he  had  coveted,  under  the  threat  of 
denouncing  him  to  the  king  for  having  harboured  mes- 
sengers from  Fredegund  to  Leovigild.  The  accusation 
was  unfounded  ;  Palladius  proved  his  innocence  before  the 
king,  and  recovered  his  farm. 

S.  Palladius  erected  a  church  at  Saintes  dedicated  to  S. 
Martin,  and  enriched  it  with  some  relics  of  that  saint.  He 
also  translated  the  body  of  S.  Eutropius,  and  built  a  church 
to  SS.  Peter  and  Paul,  with  thirteen  altars  in  it,  also  a 
church  and  monastery  to  S.  Vasius. 

When  S.  Augustine  was  being  sent  to  Britain  on  his 
mission  to  convert  the  Saxons  and  Angles,  the  great  S. 
Gregory  wrote  to  Palladius  of  Saintes,  Pelagius  of  Tours, 
and  Serenius  of  Marseilles  to  commend  to  their  hospitaHty 
the  band  of  missionaries  who  were  on  their  way  through 

The  date  of  the  death  of  S.  Palladius  cannot  be  fixed. 
It  is  somewhat  surprising  that  a  man  of  whom  no  good  is 
known,  save  that  he  built  some  churches,  should  have 
received  veneration  as  a  saint.  It  was  not  for  three  hundred 
years  that  the  idea  that  he  was  one  entered  the  heads  of  the 
people  of  Saintes,  and  Baronius  acted  discreetly  in  not 
inserting  his  name  in  the  Roman  Martyrology. 

de  perjuriis.  Quibus  de  rebus  multi  ridebant,  nonnulli  vero,  qui  alacrioris  erant 
scientla;,  lamentabantur,  cur  inter  sacerdotes  Domini  taliter zizania  diaboli  pullularent." 
— >?.  Gregor.  Turoji.  Hist.  Franc,  lib.  viii.  c.  20. 


S.  OSYTH,  V.M. 

(end  of    7TH   CENTURY.) 

[Brussels  Martyrology.  Greven  on  June  4  and  Oct.  5.  Lubek  and 
Cologne  Martyrologies  on  Oct.  7.  Wilson's  and  Wyon's  Anglican 
Martyrologies.  The  Monastic  Martyrologies  of  Menai-dus,  Bucelinus, 
and  Mayhew.  Ferrarius  and  Castellani.  Authorities  : — A  life,  probably 
by  Alberic  Vera,  canon  of  S.  Osyth,  in  the  13th  cent.  The  life  is  in 
Capgrave  and  Surius.  Vere  is  known  to  have  written  a  life  of  the 
saint,  and  probably  this  is  his  composition,  or  a  condensation  of  it.'] 

S.  Osyth  was  the  daughter  of  Frithewald,  a  Mercian 
prince,  who  is  mentioned  by  Florence  of  Worcester  as  assist- 
ing S.  Erconwald  in  laying  the  foundations  of  a  monastery  at 
Chertsey  in  675.  The  mother  of  S.  Osyth  was  Wilteburga, 
a  daughter  of  Penda,  King  of  Mercia.  Her  name  occurs 
nowhere  else,  and  she  may  have  been  a  natural  child  of  that 
famous  chief.  Osyth  was  committed  to  the  care  of  S.  Mod- 
wenna,  the  Irish  abbess,  perhaps  at  Burton-on-Trent.  The 
life  of  the  saint,  by  Alberic  Vere,  is  unfortunately  not  to  be 
trusted  as  to  particulars ;  it  makes  S.  Edith  of  Polesworth  a 
disciple  of  S.  Modwenna.  Alberic  was  misled  by  the  life  of 
S.  Modwenna  by  Concubran,  and  the  origin  of  the  mistake 
has  been  pointed  out  elsewhere.  The  disciple  of  S.  Modwenna 
was  not  Edith,  sister  of  Alfred  the  Great,  but  Elfleda,  sister  of 
Alfred  of  Northumbria,  who  lived  three  centuries  earlier 
than  S.  Edith  of  Polesworth.  Modwenna  bade  Elfleda  in- 
struct the  young  girl  in  reading.  One  day  in  winter  Elfleda 
sent  Osyth  to  the  abbess  with  a  book.  The  child  had  to 
cross  the  river  by  a  foot-bridge  of  wood ;  the  wind  was  high, 
the  bridge  slippery  with  rain ;  Osyth  slipped,  and  fell  with 
the  book  into  the  water.     Elfleda  perhaps  heard  her  cry, 

'  Except  in  one  matter  it  is  free  from  anachronisms.     The  only  mistake  is  that  of 
taking  S.  Elfleda  for  S.  Edith. 

VOL.    XI  I  I 

•J< ^ 

and  ran  down  to  the  bank  of  the  river.  The  current  was 
sweeping  the  child  away,  and  she  would  have  been  drowned, 
had  not  Modwenna  providentially  arrived  at  the  spot  at 
the  moment.  She  asked  the  reason  of  the  cries  of  Elfleda, 
and  when  she  found  that  Osyth  was  in  the  water,  she  ran  to 
the  edge,  shrieking  "  Osyth,  Osyth,  Osyth  !  for  God's  sake 
strike  out  for  me."  The  little  girl  called  "  Here  I  am,  here 
I  am,  mistress  mine  ! "  And  finding  that  she  could  touch 
the  ground,  or  catch  a  branch,  she  bravely  struggled  ashore, 
without  having  let  go  her  hold  of  the  volume  intrusted  to  her. 
The  place  where  this  happened  is  called  Menpole  to  this 
day,  says  Alberic  Vere. 

When  the  education  of  Osyth  was  complete,  she  was  re- 
stored to  her  parents,  and  her  hand  was  sought  by  Sigh  ere. 
King  of  the  East  Saxons.  Osyth's  heart  was  set  on  the  re- 
ligious life,  and  it  grieved  her  sore  that  she  must  be  married 
to  an  earthly  bridegroom.  However,  there  was  no  help  for 
it.  Her  parents  were  resolute,  and  a  sumptuous  wedding- 
feast  was  held.  Now,  whilst  the  banquet  was  in  course, 
suddenly  a  magnificent  stag  bounded  past  the  hall  windows. 
Sighere  was  an  ardent  lover,  but  he  was  a  more  ardent 
sportsman.  He  blew  his  horn,  mounted  his  horse,  and, 
followed  by  his  men,  went  in  pursuit  of  the  stag.  Osyth 
seized  the  opportunity,  and  fled  the  place  Avith  some  of  her 
maids.  When  Sighere  returned  from  hunting  the  stag,  he 
had  lost  his  bride.  Osyth  escaped  to  Bishops  Acca'  and 
Bedwin,^  of  the  East  Saxons,  and  they  gave  her  the  veil. 
Sighere,^  seeing  that  his  young  bride  was  bent  on  the  re- 
ligious life,  gave  her  up  lands  at  Chich,  a  spit  of  land  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Colne,  and  there  she  founded  a  monastery, 

'  Acca,  B.  of  Dunwich,  673. 

'  Ccdwin,  B.  of  Elmham,  673-679. 

■"  Sighere  is  mentioiied  by  Bede  as  having  renounced  his  Christianity  in  time  of 
pestilence,  a.d.  664,  and  restored  the  idol  temples.  This  may  have  been  one  reason 
wi  y  Osyth  disliked  the  nwrriage. 

g4 ,j, 

into  which  she  retired.     The  date  can  be  fixed  with  precision 
as  673. 

The  place  then  called  Cliich,  and  now  S.  Osyth's,  was 
an  inviting  landing-place  for  the  Northmen.  Long  creeks 
filled  at  high  tide,  convenient  for  their  vessels  to  lie  in,  in- 
tersect the  land.  A  Danish  pirate  fleet  suddenly  entered 
the  mouth  of  the  Colne,  and  running  up  the  creek  to 
S.  Osyth's,  disgorged  its  murderous  crew,  and  the  ferocious 
Northmen  burst  into  the  monastery  of  nuns.  The  chief  of 
the  expedition  would  have  carried  off  Osyth  to  the  shipji,  but 
when  she  resisted,  he  struck  off  her  head.  She  is  said  to 
have  risen  to  her  feet  after  the  blow,  and  to  have  applied 
her  hands,  steeped  in  blood,  to  the  door  of  the  church  dedi- 
cated to  SS.  Peter  and  Paul.  According  to  popular  legend, 
her  head  was  struck  off  at  a  spot  where  there  was  till  lately 
a  spring  called  S.  Osyth's  Well,  and  she  walked  bearing  her 
head  as  far  as  the  church.  The  well  has  been  turfed  over, 
and  the  water  carried  off  in  pipes  to  supply  the  house  which 
occupies  the  site  of  the  priory. 

^ ^ 

*^ * 

1 64  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  s 

October  8. 

S.  Simeon,  Propk.  at  yerusalem  ;  is/  cent. 

S.  Reparata,  V.M.  at  Ccesarea  in  Palestine  ;  ■2nd  cent, 

S.  Artemon,  P.m.  at  Laociicea;  -^rdcent. 

S.  Demetrius,  31.  at  Thessalonica ;  circ.  a.d.  306. 

S.  Benedicta,  V.M.  at  Laon  in  France  ;  circ.  A.D.  306. 

S.  Thais,  Pen.  in  Egypt ;  ^th  cent. 

S.  Felix,  B.C.  at  Coiito  ;  end  of  A,th  cent. 

S.  Pelagia,  Pen.  at  Jerusalem;  circ.  a.d.  457, 

S.  Kevne,  V.  in  Abergavenny  ;  circ.  a.d.  490. 

S.  Triduana,  V.  at  Restalrig  i?i  Lothian. 

S.  Gratus,  B.  o/Ckalons-sur-Saone  ;  jth  cent. 

SS.  Valeria  and  Pollena,  KK.  at  Homieconrt,  near  Catnbrai. 

SS.  EusEBiA,  Abss.  AND  xxxi.x.  NuNs,  VV.  MM.  at  Marseilles ;  St/t  cent. 

S.  Ragnfried,  Abfi.  at  Dcnairs,  near  Valenciennes ;  circ.  A.D.  805. 

S.  Amor,  C.  at  Munsterhilsen.  near  Maestricht  ;  g/A  cent. 

S.  Hugh,  Knt.  C.  at  Genoa;  a.d.  1220, 

S.  Briget  of  Siveden  ;  a.d.  1373. 



[Roman  Martyrology,  U.suardus,  Ado.  But  Floras,  Hrabanus,  Notker 
on  Jan.  5.  By  the  Greeks  on  Feb.  3 ;  same  day  by  the  Russians  ;  by 
the  Copts  on  Feb.  2.] 

IMEON,  a  devout  Jew,  inspired  by  the  Holy 
Ghost,  met  the  B.  Virgin  when  she  brought  Our 
Lord  into  the  Temple,  at  her  purification,  and, 
taking  Him  up  in  his  arms,  he  gave  thanks  for 
what  he  saw  and  knew  of  Jesus  (Luke  ii.  25-35).  I"  ^^^ 
apocryphal  Gospel  of  Nicodemus,  Simeon  is  called  a  high 
priest.  The  statement  deserves  no  respect.  He  was  pro- 
bably the  Rabban  Simeon,  son  of  Hillel,  who  succeeded  his 
father  as  president  of  the  Sanhedrim,  about  a.d.  13,  though 
Bartolocci'^  doubts  it.     The  grandmother  of  Rabban  Simeon 

'  "  Bibliotheca  Max.  Rabin,"  iii.  327. 


Oct  8.]  •^-  Demetrius.  165 

was  of  the  family  of  David,  and  his  son  was  Gamaliel  the 
Pharisee,  at  whose  feet  S.  Paul  was  brought  up.^ 

S.  Adamnan,  and  S.  Gregory  of  Tours,  say  that  he  was 
buried  on  Mount  Olivet.  In  the  6th  century  his  relics  were 
translated  to  Constantinople,  by  Justin  the  Younger.  Por- 
tions were  given  to  Charlemagne,  and  were  by  him  placed  at 
Aix,  where  the  arm  on  which  the  infant  Saviour  rested  when 
the  "  Nunc  Dimittis"  was  first  is  said,  is  shown.  Other  relics 
at  Hartzburg,  but  the  entire  body  at  Zara,  in  Dalmatia; 
and  another  entire  body  at  Andechs,  in  Bavaria.  Part  of  an 
arm  at  Perigueux,  another  part  at  Palermo.  The  head  in  the 
Jesuit  college  at  Brussels.  Numerous  other  relics,  mostly  of 
arms,  elsewhere. 


(about  a.d.  306.) 

[Roman  Martyrology,  Hrabanus,  Bede,  the  Mart.  Parviim,  and  that 
of  S.  Jerome,  Ado,  Notker,  &c.  By  the  Greeks,  Russians,  Copts, 
Syrians,  Ethiopians  on  Oct.  26.  By  the  Greeks  he  is  entitled  one  of 
the  "  Great  Martyrs."  Authorities  :— A  Passion  by  a  Greek  anonymous 
writer,  translated  into  Latin  in  the  9th  cent,  by  Anastasius  Bibliotheca- 
rius.  It  was  probably  composed  in  the  6th  cent.  Another  Greek 
Passion  exists  much  later,  and  a  third  by  Metaphrastes ;  also  an  encomium 
by  John  of  Thessalonica  in  the  7th  cent.  The  first  Passion  is  apparently 
thoroughly  trustworthy.  ] 

Maximianus  Galerius  was  at  Thessalonica  about  the 
year  306,  where  he  amused  his  leisure  \vith  gladiatorial  fights 
in  the  amphitheatre.  He  had  a  favourite  gladiator,  named 
Lyseus,  a  man  large  of  body,  powerful  and  agile ;  he  had 
been  the  death  of  so  many  men,  that  scarce  any  could  be 
found  who  would  meet  him  in  the  arena.     One  day,  Max- 

'  Acts  xxij.  3. 

1 66  Lives  of  the  Saints,  foct.  a 

imian  went  to  the  amphitheatre  accompanied  by  Ly?eus, 
when  he  was  met  on  the  road  by  his  ofificers,  conveying 
Demetrius,  a  Christian,  whom  they  had  apprehended,  to 
prison.  Maximian  halted,  and  ordered  him  to  be  thrust 
into  a  room  in  the  pubUc  baths  till  he  returned  from  the 
sports,  when  he  would  examine  him  himself.  Then  he  strode 
on  and  took  his  accustomed  place  in  the  circus.  Lyseus 
stood  forth  in  the  arena,  and  defied  all  men  to  contend  with 
him.  No  one  accepted  the  challenge.  Then  Maximian 
offered  large  rewards  to  the  man  who  would  fight  with 
Lyffius.  Instantly  a  young  man  named  Nestor  jumped  into 
the  middle  of  the  lists,  and  offered  to  fight  the  practised 
gladiator.  Maximian  hesitated,  then  called  the  youth  up  to 
him  and  said,  "  Hark  ye,  I  know  that  you  have  challenged 
Lyseus  because  you  are  needy ;  and  you  think,  if  you  kill 
him,  you  will  gain  great  rewards  ;  and  if  you  die — well,  there 
is  an  end  to  poverty  and  misery.  But,  young  man,  I  have 
pity  on  your  youth,  and  I  will  give  you  a  present  because  of 
your  pluck  in  defying  this  champion  of  mine."  "  Sire," 
answered  Nestor,  "  I  have  not  challenged  him  for  reward, 
but  for  the  honour  of  fighting  so  redoubted  a  gladiator." 

So  they  met,  and  Lyseus  was  prostrated  at  one  blow  and 
killed.  Maximian  was  angry  at  having  lost  his  favourite 
fighting-man.  He  rose  from  his  seat,  and  left  the  amphi- 
theatre without  rewarding  Nestor.  He  was  in  this  mood, 
when  the  officers  stood  before  him  on  his  way  home  and 
asked  what  was  to  be  done  with  Demetrius. 

"Run  him  through  with  your  spears,"  said  the  angry 
tyrant.  And  Demetrius,  unheard,  was  thus  privately  de- 
spatched in  a  room  of  the  baths.  When  persecution  ceased, 
Leontius,  Christian  prefect  of  Illyria,  purged  the  baths,  and 
erected  over  the  scene  of  the  martyrdom  and  the  body  of  the 
martyr,  a  Christian  church,  which  he  also  richly  endowed, 
in  honour  of  the  martyr  Demetrius.     The  later  historians  of 

^ ' ^ 

Oct.  8.]  •^.  T/mzs.  167 

the  passion,  to  connect  the  incidents  and  exalt  the  saint, 
make  Nestor  ask  his  blessing  before  he  engages  with  Lyseus, 
but  there  is  no  hint  of  this  in  the  earliest  Acts. 


(4TH    CENT.) 

[Greek  Mencea  and  Menologies.  Of  Latin  Martyrologists,  Mauroly- 
clius,  Graven,  and  the  Bollandists.  Authority  :— A  life  originally  in 
Greek  ;  also  a  metrical  life  by  Marbod  of  Rennes,  d.  1123;  the  Greek 
life  was  probably  written  in  the  5th  cent.] 

There  lived  a  beautiful,  sinful  woman,  in  Egypt,  pro- 
bably at  Alexandria.  Her  splendid  beauty  was  the  cause 
of  many  a  furious  contest  between  her  rivals,  and  the  guilt 
of  their  blood  lay  at  her  door. 

Now  there  lived  in  the  wild,  lone,  sand-wastes  a  very  old 
hermit  named  Paphnutius.  And  it  was  told  him  how  this 
woman  bewitched  the  youth  with  her  beauty,  and  gave 
herself  up  to  pride  of  life,  lust  of  eye,  and  of  flesh.  And 
as  the  sun  rose  and  set  over  the  still  desert,  his  mind 
travelled  away  to  the  busy  town  and  the  hot,  restless  life 
men  and  women  lived  there,  and  his  heart  filled  with 
inexpressible  sadness  at  the  thoughts  of  the  woman  who 
was  a  sinner. 

At  length  the  wilderness  became  unendurable  to  him. 
He  must  go  and  see  her,  and  speak  to  her.  So  he  dis- 
guised himself  and  went  to  the  town,  and  called  at  her 
house,  and  asked  to  say  a  few  words  to  her.  Then  he  was 
admitted  and  was  shown  into  a  magnificent  apartment,  and 
there,  lounging  on  a  costly  couch,  was  the  beautiful  courtezan. 
The  old  hermit  stood  still  and  looked  hard  at  her,  and  his 
heart  beat,  and  his  eyes  began  to  fill,  and  he  could  scarcely 
utter  a  word. 

^ _-__, ^ 

1 68  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  s. 

"  Let  all  go  out,"  said  he. 

"  There  is  no  one  here  but  God,"  she  answered. 

"  What !  you  know  that  there  is  a  God  ? "  said  he,  with 

"  Yes,"  she  replied,  "  I  was  brought  up  a  Christian,  and 
taught  this  truth." 

"  And  do  you  know  that  there  is  a  heaven  for  the  righteous, 
and  a  hell  for  the  ungodly?" 

**  I  know  it,"  she  faltered. 

Then  he  broke  out  into  a  long  bitter  cry  and  said :  "  O 
God  Almighty !  she  knows  Thee,  and  what  Thou  hast  in 
store  for  them  that  serve  Thee,  and  for  them  that  offend 
Thee,  and  yet  she  has  slain  many  poor  souls  which  might 
have  seen  Thee  and  rested  in  Thy  glory  through  all  eternity, 
but  which  must  now  wail  in  endless  woe." 

Then  Thais,  for  that  was  her  name,  trembled  exceedingly, 
and  she  sprang  from  her  seat  and  threw  herself  at  the  feet 
of  the  old  man  and  held  them,  and  said :  "  My  father,  my 
father !  show  me  a  way  to  escape  !  Teach  me  how  to 

And  he  said :  "  I  Avill.  But  first  I  must  go  away  and 
prepare  a  place  for  thee." 

Then,  when  he  was  gone,  Thais  made  a  great  heap  in  the 
open  street  of  all  her  dresses,  and  set  them  on  fire,  and  went 
forth,  clad  in  poor  raiment,  to  the  place  Paphnutius  had 
appointed  her.  It  was  a  monastery  of  holy  women.  And 
there  he  gave  her  a  little  cell,  and  she  entered,  and  he  sealed 
up  the  door  with  lead,  and  bade  the  sisters  give  her  water 
and  dry  bread  through  the  narrow  window. 

Moreover,  he  bade  her  not  so  much  as  raise  her  hands  to 
heaven,  nor  name  God  with  her  lips,  but  look  to  the  east  in 
prayer,  and  say  :  "  Thou  who  hast  fashioned  me,  have  mercy 
upon  me." 

After  three  years  had  passed,  Paphnutius  was  grieved  for 

^ ^ 


Oct.  8.]  '^-    -^    '^"'^'S 

S.  Pelagia.  169 

Thais,  and  he  went  to  the  Abbot  Antony  and  asked  him 
whether  he  thought  that  the  severity  of  her  penance  might 
be  moderated,  and  that  God  had  pardoned  her  sins. 

Then  Antony  bade  his  monks  fast  and  pray  one  night,  and 
inquire  what  the  will  of  God  was.  Now  while  all  were  in 
silent  supplication,  suddenly  Paul,  the  oldest  disciple  of 
Antony,  looked  up,  and  saw  in  vision  a  glorious  place  in 
heaven.  And  he  said :  "  It  is  the  place  prepared  for  my 
father  Antony."  Then  a  voice  answered,  "  Not  so,  it  is  for 
Thais,  the  penitent." 

And  when  this  was  told,  with  great  joy  did  Paphnutius 
hurry  to  the  monastery,  and  he  broke  open  the  door  and 
said  to  Thais :  "  Come  forth  !  the  Lord  hath  pardoned  thy 

And  she  said  :  "  Since  the  day  that  I  entered,  they  have 
weighed  on  me  as  a  heavy  burden ;  I  have  felt  them  day  and 

"  Therefore,"  answered  Paphnutius,  "  the  Lord  hath 
pardoned  thee." 

And  after  she  had  come  forth,  Thais  lived  but  fifteen 
days,  and  then  she  emigrated  to  the  Lord. 


(about  a.d.  457.) 

[Mart,  of  Jerome.  Ado,  Usuardus,  Roman  Martyrology.  BytheGreeks, 
Russians,  Syriac  Kalendar,  that  of  the  Maronites,  &c.  Authority: — 
Two  Greek  lives,  paraphrases  of  a  more  ancient  Greek  one,  by  James 
the  deacon  of  Nonnus,  Bishop  of  Hierapolis,  who  converted  Pelagia.] 

Maximus,  Bishop  of  Antioch,  had  convoked  the  bishops 
under  his  metropolitan  jurisdiction  to  assemble  for  a  synod 
in  Antioch.     Eight  prelates  attended,  and  amongst  them 


^ — qi 

1 70  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  %. 

was  Nonnus,  Bishop  of  Edessa/  a  holy  man,  who  had  been 
monk  in  the  monastery  of  Tabenna  in  Egypt,  but  had  been 
forcibly  drawn  from  it  to  be  ordained  bishop.  The  synod 
met  m  the  basilica  of  the  Martyr  Julian.  When  the  session 
was  not  being  held,  some  of  the  bishops  and  clergy  sat  at 
the  church  door  in  the  shade,  and  amongst  them  Nonnus. 
Then  certain  of  those  present  asked  him  to  give  them  words 
of  counsel.  He  rose  at  once  and  spoke,  and  what  he  said 
was  so  seasoned  with  salt,  that  none  who  heard  him  remained 

Now  whilst  he  was  speaking,  there  came  out  of  a  street 
upon  the  square  into  the  broad  sunlight,  Pelagia,  the  chief 
actress  and  dancer  of  the  theatre  of  Antioch,  riding  on  an 
ass,  adorned  with  jewels  and  in  array  of  fine  linen  and  silk. 
Her  shoes  were  of  gilded  leather,  studded  with  pearls.  On 
either  side  was  a  train  of  boys  and  girls,  beautifully  dressed, 
wearing  golden  torques  round  their  necks,  young  actors  and 
actresses  trained  by  Pelagia.  She  wore  no  veil,  and  her 
dazzling  beauty  attracted  the  eyes  of  all  the  passers  by.  So 
highly  scented  was  she  with  musk,  that  the  air  of  the  street 
through  which  she  passed  was  made  fragrant. 

Now  when  the  bishops  saw  her  with  bare  face  and 
shoulders,  they  turned  their  heads  aside.  But  Nonnus, 
arrested  in  his  discourse,  looked  attentively  at  her,  following 
her  with  his  eyes  very  earnestly  till  she  disappeared.  Then 
turning  to  the  other  bishops,  he  asked,  "  Did  not  the  sight  of 
that  woman  please  you  ?  " 

They  answered  him  not  a  word. 

Then  he  laid  his  face  on  his  knee  and  wept,  and  his  book 
of  prayers  was  stained  with  his  tears.  After  a  while  he 
looked  up  and  said  again  to  the  bishops,  "  Did  you  not 
delight  in  her  beauty?" 

They  remained  silent  as  before,  perplexed  at  his  question. 

'  Venerated  on  December  2. 
^ _ ^ 


Oct.  8.] 

S.  Pelagia.  171 

But  he  said,  "  I  was  right  well  pleased  to  see  her.  For 
it  seems  to  me,  that  God  has  placed  her  before  us  to  judge 
our  lives  and  bishoprics.  For,  see  you,  my  dearest,  how 
that  woman  spends  many  hours  in  bathing  and  anointing 
herself,  in  decking  out  her  hair,  and  her  arms  and  neck  and 
ankles,  with  rings  of  gold  and  chains  of  pearls,  and  how  she 
devotes  long  time  and  much  eftbrt  to  practise  her  dances, 
whereas  we  have  not  such  zeal  and  diligence  in  our  office, 
or  in  preparing  our  souls  for  our  just  and  holy  Lord  who  is 
of  purer  eyes  than  to  behold  iniquity." 

So  saying,  he  laid  his  hand  on  his  deacon,  James,  the 
writer  of  this  most  touching  narrative,  and  bade  him  lead 
him  away  to  the  hostel  where  he  lodged.  And  when  he 
came  there  he  entered  into  his  chamber  and  cast  himself  on 
the  pavement  and  wept  sore,  and  smote  his  breast ;  and  the 
night  settled  down  on  the  city  and  the  stars  shone  out,  and 
the  old  man  prayed  on,  till  he  fell  asleep  with  his  face  in  his 

When  morning  came  the  old  bishop  called  to  him  his 
deacon,  and  said,  "  I  have  had  a  dream,  and  I  cannot 
understand  it,  and  it  has  disturbed  me  greatly."  And  later 
in  the  day  he  said  :  "  T  thought  I  was  standing  at  the  altar, 
and  at  the  corner  I  saw  a  dove,  stained  with  filth  and  nearly 
black,  and  it  flew  about  me  as  I  said  mass,  and  I  could  not 
endure  its  foulness.  But  when  the  deacon  had  proclaimed 
to  the  catechumens  that  they  must  depart,  then  I  saw  it  no 
more  till  I  had  completed  mass,  and  had  finished  the 
oblation,  and  had  dismissed  the  congregation;  and  then,  as 
I  went  out  of  the  porch,  I  saw  again  that  dove  fluttering 
round  me ;  and  I  put  forth  my  hands  and  caught  it  and  cast 
it  into  the  shell  that  stood  in  the  atrium  of  the  church,  and 
forthwith  the  dove  flew  up  white  as  snow,  and  soared,  and  I 
stood  looking,  and  it  went  higher  and  higher  and  was  lost  to 
sight  in  the  deep  blue  sky." 


172  Lives  of  the  Saints.  \.oqx.%. 

Then  Nonnus  the  bishop  laid  his  hand  on  his  deacon's 
shoulder,  and  bade  him  lead  him  to  the  church,  for  it  was 
the  Lord's  day.  Now  when  Nonnus  entered  with  the  other 
bishops  they  saluted  their  metropolitan,  and  the  people 
crowded  in  after  them,  and  the  bishops  sat  on  their  thrones. 
"  Now  after  the  canonical  celebration,"  says  the  deacon 
James,  "  or  reading  of  the  holy  gospel,  the  same  bishop  of 
the  city  held  out  the  holy  gospel  to  the  blessed  Nonnus,  and 
exhorted  him  to  speak  a  word  to  the  people.  And  he 
opening  his  mouth  spake  the  wisdom  of  God  which  dwelt  in 
him,  for  there  was  in  him  no  studied  elocution,  or  philoso- 
phy, or  anything  superfluous,  but  filled  with  the  Holy  Ghost 
he  reasoned  with  and  admonished  the  people,  speaking 
simply  of  the  future  judgment,  and  of  the  good  things  laid 
up  by  God.  And  all  the  people  were  moved  by  the  words 
he  spake  through  the  Holy  Ghost,  so  that  their  tears  dropped 
on  the  pavement  of  the  church.  And  by  the  counsel  and 
mercy  of  God,  it  fell  out  that  the  woman  of  whom  I  have 
told  happened  then  to  be  in  the  church,  and  it  was  a  great 
wonder,  for  she  was  not  a  catechumen,  and  had  never  felt  any 
solicitude  about  her  sins,  nor  had  frequented  churches  at 
any  time.  But  now  she  heard  and  was  pricked  to  the  heart 
with  the  fear  of  the  Lord,  whilst  Nonnus  spake,  so  that  she 
despaired  and  could  not  contain  her  tears,  but  sobbed  out 
aloud.  And  she  said  to  two  of  her  slaves,  '  Tarry  here,  and 
when  the  blessed  Nonnus  goes  forth,  follow  him,  and  learn 
where  he  dwells,  and  come  and  bring  me  word.' 

"  The  slaves  therefore  did  as  their  mistress  had  com- 
manded, and,  following  us,  they  came  to  the  basilica  of  the 
blessed  martyr  Julian,  where  was  given  us  a  lodging  or  cell. 
And  going  back,  they  went  and  told  their  mistress,  saying, 
'  They  lodge  in  the  basilica  of  the  blessed  martyr  Julian.' 
Then  straightway  she  sent  a  diptych  of  tablets  by  the  same 
servants,  on  which  she  had  written  these  words :  '  To  the 

^. (j, 


Oct.  8.] 

6".  Pelagia,  173 

holy  disciple  of  Christ,  a  sinner  and  disciple  of  the  devil 
sends  greeting.  I  have  heard  of  thy  God,  who  bowed  the 
heavens,  and  came  down  on  earth,  not  to  save  the  just,  but 
sinners ;  and  that  He  so  humbled  Himself  as  to  draw  nigh 
to  publicans.  He,  whom  cherubim  dare  not  gaze  on,  conversed 
with  sinners.  And  thou,  my  lord,  who  art  very  holy, 
although  with  eyes  of  flesh  thou  hast  not  seen  that  Lord 
Jesus  Christ  who  manifested  Himself  by  the  well  to  the 
Samaritan  woman,  yet  thou  art  His  worshipper,  as  I  have 
heard  from  Christians.  If,  therefore,  thou  art  a  true  disciple 
of  that  Christ,  reject  me  not,  desiring  to  behold  the  Saviour 
by  thee,  and  let  me  be  permitted  to  see  thy  holy  face.' 

"  Then  the  holy  Nonnus,  the  bishop,  wrote  back  to  her: 
'  Whoever  thou  art,  it  is  manifest  to  God,  and  so  is  the  coun- 
sel of  thy  heart.  But  I  say  unto  thee.  Tempt  not  my 
humility,  for  I,  though  a  servant  of  God,  am  a  sinner.  If 
thou  then  truly  hast  a  desire  of  divinity,  of  acquiring  virtues 
and  faith,  and  seekest  to  see  me,  there  are  other  bishops 
with  me,  and  thou  mayest  see  me  in  their  presence,  but  alone 
thou  mayest  not  see  me.'  Now  when  she  had  read  this  she 
was  filled  with  joy,  and  came  swiftly  to  to  the  temple  of  the 
blessed  Julian  the  martyr,  and  announced  to  us  her  presence. 
On  hearing  this,  Nonnus  the  bishop  called  about  him  all  the 
bishops  who  were  there,  and  bade  her  come  in.  And  she, 
entering,  where  the  bishops  were  assembled,  cast  herself  on 
the  pavement,  and  held  the  feet  of  the  blessed  Bishop  Non- 
nus, and  said,  '  I  pray  thee,  my  lord,  imitate  thy  Master, 
Jesus  Christ,  and  pour  out  upon  me  thy  great  charity,  and 
make  me  a  Christian.  For  I,  my  lord,  am  an  ocean  of  sins, 
and  an  abyss  of  iniquity.     I  pray  that  I  may  be  baptized.' 

"  Now,  when  the  holy  bishop  Nonnus  had  hardly  per- 
suaded her  to  rise  from  his  feet,  he  lifted  her  up,  and  said 
to  her,  '  The  ecclesiastical  canons  forbid  to  baptize  a  courte- 
zan unless  she  be  attended  by  sponsors,  who  may  see  that 


(5< ^ 

174  Lives  of  the  Saints,  [Oct.  8. 

she  falls  not  back  again  to  her  former  sins.'  She,  hearing 
this,  cast  herself  again  on  the  floor,  and  clasped  the  feet  of 
the  holy  Nonnus,  and  washed  them  with  her  tears,  and  wiped 
them  Avith  the  hair  of  her  head,  saying,  '  Thou,  then,  must 
answer  for  my  soul  to  God.  To  thee  will  I  attribute  my  evil 
deeds,  if  thou  deniest  me  the  washing  of  baptism  to  cleanse 
me,  guilty  and  most  foul.  Thou  shalt  not  have  thy  portion 
among  the  saints,  unless  thou  now  estrangest  me  from  my 
former  evil  career.  Thou  deniest  thy  God,  if  thou  refusest  to 
give  me  this  day  new  birth  as  a  bride  of  Christ,  and  pre- 
sentest  me  cleansed  before  God.'  And  when  they  heard 
this,  all  who  were  present  glorified  God,  for  the  so  great 
desire  of  salvation  kindled  in  the  heart  of  this  woman  who 
was  a  sinner. 

"  Forth\vith  they  sent  me,  the  sinful  deacon,  to  the  bishop 
of  that  city,  that  I  might  infonn  him  of  all,  and  ask  his  beati- 
tude to  bid  one  of  the  deaconesses  attend  with  me.  And  he, 
hearing  this,  was  filled  with  great  joy,  saying,  '  It  is  well, 
honourable  father,  these  works  will  await  thee  in  heaven  ;  I 
know  that  thou  wilt  act  as  my  mouth.'  ^  And  straightway 
he  sent  with  me  the  Lady  Romana,  the  first  deaconess.  And 
we  coming,  found  the  woman  still  at  the  feet  of  the  holy 
Nonnus  the  bishop,  who  could  scarce  persuade  her  to  rise, 
saying,  '  Stand  up,  daughter,  to  be  exorcised.'  And  he  said 
to  her,  '  Confess  all  thy  sins.'  And  she  answered,  '  If  I  search 
out  the  depth  of  my  heart,  I  find  in  myself  no  good  acts  what- 
ever. But  I  know  my  sins,  which  are  weightier  than  the  sand 
by  the  sea-shore  ;  and  the  water  is  as  a  drop  to  their  abun- 
dance. But  I  trust  in  thy  God,  that  he  will  remove  the 
burden  of  my  iniquities,  and  look  in  compassion  upon  me.' 

"  Then  said  Nonnus  to  her,  '  Say,  what  is  thy  name." 
And  she  answered,  *  My  natural  name  is  Pelagia,  which 
was  given  me  by  my  parents ;  but  the  citizens  of  Antioch 

'  Jer.  XV.  19 

call  me  Margaret,  on  account  of  the  pearls  wherewith  I  have 
vadorncd  me,  the  price  of  my  iniquities.'  Again  Nonnus  the 
bishop  said  to  her,  '  Are  you  properly  called  Pelagia?'  And 
she  said,  '  It  is  so,  my  lord.'  Then  the  holy  Nonnus  exor- 
cised her,  and  baptized  her,  and  gave  her  the  seal  of  the 
Lord,  and  communicated  her  with  the  Body  of  Christ.  And 
her  spiritual  mother  was  the  holy  lady  Romana,  the  first 
deaconess,  who,  receiving"  her,  went  up  into  the  house  of  the 
catechumens,  in  the  which  we  were  also  lodged.  Then  said 
the  holy  Nonnus,  the  bishop,  to  me, '  I  say  unto  thee,  brother 
deacon,  to-day  we  will  rejoice  with  the  angels  of  God,  and 
eat  our  food  with  oil,  and  drink  wine  with  great  gladness  of 
spirit,  because  of  the  salvation  of  this  poor  girl.'" 

When  the  conversion  of  Pelagia  was  rumoured  in  Antioch, 
there  gathered  a  crowd  of  the  dissipated  men  of  the  place, 
and  shouted  and  railed  against  the  bishops,  and  cried  to 
Pelagia  to  return  to  the  stage,  and  to  the  pomps  and  vanities 
of  life.  But  Nonnus  said  to  Pelagia,  "  Sign  thyself  with  the 
Cross,  and  renounce  them."  And  she  made  the  holy  sign, 
and  was  unmoved  by  their  cries. 

And  on  the  third  day  after  her  baptism  she  said  to  her 
steward,  "  Go  into  my  room  where  I  keep  my  apparel,  and 
gold  and  silver,  and  jewels,  and  make  a  list  of  all,  and  bring 
it  me."  He  did  so,  and  she  handed  over  to  Bishop  Nonnus 
all  that  she  possessed,  to  be  by  him  disposed  of  as  he  saw 
fit.  And  he  called  for  the  treasurer  of  the  church,  and  gave 
it  all  to  him,  and  said,  "  See  that  none  of  it  be  carried  into 
the  church,  but  distribute  it  among  the  widows  and  orphans, 
for  these  are  the  hire  of  sin." 

And  Pelagia  summoned  her  slaves,  and  gave  them  all  their 
liberty,  and  made  them  a  present  of  the  gold  torques  they 
wore,  and  said,  "  Make  haste,  and  escape  out  of  the  bondage 
of  this  sinful  world." 

And  on  the  eighth  day,  on  which  the  baptismal   white 



iy6  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  s. 

robe  is  laid  aside,  Pelagia  rose  in  the  night,  took  off  her  the 
white  garment  of  baptism,  and  clothed  herself  in  the  horse- 
hair tunic  and  mantle  of  Nonnus,  and  from  that  day  was  seen 
no  more  in  Antioch. 

Romana  the  deaconess  wept  bitterly,  fearing  that  Pelagia 
had  returned  to  her  evil  ways  ;  but  the  bishop  Nonnus,  who 
knew  what  was  the  purpose  of  Pelagia,  consoled  her,  saying, 
"  Rejoice,  my  daughter,  for  Pelagia  has  chosen  that  good 
part  which  the  Lord  extolled  in  the  Gospel." 

Pelagia  took  her  course  to  Jerusalem,  and  she  built  herself 
a  little  cell  on  the  Mount  of  Olives,  near  the  garden  of  Geth- 

*'  And  after  three  or  four  years,  I,  James  the  deacon,  de- 
signed to  go  to  Jerusalem,  to  adore  the  resurrection  of  our 
Lord  Jesus  Christ,  and  I  asked  permission  of  my  bishop. 
And  wlien  he  consented  that  I  should  go,  he  said  to  me,  *  I 
bid  thee,  brother  deacon,  when  thou  comest  to  Jerusalem, 
seek  out  a  certain  brother  Pelagius,  a  beardless  monk,  who 
has  for  some  years  dwelt  shut  up  in  a  cell ;  ask  him  how  he 
fares,  perhaps  thou  mayest  be  able  to  succour  him.'  And  I 
went  to  Jerusalem,  and  adored  the  resurrection  of  our  Lord 
Jesus  Christ ;  and  next  day  I  went  in  quest  of  the  servant  of 
God.  And  I  went  and  found  him  on  Mount  Olivet,  where 
the  Lord  prayed,  in  a  little  cell,  enclosed  on  all  sides,  and 
with  a  little  window  in  the  wall. 

"  And  I  knocked  at  the  window,  and  straightway  it  was 
opened,  and  she  knew  me,  but  I,  indeed,  did  not  recognize 
her.  For  how  could  I  ?  Seeing  that  before  I  had  beheld 
her  in  radiant  beauty,  and  now  I  saw  a  pallid  face,  with  deep 
sunken  eyes. 

"And  she  said  to  me,  'Whence  comest  thou,  brother?' 
I  answered  and  said,  *  I  am  sent  unto  thee  by  Nonnus  the 
bishop.'  And  she  said,  '  Let  him  pray  for  me,  for  he  is  a 
true  saint    of  God.'      Then   she  closed  the  window,  and 


►J, ^ 

Oct.  8.]  S.  Pelagia.  177 

began  to  sing  the  Psalms  of  the  third  hour.  And  I  prayed, 
leaning  against  the  wall  of  the  cell,  and  then  went  away, 
much  gratified  by  this  angelic  vision.  And  I  returned  to 
Jerusalem,  and  went  about  the  monastery,  and  visited  the 
brethren.  And  everywhere  I  heard  praise  of  the  virtues  of 
Pelagius.  Therefore  I  deliberated  in  my  mind  to  return 
and  salute  the  anchorite  and  obtain  some  salutary  instruc- 
tion. But  when  I  came  to  the  cell  and  knocked,  and  called 
Pelagius  by  name,  there  was  no  answer.  So  I  waited  the 
second  and  the  third  day,  persevering,  and  calling  Pelagius 
by  name,  but  I  heard  no  one.  Therefore  I  said  within  my- 
self, '  Either  no  one  is  within,  or  he  who  was  here  has  left 
the  place.' 

"  But,  by  God's  inspiration,  another  thought  struck  me,  and 
I  said, '  Perhaps  he  may  be  dead.'  So  I  pushed  open  the  little 
window,  and  looked  in,  and  saw  that  he  was  dead.  So  then 
I  closed  the  window,  and  choked  it  up  with  clay,  and  ran  to 
Jerusalem  and  told  what  I  had  discovered,  that  the  holy 
monk  Pelagius  had  fallen  asleep.  Then  the  holy  fathers 
from  divers  monasteries  came  and  opened  the  door  of  the 
cell,  and  carried  out  the  little  body,  and  laid  it,  as  was 
worthy,  on  gold  and  precious  stones.  But  when  they  found 
that  she  was  a  woman,  all  the  people  burst  forth  into  praise, 
saying,  '  Glory  be  to  Thee,  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  who  hast  many 
hidden  treasures  on  earth,  not  male  only,  but  female  also.' 
And  when  the  fame  spread,  then  came  all  the  monasteries 
of  virgins  from  Jericho  and  from  Jordan,  with  wax  candles 
and  lamps,  and  hymns,  and  so  her  holy  relics  were  laid  at 
rest,  borne  by  the  holy  fathers." 

P^.elics  at  Jouarre,  in  France. 

VOL.  XI.  12 

178  Lives  of  the  Saints.  joct.  s 

S.  KEYNE,  V. 
(about  a.d.  490.) 

[Wilson's  Anglican  Martyrology  of  1640.  Wytford  in  his  Anglican 
Martyrology  of  1526.     Authority  :  A  Legend  in  Capgrave.] 

According  to  the  legend  in  Capgrave,  S.  Keyne  (in 
Welsh,  Ceneu,)  was  the  daughter  of  Brychan,  King  of  Breck- 
nock. He  says,  Brychan  was  the  father  of  twelve  sons 
and  twelve  daughters,  all  saints.  The  eldest  son  was  S. 
Cynog,'  and  the  eldest  daughter  was  S.  Gladws.^  She  was 
the  mother  of  S.  Cadoc.^  The  second  daughter  was  Melari, 
mother  of  S.  David.'' 

Although  Ceneu  is  by  others  said  to  have  been  a  daughter 
of  Brychan,  and  the  number  of  his  sons  has  swelled  to 
twenty-four,  and  that  of  his  daughters  to  twenty-six,  there 
can  be  no  question  that  the  grandchildren  of  this  prince 
have  been  inserted  in  the  list  as  his  own  children.  Keyne 
or  Ceneu  was,  perhaps,  a  grand-daughter  of  Brychan,  and 
not  a  daughter ;  but  it  is  probable  that  three  Brychans  have 
been  fused  into  one. 

The  legend  says  that  when  the  mother  of  Keyne  was 
expecting  her  birth,  rays  of  light  shot  from  her  breasts,  and 
she  dreamed  that  she  nursed  a  dove  in  her  lap.  The  little 
Ceneu  as  a  girl  at  times  shone  like  the  sun,  and  at  others 
appeared  as  white  as  drifted  snow.  When  she  came  to  a 
marriageable  age  she  refused  every  offer  for  her  hand,  and 
vowed  herself  to  God;    therefore  she  is  called  in  Welsh 

'  According  to  all  the  Welsh  lists  Cynawg  or  Cynog  was  the  eldest  son  of  Brychan 
by  Branhadlwedd. 

*  Properly  Gwladys,  the  wife  of  Gwynllj-w  Filwr.  From  the  dates  of  her  husband 
and  children,  which  are  easily  computed,  it  would  appear  that  she  was  a  grand- 
daughter, rather  than  a  daughter,  of  Brychan. 

•^  Cattwg,  son  of  Gwladys  and  Gwynllyw  Filwr. 

*  Eleri,  married  to  Ceredig  ab  Cunedda-  was  the  paternal  grandmother  of  S.  David 

— — — ^ 4< 

^ _ 1^ 

Oct.  8.]  ^'  Keyne.  179 

Cein-wyryf,  or  Keyne  the  Virgin.  At  length  she  determined 
to  forsake  her  country  and  find  some  desert  place  where  she 
might  spend  her  time  in  prayer  and  contemplation.  There- 
fore, having  crossed  the  Severn,  she  arrived  in  a  woody 
country,  and  obtained  permission  from  the  prince  of  that 
country  to  settle  there.  But  the  place  did  so  swarm  with 
serpents  that  he  assured  her  neither  man  nor  beast  could 
inhabit  it.  However,  she  assured  him  that  if  he  would 
suffer  her  to  dwell  there  she  would  rid  it  of  the  noxious 
reptiles,  and  when  she  had  prayed  they  were  turned  into 
stone.  "And  to  this  day  the  stones  in  that  region  do 
resemble  the  form  of  a  serpent,  as  though  sculptured  by  a 
stone-cutter,  through  the  fields  and  villages."  This  description 
refers  to  the  ammonites  in  the  lias  at  Keynsham.  Thence 
she  went  on  into  Cornwall.^  After  a  while,  S.  Cadog  went 
in  search  of  her,  and  found  her  on  his  return  from  a  visit 
to  S.  Michael's  Mount  in  Cornwall.  With  him  she  returned 
to  her  own  country,  and  took  up  her  abode  at  Llangeneu 
in  Abergavenny,  at  the  foot  of  a  mountain,  and  there  by 
a  prayer  she  elicited  a  miraculous  spring.^  And  when  the 
day  of  her  departure  came,  a  column  of  fire  was  seen 
standing  over  the  cell,  and  two  angels  descended  to 
where  she  lay  on  branches  on  the  floor,  and  one,  bowing 
reverently,  removed  her  sackcloth  habit,  and  the  other 
vested  her  in  a  sheet  of  linen  and  a  crimson  tunic,  and 
cast  over  her  a  mantle  embroidered  with  gold,  and  said  : 
"Come  with  us,  and  we  will  introduce  you  to  the  king- 
dom of  thy  Father."  Then  she  died  and  was  buried  by 
S.  Cadog. 

A  well  dedicated  to  S.    Keyne   exists   in   the  parish  of 

1  This  is  not,  indeed,  stated  in  thejLife,  but  the  fact  of  her  well  and  church  being 
shown  in  Cornwall  indicate  her  having  been  there. 

2  The  spring  is  still  called  by  her  name,  and  the  foundations  of  her  oratory  may  also 
be  traced. 

^ ^ 

^( — ^ 

1 80  Lives  of  the  Saints.  \oc\..% 

S.  Keyne  in  Cornwall,  near  Liskeard.  It  is  covered  with  old 
masonry,  upon  the  top  of  which  grow  five  large  trees,  a 
Cornish  elm,  an  oak,  and  three  antique  ash  trees,  on  so 
narrow  a  space,  that  it  is  difficult  to  imagine  how  the  roots 
can  be  accommodated.  According  to  popular  story,  S. 
Keyne  presented  this  well  to  the  inhabitants  in  return  for 
the  church  which  they  dedicated  to  her,  and  it  has  the 
marvellous  property,  by  which  the  husband  or  wife  who  can 
first  obtain  a  draught  of  water  from  the  spring  \vill  acquire 
the  ascendency  in  domestic  affairs.  The  mystical  well  is 
the  subject  of  a  ballad,  by  Southey,  which  concludes  with 
the  follomng  lines  : — 

"  I  hasten'd  as  soon  as  the  wedding  was  o'er 

And  left  my  good  wife  in  the  porch, 
But  i'  faith  she  had  been  wiser  than  I, 

For  she  took  a  bottle  to  church  ! " 

(date  uncertain.) 

[Aberdeen  and  Arbuthnot  Kalendars.  The  Martyrologies  of  Demp- 
ster and  Camerarius.    Authority  : — The  Aberdeen  Breviary.] 

Before  the  Reformation  there  were  several  locahties  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  Edinburgh  which  were  celebrated  as 
places  of  pilgrimage.  Near  Musselburgh  was  the  chapel  of 
Our  Lady  of  Loretto ;  there  was  also  the  ancient  church  of 
S.  Mary  of  Hamer — the  White  Kirk  of  our  Lady  of  Lothian ; 
but  the  most  important  of  all  was  the  chapel  of  S.  Triduana 
at  Bestalrig,  where  the  bones  of  that  saint  lay. 

She  is  called  variously  Treddles,Tredwall,  Trallew,  Trallen, 

i — ^ 

Tradlius,  and  in  composition  Tradwall.  In  the  Ork- 
neyinga  Saga,  a  miracle  is  related  wrought  by  her  intercession, 
and  she  is  there  called  S.  Trollha^na.' 

Her  legend  in  the  Breviary  of  Aberdeen  is  as  follows : — 

The  glorious  virgin  Triduana  of  Colosse  came  with  S. 
Regulus,  in  or  about  a.d.  337,  from  Constantinople,  bearing 
the  relics  of  S.  Andrew  to  Scotland.  She  was  accompanied 
also  by  the  virgins  Crescentia,  Potentia,  and  Emeria.  Tri- 
duana led  an  eremitical  life,  along  with  Potentia  and 
Emeria,  at  Rescoby,  in  Forfarshire.  But  the  tyrant  Nec- 
tanevus,  prince  of  the  country,  having  conceived  a  violent 
passion  for  her,  she  fled  to  Dunfallandy  in  Athol.  There 
his  ministers  coming  to  her,  she  said,  "  What  does  so  great 
a  prince  desire  of  me,  a  poor  virgin  dedicated  to  God?" 
To  which  they  answered,  "  He  desireth  the  most  excellent 
beauty  of  thine  eyes,  which  if  he  obtain  not  he  will  surely 
die."  Then  the  virgin  said,  "  What  he  seeketh  that  he  shall 
have,"  and  she  plucked  out  her  eyes  and  skewered  them  on 
a  thorn,  and  gave  them  to  the  ministers,  saying,  "  Take  that 
which  your  prince  desireth."  The  king,  on  being  informed 
of  this,  admired  her  constancy. 

Triduana,  no  longer  an  object  of  amorous  pursuit,  was 
allowed  to  devote  herself  to  prayer  unmolested  at  Restalrig, 
in  Lothian,  till  her  death.  S.  Triduana  was  invoked  by  those 
who  had  sore  eyes.  Sir  David  Lindsay  speaks  of  people 
going  to  S.  Tredwell  "  to  mend  their  ene,"  and  of  her  image 
there  with  the  thorn  transfixing  her  two  eyeballs. 

That  the  legend  has  some  substance  is  clear  from  the 
records  of  the  saint  at  the  different  localities  mentioned  in  it. 
At  Rescobie  is  still  S.  Triduana's  fair.  She  is  also  found 
at  Tradlines.  The  first  act  of  official  iconoclasm  at  the 
Reformation  was  the  destruction  of  the  church  erected  over 
her  remains  at  Restalrig.      On  the  21st  December,  1560, 

'  Orkneyiiiga  Saga,  p.  414.     ■ 
^ — ^ 

it  was  ordained  "  that  the  kirk  of  Restalrig,  as  a  monu- 
ment of  idolatry,  be  raysit  and  utterlie  cast  down  and  de- 


(A.D.    1373.) 

[Roman  Martyrology.  Canonized  by  Boniface  IX.  in  1391.  Authori- 
ties : — The  Bull  of  her  Canonization  ;  a  life  by  Birger  Gunnarsen,  arch- 
bishop of  Upsala,  1496-1519  ;  and  another  life  by  Berthold,  monk 
of  S.  Salvador.  Another  life,  the  Chronicon  de  S.  Brigitta,  by  Marga- 
retta,  abbess  of  Wadstena,  circa  1430 ;  also  the  Diarium  Vazstenense, 
1 344- 1 545.  The  Revelations  of  S.  Briget  have  gone  through  numerous 
editions,  and  have  been  translated  into  Italian,  French,  German,  English, 
Swedish,  Dutch,  &c.] 

S.  Briget,  or  more  properly  Birgitta,  was  bom  at  Finnstad 
near  Upsala,  in  Sweden,  in  1302.  Her  father  was  Birgir, 
lag77ian  of  Upland,  a  pious  man,  the  founder  of  many 
churches  and  of  the  monastery  of  Skoo  on  the  Maeler  lake. 
His  wife,  Ingibjorg,  was  daughter  of  Sigrid  the  Fair  and 
Bengt,  brother  of  Earl  Birgir.  Sigrid  was  of  low  extraction. 
On  account  of  this  the  haughty  Birgir  sent  his  newly-married 
brother  a  coat,  half  of  which  was  made  of  the  costliest  velvet 
wrought  with  gold,  and  the  other  of  the  coarsest  homxcspun. 
Having  caused  the  homespun  to  be  embroidered  with  pearls 
and  gems,  so  that  it  became  of  more  worth  than  the  velvet, 
Bengt  returned  it  to  Birgir,  to  remind  him  that  beauty  and 
virtue  are  of  greater  value  than  noble  birth. 

The  earl  grew  angry,  and  threatened  his  brother  with  a 
visit.  Bengt  left  his  home  the  day  Birgir  was  expected ;  but 
his  wife  received  their  guest  so  well,  and  behaved  so  sweetly 
and  prudently,  that  he  was  not  able  to  resist  the  grace  of 
this  "  gem  among  fair  women."  Next  day  when  Bengt 
returned  home,  Birgir  hastened  to  meet  him,  and  assure  him 

Oct  8.  S.  Br iget  of  Sweden.  183 

that  he  fully  approved  his  marriage,  "  Hadst  thou  not  taken 
her  to  wife  thyself,  brother,  in  good  faith,  I  might  have  done 
it  myself."  ^ 

One  night,  say  the  chroniclers,  a  glorious  maiden  in  rich 
attire  was  seen  in  the  heavens,  bearing  in  her  hand  a  scroll, 
inscribed  with  these  words  :  "  Of  Birgir  is  born  a  daughter 
whose  fame  shall  be  sung  throughout  the  world ! "  That 
selfsame  night  was  born  the  lady  Birgitta, — Britta  as  she  is 
called  in  Sweden. 

But  her  mother  was  nigh  perishing  in  a  storm  at  sea,  by 
shipwreck,  but  was  saved  by  Dukes  Eric  and  Waldemar, 
and  she  came  ashore  near  Bredsatra,  where  a  chapel  was 
erected  in  later  times  in  honour  of  S.  Britta.  On  the 
promontory  stands  at  this  day  the  ruined  chapel  of  grey 
stone.  Beside  it  is  a  solitary  thorn  tree,  and  a  spring 
covered  over  with  a  cracked  slab  of  sandstone — S.  Britta's 
well.  On  the  greensward  by  the  strand  a  marble  floriated 
cross,  twelve  feet  in  height,  marks  the  spot  where  Ingibjorg 
first  set  foot  on  land.  In  the  night  the  lady  was  informed  in 
a  vision  that  she  had  been  saved  from  drowning  only  for  the 
sake  of  the  unborn  child  she  bore  in  her  womb. 

The  Lady  Ingibjorg  was  a  holy  woman;  she  died  not  long 
after  the  birth  of  Birgitta,  leaving  several  children,  of  whom 
Israel  became  lagman  of  the  Uplands  after  his  father;  her 
daughter  Margaret  married  Nicolas  Ingiraldsen,  chief  of  Ham- 
merstad ;  another  daughter,  Catherine,  married  Gudmar,  lag- 
man  of  West-Gothland.  Birger,  Archbishop  of  Upsala,  who 
wrote  more  than  a  century  after  the  death  of  Birgitta,  tells 
wonderful  stories  of  her  childhood, — how  that  when  Birgitta 
was  hard  at  work  one  day,  at  the  age  of  twelve,  making  feather 
trimmings  for  her  dress,  an  angel  came  and  helped  her.   The 

'  The  Brahe  family — of  whom  Tycho  Brahe,  the  astronomer,  was  a  member — are 
descended  from  Birgir  and  Ingibjorg,  the  parents  of  S.  Birgitta.  Birgir  bore  the 
eagle's  wings  on  his  escutcheon,  which  are  still  the  arms  of  the  Brahes. 

bit  of  feather-work  was  put  aside  and  venerated  after  her  death 
as  an  august  relic.  At  the  age  of  fourteen  she  was  married  to 
Ulf  of  Ulfsa,  son  of  Gudmar,  lagman  o{  Nerik,  and  by  him 
had  four  sons  and  as  many  daughters.  Her  sons  were  Car], 
Birger,  Benedict,  and  Gudmar ;  of  these  Benedict  died  before 
he  came  of  age,  and  Gudmar  in  infancy.  Her  daughters 
were  M^eretta,  Caeciha,  Catherine,  and  Ingibjorg.  M^eretta 
was  married  twice  :  first  to  Siord  Ribbing  and  afterwards  to 
Knut  Algoth,  and  became  lady-in-waiting  to  Margaret,  wife 
of  Hako,  King  of  Norway.  Csecilia  was  forced  against  her 
will  to  enter  the  convent  of  Skening.  Her  brother  Carl 
thereupon  went  to  the  convent  and  carried  her  off,  and  she 
married  a  knight,  who  was  poisoned  at  the  marriage  of 
Queen  Margaret,  daughter  of  Waldemar  of  Denmark,  to 
Hako  of  Norway,  at  the  same  time  as  Blanche  of  Namur, 
Queen  of  Sweden.  At  that  ill-fated  wedding  King  Magnus 
of  Sweden  tasted  poison,  but  his  life  was  saved  by  his  phy- 
sician, Laurence  Jonsen,  and  he  gave  the  bereaved  Ceecilia  to 
the  physician  as  his  reward. 

Catherine,  the  third  daughter,  became  a  saint  (March  24), 
and  Ingibjorg  died  young  in  a  convent. 

In  her  married  life  Birgitta  was  exemplary.  She  communi- 
cated every  Sunday  and  solemn  festival. 

She  was  appointed  lady-in-waiting  on  Blanche  of  Namur, 
the  bad  Queen  of  Magnus  Smek.  Birgitta  was  all  this  while 
in  the  habit  of  seeing  visions,  having  revelations,  and  relating 
them  as  messages  from  heaven  to  all  whom  they  concerned. 
Magnus  and  Blanche  were  apt  to  make  a  joke  of  S.  Birgitta, 
and  Magnus  often  asked  her  son,  "  Well,  Birger,  what  did 
your  mother  dream  about  us  last  night  ?  "  Her  visions  were 
sometimes  of  a  political  nature  ;  among  other  things  was 
revealed  to  her  the  manner  of  bringing  about  an  eternal 
peace  between  the  kings  of  England  and  France,  "  which, 
I      if  the  former  does  not  accept,  he  will  prosper  in  none  of 

^ — ^ 


Oct.  8]  S.  Briget  of  Siveden.  185 

his  transactions,  but  will  end  his  life  in  pain,  and  leave  his 
kingdom  and  his  children  in  tribulation  and  anguish.  His 
family  will  set  themselves  against  each  other,  and  cause  a 
confusion  that  all  will  be  astonished  at."  A  prophecy  ful- 
filled by  the  calamilous  death  of  Richard  II.,  and  the  AVars 
of  the  Roses. 

But  some  of  her  revelations  were  of  a  more  homely  and 
practical  description.  People  were  dirty  in  her  day;  for  twice 
it  was  revealed  to  her  that,  though  it  was  not  pleasing  to 
heaven  that  folks  should  take  baths  for  the  sake  of  enjoying 
them,  yet  that  Christians  might,  as  a  matter  of  health,  be 
allowed  a  tub  every  fortnight,  or  at  any  rate  once  a  month. 

One  day,  during  the  lifetime  of  her  husband,  on  her 
causing  a  state  bed  to  be  mounted  with  uncommon  care, 
she  suddenly  got  a  blow  over  the  head  from  an  unseen 
hand,  so  that  she  could  not  move  from  sheer  pain  for  some 
minutes  afterwards.  Then  a  voice  asked  her  why  she  took 
such  pains  to  lie  softly.  S.  Birgitta,  bursting  into  tears,  had 
the  bed  taken  down  ;  and  from  that  day,  lady-in-waiting  to 
the  queen  though  she  was,  she  not  only  slept  upon  straw 
and  a  bearskin,  but  made  her  husband  do  so  also. 

In  one  of  her  confinements  she  was  attended  by  the 
Blessed  Virgin  herself,  if  we  may  believe  her  biographers. 
One  day  she  learned  that  her  son  Carl  had  not  fasted 
on  the  vigil  of  S.  John  the  Baptist.  In  an  agony  of  grief 
and  horror  she  wept  and  fasted  and  prayed,  till  the  holy 
Precursor  appeared  to  her  and  said:  "Because  thou  hast 
wept  at  thy  son's  offending  me,  in  not  fasting  on  my  vigil, 
and  would  rather  see  him  my  servant  than  an  earthly 
monarch,  I  will  support  him,  and  be  his  patron  and  pro- 

At  last  she  persuaded  her  husband  to  accompany  her  on  a 
pilgrimage  to  Compostella.  On  his  way,  Ulf  fell  ill,  and  she 
urged  him  incessantly  to  make  a  vow  to  enter  a  monastery. 


1 86  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  s. 

He  consented,  under  the  fear  of  death,  and  entered  the 
Alvastra  monastery,  where  he  died.  She  was  now  free  to 
follow  her  own  desires.  She  rambled  in  pilgrimage  through 
Norway  to  the  tomb  of  S.  Olaf,  into  France,  to  Tarascon,  to 
the  shrine  of  S.  Martha,  to  Marseilles  to  visit  the  relics  of 
S.  Mary  Magdalen,  to  Cologne  to  venerate  the  heads  of  the 
three  kings;  and  finally  she  went  to  Rome,  accompanied  by 
her  sons  Birger  and  Carl.  With  them  she  was  presented 
before  the  Pope.  Birger  was  dressed  in  a  long  habit  reaching 
to  his  feet,  girded  about  his  waist ;  Carl  stood  erect  in 
knightly  guise,  with  a  short  kirtle,  girded  round  his  waist  by 
a  silver  belt  bearing  a  dagger.  "  He  wore  over  all  a  mantle 
on  which  were  sewn  entire  ennine  skins,  from  top  to  bottom, 
so  that  when  he  walked  it  looked  as  if  ermines  were  running 
over  him;  and  each  ermine's  head  had  a  little  gilded  bell 
hung  about  the  neck  and  a  gold  ring  in  its  mouth."  When 
the  Pope  saw  them,  he  said  to  Birger,  "  You  are  your 
mother's  son;"  then  turning  to  Carl,  he  said,  "You  are  a 
son  of  this  world."  Birgitta  flung  herself  at  the  feet  of  the 
Pope  and  implored  him  to  absolve  her  sons  their  sins.  Then 
the  Holy  Father  felt  the  belt  and  mantle  of  Carl,  and  said, 
"  The  weight  of  these  articles  will  expiate  the  sin  of  wearing 
them."  "  Let  your  sanctity  absolve  him,"  said  Birgitta, 
"  and  I  will  disbelt  him." 

S.  Britta  went  on  with  her  sons  to  Naples,  in  1362,  where 
Joanna  was  Queen.  Joanna  had  been  married  in  early 
youth  to  her  kinsman  Andrew,  of  the  royal  house  of  Hun- 
gary. She  stood  arraigned  before  the  world  as  an  adulteress, 
— if  not  an  accomplice,  as  having  connived  at  the  murder  of 
her  husband.  Louis,  King  of  Hungary,  invaded  the  king- 
dom to  avenge  his  brother's  death,  and  to  assert  his  right  to 
the  throne  as  heir  of  Charles  Martel.  Joanna  fled  to  Avig- 
non, and  obtained  from  the  Pope  a  dispensation  for  her 
marriage  with  her  kinsman,  Louis  of  Tarento.    She  returned 


Oct.  80  •^-  Briget  of  Siveden.  187 

to  Naples,  having  sold  to  the  Pope  the  city  of  Avignon,  and 
part  of  her  kingdom  of  Provence.  War  continued  to  rage  in 
Naples  between  the  Hungarian  faction  and  that  of  Joanna 
and  Louis  of  Tarento.  At  length  the  determination  of  the 
contest  was  referred  to  the  Pope.  Joanna  pleaded  that  she 
had  been  placed  under  a  magic  spell,  which  had  compelled 
her  to  hate  her  husband  and  stain  his  honour.  The  Pope 
admitted  this  plea,  and  Joanna  was  absolved  by  Clement  VI. 
Louis  of  Tarento  died  in  1362,  and  Joanna  married  James 
of  Aragon,  King  of  Majorca,  on  his  escape  from  prison,  in 
which  he  had  languished  twelve  years.  Joanna  took  a  dis- 
like to  him,  as  she  had  to  her  first  husband,  and  he  retired 
to  Catalonia  in  1375.  Joanna  was  forty-six  when  S.  Britta 
arrived  with  her  two  handsome  sons.  Before  they  were 
presented  to  the  queen,  S.  Britta  gave  her  sons  instructions 
how  to  conduct  themselves  in  her  presence ;  they  were  to 
prostrate  themselves  and  kiss  her  foot.  Birger,  who  had 
gone  in  a  long  dress  before  the  Pope,  was  most  obsequious 
and  demure.  But  the  gay,  handsome  Carl,  instead  of 
bending  to  the  foot  of  Joanna,  went  boldly  up  to  her  and 
imprinted  a  very  hearty  kiss  on  her  red  Hjds.  This  so  delighted 
Joanna  that  she  vowed  she  would  marry  none  but  Carl.  In 
vain  his  mother  protested  that  he  had  a  wife  in  Sweden — his 
third  wife.  That  was  no  impediment,  said  Joanna  :  Sweden 
was  a  long  way  off,  and  some  excuse  for  a  divorce  might 
easily  be  raked  up.  Whether  Carl  was  dazzled  by  the  pro- 
spect of  a  crown,  and  inclined  to  forget  his  fair-haired  Catha- 
rine in  the  Swedish  Uplands,  is  not  certain,  but  seems 
probable,  for  S.  Britta  could  not  get  him  away  from  Naples. 
The  queen  was  madly  in  love  with  him  and  quite  ready  to 
shake  off  the  odious  James  of  Aragon.  Britta  had  no  re- 
source but  her  prayers.  They  were  answered,  and  Carl  died 
of  fever  at  Naples  on  Ascension  Day,  1372. 

On  the  death  of  her  husband,  S.  Britta  had  entered  the 


monastery  of  Alvastra,  and  gave  herself  up  to  extravagant 
self-mortification.  She  abandoned  the  use  of  linen,  and  for 
her  bed  had  but  one  bolster  and  pillow,  and,  instead  of 
covering  herself  with  eider-down  quilts,  flung  her  clothes 
over  the  coverlet  to  keep  her  warm.  Every  Friday  she 
dropped  melted  wax  on  her  flesh  till  she  had  established  a 
blister,  and  then  kept  it  raw  with  her  nails  till  the  ensuing 
Friday.  On  the  same  day  she  took  bitters  made  from  the 
root  of  the  gentian.  She  wore  a  knotted  cord  round  her 
waist,  next  her  skin,  to  gall  it  incessantly,  and  sought  out 
various  other  ways  of  tormenting  herself.  Her  alms  were 
most  profuse.  At  Rome  three  years  elapsed  without  her 
receiving  a  remittance  from  Sweden.  Yet  Britta  continued 
giving  alms.  "  Much  better  pay  your  debts,"  said  her 
steward ;  "  there  is  no  charity  in  giving  what  is  not  your 
own."  The  saint  silenced  him,  but  her  creditors  became 
clamorous,  and  would  have  carried  her  to  prison,  had  not 
she  received  a  revelation  from  the  B.  Virgin  that  the  money 
would  soon  arrive — and  so  it  did.  In  1344  she  built  the 
monastery  of  Wadstena,  in  the  diocese  of  Linkoping,  and 
placed  in  it  sixty  nuns  and  twenty-five  austere  canons, 
thirteen  of  whom  were  priests,  four  deacons,  and  eight  lay- 
brothers.  The  convents  of  the  men  and  women  are  separate, 
but  they  made  use  of  the  same  church,  the  women  sitting  in 
a  gallery,  the  men  below  on  the  floor. 

After  S.  Britta  had  spent  two  years  in  Wadstena,  she  under- 
took a  pilgrimage  to  Rome,  and  remained  there  till  her  death, 
except  only  when  she  paid  a  visit  to  Jerusalem,  in  company 
A\ith  her  daughter  Catherine.  She  composed  a  book  of 
prayers  on  the  sufterings  and  love  of  Christ,  which  are  very 
beautiful,  and  show  that  she  was  a  woman  of  fervent  spirit : 
also  a  Rule,  in  thirty-one  chapters,  for  the  nuns  and  friars  of 
her  Order ;  it  was  approved,  in  1363,  by  Urban  V.,  under  the 
title  of  "  The  Rule  of  the  Order  of  Our  Saviour."     Also  a 


Oct.  8.] 

6'.  Briget  of  Szveden. 


"  Book  of  Revelations,"  a  very  popular  work,  and  interesting 
to  some  persons.  And  lastly,  an  "  Angelical  Discourse  on 
the  Excellence  of  Our  Lady." 

She  died  on  July  23,  1373,  aged  seventy-one.  Her  body 
was  laid  in  the  church  of  S.  Laurence,  in  Panis  Perna,  be- 
longing to  a  convent  of  Poor  Clares,  at  Rome ;  but  a  year 
after  her  death,  in  July,  1374,  she  was  dug  up,  and  her 
body  removed  to  VVadstena,  the  Pope  begging  to  retain,  as  a 
special  favour,  one  arm ;  a  second  is  still  preserved  at  Lund  ; 
a  third  at  Wadstena;  and  a  fourth,  enshrined  in  a  gilded 
silver  case,  may  be  seen  in  the  museum  of  Stockholm. 


Ij, _ »J« 

190  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [oct.  9. 

October  9. 

S.  Abraham,  Patriarch  in  Palestine. 

S.  DioNYsrus  THE  Areopagite,  B.M.  at  Athens;  circ,  zndceni. 

S.  Demetrius,  B.  o/Alexatidria;  a.d.  231. 

SS.  DiONYSius,  B.M.,  RusTicus,  and  Eleutherius,    mm.  at 

Paris  ;  circ-  286. 
SS.  Andronicus  and  Athanasia,  C.C.  in  Egypt ;  ^th  cent. 
S.  Savin,    //.  in  Lazndan,  in  t/te  Pyrenees  ;  $th  cent. 
S.  Arnoald,  B.  of  Metz  ;  -jth  cent. 

S.  Ghislain,  C.  at  S.  Ghislain  in  Hainaitlt ;  ciic.  a.d.  63i. 
S.  Deusdedit,  Ab.  of  Monte  Casino  ;  a.d.  834. 
S.  Robert  Grostete,  B.  0/ Lincoln  ;  a.d.  1253.' 
S.  LoaiS  Bertrand,  0-P.  at  Valeniia  in  Spain  ;  a.d.  1591. 


(2ND    CENT.) 

[The  "  Martyrologium  Parvum,"  drawn  up  in  the  8th  cent.  "At 
Athens,  under  Adrian,  the  passion  of  S.  Dionysius  the  Areopagite,  as 
Aristides  witnesses  in  his  work,  which  he  composed  on  the  Christian 
Religion  ;"  this  is  on  Oct.  3  ;  and  on  Oct.  9,  "  At  Paris,  Dionysius  the 
bishop  and  his  companions  slain  by  the  sword  by  Fescermius.'  The 
Martyrologies  of  Bede,  Ado,  Notker,  Usuardus,  and  those  of  Virdun, 
Lyons,  and  Rheims,  all  belonging  to  the  7th,  8th,  and  9th  centuries, 
distinguish  the  two  Dionysii.  All  these  commemorate  the  Areopagite 
on  Oct.  3.  So  also  the  Greek  Menology  of  the  Emperor  Basil,  which 
makes  him  suffer  at  Athens.] 

r  would  appear  that  at  least  three  different  per- 
sons have  been  confounded  under  the  name  ol 
Dionysius:   i.  Dionysius,  the  convert,  friend,  and 
companion  of  S.  Paul,  who  "  clave  unto  him"  at 
Athens;^    2.    Dionysius,  the   apostle  and   patron   saint  of 
France ;  and  3.  The  author  of  the  so-called  works  of  Dio- 
nysius.    The  identification  of  the  first  with  the  second  was, 

'  Never  canonized,  but  inserted  in  the  Anglican  Martyrology  of  Wilson. 
'  Acts,  xvii.  34. 



(Second  Sunday  m  October.) 

From  the  Vienna  Missal. 


Oct.— Part  I. 


Oct.  9.] 

S.  Dio7iysius,  191 

at  least  in  the  Western  Church,  the  work  of  the  9th  century. 
S.  Gregory  of  Tours,  a.d.  570,  states  expressly  that  the 
Dionysius  who  was  the  Apostle  of  France  was  sent  in  the 
time  of  Decius  (circ.  a.d.  253);  and  Sulpitius  Severus  (a.d. 
410)  places  the  first  Gallic  martyrdom  as  late  as  the  reign  of 
Antoninus  (a.d.  167-181),  which  could  not  have  been  correct 
had  Dionysius,  the  friend  of  S.  Paul,  suffered  under  Domitian 
in  apostolic  times. 

Michael  the  Stammerer,  Emperor  of  the  East,  sent  a  copy 
of  the  Dionysian  writings  as  a  fitting  present  to  Louis  the 
Pious,  son  of  Charlemagne,  King  of  France  and  Emperor  of 
the  West.  These  writings  were  attributed  to  Dionysius  the 
Areopagite,  the  disciple  of  S.  Paul.  Their  real  date  is  the 
end  of  the  5th  or  the  beginning  of  the  6th  century.  These 
writings  arrived  at  Paris  on  the  eve  of  the  Feast  of  S.  Denis 
of  France,  and  were  carried  in  state  to  the  abbey  erected 
over  the  remains  of  the  patron  of  France.  And,  "as  though 
it  had  come  down  from  heaven,  such  was  the  divine  grace 
which  followed,  on  that  same  night  Christ  our  Lord  deigned 
to  work,  to  the  glory  of  His  name,  through  the  prayers  and 
merits  of  His  most  renowned  martyr,  nineteen  most  marvellous 
miracles,  in  the  healing  of  persons  well  known  and  living  in 
our  neighbourhood,  sick  of  various  infirmities."^  Hilduin  at 
once  produced  a  forged  life  of  S.  Denis,  which  he  pretended 
was  written  by  the  son  of  a  Parisian  chief,  the  first  convert 
of  Dionysius.  He  may  have  sought  thereby  to  exalt  the 
dignity  of  his  abbey  and  enhance  the  popular  estimation  of 
S.  Denis  of  France,  but  the  act  was  a  disgraceful  and  unpar- 
donable one. 

This  life  is,  of  course,  utterly  fabulous ;  it  shall  be  spoken 
of  under  the  head  of  S.  Dionysius  of  Paris.  But,  before  that, 
the  identification  of  Dionysius  of  Paris  with  the  disciple  of 
S.  Paul  was  an  accomplished  fact.    In  the  reign  of  Dagobert 

'  Letter  of  Hilduin,  Abbot  of  S.  Denis,  to  Charles  the  Simple. 


(a.d.  632-646),  the  abbey  of  S.  Denis  was  founded,  and  this 
is  probably  the  date  of  the  simpler  Acts  which  have  been 
published  by  the  Bollandists  and  by  Felibanus. 

The  identification  of  S.  Denis  of  Paris  with  S.  Dionysius 
of  Athens  does  not  occur  in  the  early  Martyrologies,  and 
does  not  seem  to  have  been  general  before  the  time  of  Hil- 
duin's  imposture.  The  Roman  Martyrology  identifies  the 
two ;  and  in  the  mass  for  October  9  the  Collect  and  Gospel 
refer  to  the  Gallican  saint,  and  the  Epistle  to  the  Athe- 
nian. In  the  Legenda  Aurea,  the  Bibliotheca  Mundi  of 
Vincent  of  Beauvais,  and  all  the  great  mediaeval  encyclo- 
p^edias,  the  two  are  identified  without  scruple  with  the  author 
of  the  so-called  works  of  S.  Dionysius.  Such  was  the  triune 
saint  to  whom  our  great  English  martyr,  S.  Thomas  of  Can- 
terbury, specially  commended  his  soul  when  the  sorrows  of 
death  encompassed  him. 

Eusebius,  on  the  authority  of  Dionysius,  Bishop  of  Corinth, 
says  that  the  Areopagite  became  bishop  of  Athens.  The 
writings  attributed  to  him  are  certainly  posterior.  The 
earliest  known  quotation  from  them  is  as  late  as  the  6th 
century.  They  are  not  quoted  by  any  of  the  earher  fathers. 
S.  Jerome  makes  no  mention  of  them  in  his  catalogue  of 
ecclesiastical  writers.  Many  of  the  traditions  and  practices 
described  belong  to  a  period  long  posterior  to  the  time  of  the 
apostles.  And  mention  is  made  in  them  of  an  epistle  of  Ig- 
natius, written  shortly  before  his  death,  in  the  reign  of  Trajan, 
and  therefore  two  reigns  after  the  death  of  the  Dionysius  who 
is  said  to  have  quoted  it.  These  and  other  objections  are 
ably  considered  by  Mr.  Westcott  in  a  carefully-^vritten  article 
in  the  Contemporary  Review,^  and  he  fixes  the  date  of  the 
Dionysian  writings  at  about  a.d.  480-520.  We  see  no  reason 
why  they  should  not  have  been  written  by  a  Dionysius  of 
that  time.   The  addresses  and  references  to  "  Our  great  Pre- 

'  Vol.  V    'R6'' 



Oct.  Q.J 

6".  Dionysius»  193 

ceptor"  (Paul),  to  "Our  most  holy  of  holy  sons  "  (Timothy"), 
"  To  my  fellow-priest,  Timothy,"  to  "  Good  Timothy,"  to 
"  Polycarp,  Bishop  of  Smyrna,"  to  "  Titus,  Bishop  of  Crete," 
to  "John  the  Divine,  apostle  and  evangelist,  exiled  in  the 
Isle  of  Patmos,"  &c.,  sit  very  loosely  indeed  upon  the  great 
body  of  the  works  which  they  adorn,  and  might  easily  enough 
have  been  inserted  into  one  of  the  earlier  copies  of  the  text 
by  some  more  devoted  than  scrupulous  admirer,  in  order  to 
gain  greater  authority  for  them.  It  may  have  been  he,  like- 
wise, who  selected  from  the  New  Testament  "  the  one  name 
whicli  combined  Greek  culture  with  Christian  faith,"  the  Dio- 
nysius,  to  apply  to  these  writers,  much  in  the  same  way  as 
the  Apocryphal  Gospels  were,  doubtless  with  the  best  and 
purest  intentions,  attributed  not  to  those  who  actually,  but 
to  those  who  it  was  presumed  potentially  might,  could, 
would,  should,  or  ought  to  have  written  them.^ 

But  though  the  authenticity  of  the  writings  must  be  re- 
jected, they  received  an  assent  almost  at  once,  which  was, 
practically,  overwhelming.  T'hey  were  considered  to  be 
the  Avorks  of  the  Areopagite  by  Leontius  of  Byzantium  and 
S.  Anastasius  the  Sinaite,  both  men  of  learning  and  authority 
in  the  6th  century ;  by  S.  Maximus,  one  of  the  greatest  and 
most  philosophic  minds  of  the  7th  century;  by  Sophronius 
of  Jerusalem  (circ.  638);  by  S.  Andrew  of  Crete  (c.  635) ; 
by  Michael  Syncellus  (c.  830) ;  by  S.  John  Damascene 
(d.  760);  by  Simeon  Metaphrastes  (c.  901);  by  Suidas 
(c.  1 081);  by  Euthymius  Zigabenus  (c.  11 16);  and,  in  fact, 
by  all  the  great  writers  of  the  Greek  Church  of  those  ages. 
They  were  likewise  quoted  as  authoritative  in  several  Greek 

And  finally,  in  the  Latin  Church  they  were  likewise  re- 

'  They  were  almost  certainly  composed   at   Alexandria.      The   influence   of  the 
writings  of  Philo  on  them  is  very  observable,  as  Philo  De  Fugativ.  cc.  18,  ig  ;  De 
Nom.  Heb.  cc.  2,  3,  &c.  ;  De  Somniis,  cc.  22,  26,  39. 
'  See  Corderius,  Opera  S.  Dionysii,  edit.  1734. 
VOL.  XI                                                                                                        13 
^ ^ 

194  Lives  of  the  Saints.  \oa..^. 

oeived  as  genuine  as  early  as  the  time  of  S.  Gregory,  who 
himself  quotes  the  Areopagite  in  one  of  his  sermons.^  In 
the  Acts  of  the  Lateran  Synod  (a.d.  660)  S.  Martin  quotes, 
as  a  conclusive  authority,  "  Dionysius  egregius." 

The  titles  of  the  extant  Dionysian  writings  are:  i.  On 
the  Celestial  Hierarchy  ;  2.  On  the  Ecclesiastical  Hierarchy; 
3.  On  the  Divine  Names ;  4.  On  Mystical  Theology ;  5.  Ten 
Epistles.  The  four  first  of  these,  taken  together,  form  a 
complete  philosophical  or  theological  system,  beginning  (i) 
with  God  (or  pure  Being),  descending  step  by  step  through 
His  manifestations,  from  the  highest  spirits  of  heaven  to 
(2)  the  lowest  things  on  earth,  to  the  end  (3)  that  the  soul 
may  know  God  so  far  as  He  may  be  known,  and  (4)  be 
united  with  him  as  the  only  source  of  all  Good  and  Blessed- 
ness. The  author  alludes  to  six  other  works,  now  lost : 
I.  On  Theological  Outlines;  2.  On  Symbolical  Theology; 
3.  On  the  Soul;  4.  On  the  Just  Judgment  of  God ;  5.  On 
the  Objects  of  Intellect  and  Sense  ;  6.  On  Divine  Hymns. 
But  as  none  of  these  have  ever  been  heard  of  apart  from 
such  mention  of  them,  and  as  they  are  seldom  referred  to 
except  in  those  places  where  the  writer  is  least  inclined  to 
add  more,  it  has  been  thought  that  these  works  were  in  con- 
templation by  the  author,  but  were  never  written. 

Of  the  value  and  importance  of  the  writings  of  the  pseudo- 
Dionysius  it  is  scarcely  possible  to  speak  too  highly. 

^   Homn.  34. 

S.   DENYS, 
supported  by  two  angels,  and  carrying  his  head— a  Christian  lady,  S.  CatuUa,  is  holding 
his  winding  sheet  or  shroud— Above:  the  shroud  is  being  wrapped  around  the  head. 
After  a  Mmiature  in  a  MS.  of  the  XIV.  Century.  Oct.  9. 


Oct.  9-]   vSkS*.  Diony sites ^  RusticuSy  Eleutherius.    195 


(about  a.d.  286.) 

[The  Roman  Martyrology  confounds  Dionysiiis  of  Paris  with  Dionysius 
the  Areopagite.  So  also  the  Galilean  Martyrologies,  and  all  Martyrologies 
since  the  time  of  Hilduin,  abbot  of  S.  Denys,  d.  814.  The  Acts  of  the 
Martyrdom  of  S.  Dionysius  and  his  companions  in  Bosquet,  and  those 
published  by  Felibian,  are  founded  on  popular  legend  or  the  forgery  of 
Hilduin,  and  are  historically  worthless.] 

S.  Dionysius,  according  to  the  story  which  passes  for  his- 
tory, was  sent  by  S.  Clement,  on  whom  S.  Peter  had  conferred 
the  bishopric  of  Rome,  to  found  the  Church  in  Gaul.  He 
came  to  Lutetia  Parisiorum,  a  city  destined  to  become  the 
capital  of  France,  and  there  preached  the  Word.  The  narra- 
tive of  Hilduin  is  somewhat  fuller.  Dionysius  was  an  Athe- 
nian, the  disciple  of  Hierotheus,  and  was  consecrated  bishop 
of  Athens  by  S.  Paul.  Having  visited  Jerusalem  for  the 
purpose  of  seeing  the  B.  Virgin,  he  found  her  so  beautiful 
that  he  felt  disposed  to  worship  her.  He  then  went  to 
Ephesus,  where  he  conferred  with  S.  John  the  Evangelist, 
and  after  that  journeyed  to  Rome,  where  he  received  com- 
mission from  S.  Clement  to  evangelize  the  Parisians.  At 
Paris  he  was  exposed  to  wild  beasts,  but  they  came  and 
licked  his  feet.  This  miracle,  far  from  converting  the  Pa- 
risians, exasperated  them  to  redoubled  fury,  and  they  cast 
him  into  a  burning  fiery  furnace,  whence  he,  however,  issued 
unharmed,  like  Shadrach,  Meshech,  and  Abednego.  The 
exasperated  Parisians  then  crucified  him,  but  he  preached  to 
them  from  his  cross.  He  was  taken  down  and  led  back  to 
prison,  along  with  his  companions  Rusticus  and  Eleutherius, 
his  deacon  and  subdeacon.  The  three  prisoners  were  exe- 
cuted with  the  sword,  on  the  hill  afterwards  called,  from  the 


1 96  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [oct.  9. 

event,  "  The  Martyr's  Mount,"  Montmartre.  The  hill  really 
derives  its  name  from  the  god  Mars — it  was  Mons  Martis. 
Hilduin  adds  that  the  body  of  S.  Denys  got  up,  took  its  ex- 
head  in  its  hands,  and,  accompanied  by  a  choir  of  angels 
singing  "  Alleluia,"  earned  it  to  the  place  where  now  stands 
the  abbey  of  S.  Denys. 

The  first  to  mention  S.  Denys,  or  Dionysius  of  Paris,  is 
S.  Gregory  of  Tours,  d.  594,  three  hundred  years  after  his 
death.  But  this  is  not  the  most  serious  objection  to  the 
reception  of  the  story.  It  has  been  argued  that  the  worship 
of  Dionysus  (Bacchus),  the  god  of  the  grape,  was  established 
at  Paris,  and  that  the  great  festival  of  Dionysus,  singularly 
enough  coincides  with  that  of  the  saint  of  the  same  name,  in 
October,  the  season  of  the  vintage. 

Dionysus  was  surnamed  Eleutheros,  as  the  founder  of  the 
first  mysteries,  and  two  festivals  were  celebrated  in  his 
iionour,  one  in  the  city,  urbana,  the  other  in  the  fields, 
rustica.  During  these  feasts  a  day  was  dedicated  to  De- 
metrius, King  of  Macedon,  who  gave  to  Dionysus  his 
daughter  Aura- Placida  ("the  light  breeze")  as  wife.  Now 
curiously  enough,  on  October  4th  was  venerated  S.  Aura,  V., 
Abbess,  at  Paris ;  on  October  5th  S.  Placidus,  Mk.  M.,'  on 
October  7th  S.  Bacchus,  M.,  on  October  8th  S.  Demetrius, 
M.,  on  October  9th  SS.  Dionysius,  Eleutherius,  and 
Rusticus,  and  again  a  S.  Demetrius.  Till  last  century,  the 
festival  of  the  vintage,  the  legacy  of  the  old  pagan  feast,  was 
celebrated  at  Paris  on  the  8th  and  9th  of  October,  and  it 
has  been  thought  that  as  on  this  occasion  wine  made  the 
merry-makers  lose  their  heads,  the  fable  of  the  martyrdom 
of  S.  Dionysius  had  reference  to  this  phenomenon.  But 
this  argument  is  too  plausible  to  satisfy.  S.  Placidus,  though 
much  fable  has  attached  to  his  name,  was  a  real  personage, 
so  was  S.  Aura,  abbess  at  Paris  in  a.d.  631.     Her  existence 

'  S.  Placidia  on  Ocl.  ii. 
^ ^ 


Oct.  9.]  SS.  Dio7iysms,  Rusticus,  Eleutherms.    197 

as  a  real  person  and  not  as  an  embodiment  of  pleasant 
breezes,  can  be  very  satisfactorily  established.  The  S.  De- 
metrius of  October  9th  was  Bishop  of  Alexandria,  and 
pronounced  sentence  of  exile  on  Origen.  It  is  quite  possible 
that  there  may  have  been  a  Dionysius,  bishop  and  apostle 
of  the  Parisians. 

The  Acts,  it  must  be  admitted,  suspiciously  recall  the 
martyrdom  of  Zagreus- Dionysus. 

One  of  the  first  converts  of  Dionysius  is  said  to  have  been 
a  Parisian  noble  named  Lisbius ;  the  Montmorencys  derive 
their  pedigree  from  this  personage,  whence  their  battle  cxj 
and  motto  :  "  Dieu  aide  au  premier  Chre'tien."  The  mansion 
of  Lisbius  became  the  home  of  S.  Denys  ;  it  was  afterwards 
converted  into  a  church  and  is  now  S.  Barthelemy,  before 
the  Palais  de  Justice.  Hilduin,  Abbot  of  S.  Denys,  when 
he  forged  the  acts  of  S.  Dionysius,  pretended  that  they  were 
written  by  Visbius,  son  of  Lisbius.  The  battle  cry  of  the 
French  kings,  "  Montjoie  Saint-Denys !"  is  said  to  have 
originated  with  Clovis,  who  shouted,  "  Mon  Jou  Saint 
Denys  !" — My  Jove  shall  be  S.  Denys. 

Before  the  Revolution  the  bodies  of  SS.  Denys,  Rusticus, 
and  Eleutherius  were  preserved  in  three  silver  shrines  in  the 
Abbey  of  S.  Denis.  The  bones  were  saved  by  a  monk 
named  Warenflot,  and  restored  to  the  abbey  church  in  1819. 
The  entire  skull  of  S.  Denys  also  at  Longpont  in  the  diocese 
of  Soissons.     Other  relics  at  Ratisbon. 

S.  Denys  is  represented  in  art  as  a  bishop,  holding  his 
head  in  his  hands,  sometimes  also  widi  a  sword. 


^ — ^ 

198  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.g. 


(5TH    CENT.) 

[Modem  Roman  Martyrology.  By  the  Greeks  on  Feb.  27,  and 
Alhanasia  separately  on  July  22.      Authority  : — the  Greek  Acts.] 

There  lived  at  Antioch,  in  Syria,  a  silversmith,  named 
Andronicus,  and  his  wife  Athanasia,  fearing  God  and  show- 
ing love  to  their  neighbours.  All  the  gains  of  his  trade 
Andronicus  divided  into  three  portions,  whereof  he  spent 
one  on  the  poor,  and  one  they  lent  to  those  driven  by 
necessity  to  boiTow,  yet  without  exacting  interest,  and  the 
third  portion  he  spent  on  himself  and  family.  These  good 
people  had  two  children,  a  boy  and  a  girl,  whom  they  loved 
as  the  apples  of  their  eyes.  Now  AA'hen  Andronicus  and 
Athanasia  had  been  married  for  twelve  years,  by  the  will  of 
God  their  two  children  died  in  one  day.  The  father  stilled 
his  grief  and  worked  more  patiently  and  silently  at  his  craft 
than  before.  But  Athanasia  was  heart-broken  and  spent  her 
time  by  the  tomb  that  contained  her  little  ones,  in  the  church 
of  S.  Julian.  And  she  stayed  there  clinging  to  the  tomb  and 
sobbing,  "  Let  me  die  with  my  children  and  be  laid  at  their 
side."  But  in  the  night,  when  all  was  still,  and  the  lamps 
burned  dimly  in  the  church,  there  stood  an  abbot  before  the 
weeping  woman,  and  said  to  her:  "Woman,  what  aileth 
thee  ?  why  sufferest  thou  not  the  dead  to  sleep  in  peace  ? " 
Then  she  answered :  "  My  Lord,  be  not  angry  with  thy 
handmaiden,  because  I  am  overwhelmed  with  grief.  I  had 
two  little  children,  and  I  lost  them  both  in  one  day,  and 
they  lie  here." 

Then  said  he,  "Weep  not  for  them ;  for  I  say  unto  you, 
that  as  human  nature  craves  and  cries  out  for  food,  and 
languishes  if  it  find  it  not,  so  do  thy  children  crave  and  cry 

^ ^ 

„______ — „_ ^ 

Oct.  9.]       SS.  Aiidronicits  and  Athanasia.  199 

out  where  they  are  to  Christ,  for  the  blessedness  of  future 
things,  saying,  Just  Judge,  give  us  celestial  comforts  in  the 
room  of  those  earthly  joys  of  which  we  were  deprived." 

Now  when  Athanasia  heard  this,  all  her  sorrow  was  turned 
into  joy,  and  she  looked  to  speak  to  the  abbot,  but  could  not 
find  him.  Then  she  went  to  the  keeper  of  the  gate  and 
said  :  "  Which  way  went  the  abbot  who  was  in  the  church  ?" 
But  he  answered,  "  There  has  been  no  abbot  here."  Then 
she  knew  that  the  Blessed  Julian,  the  martyr,  had  appeared 
to  her  under  the  garb  of  a  monk.  And  she  went  forth,  and 
came  to  her  husband  and  told  him  all,  and  besought  him 
tliat  he  and  she  might  together  renounce  the  world  and 
retire  into  a  monastery,  where  they  might  prepare  to  meet 
their  little  ones. 

He  consented,  for  his  heart  was  very  heavy,  and  all  his 
hopes  and  ambition  in  this  world  were  at  an  end  when  the 
earth  closed  over  the  white  faces  of  his  children. 

Then  they  made  presents  to  their  servants,  and  gave  over 
the  rest  of  their  substance  to  the  heir-at-law,  and  taking  with 
them  only  a  little  sum  they  left  the  house.  But  when  they 
had  got  into  the  street,  Athanasia  turned  round  and  looked 
up  at  the  old  house  in  which  she  had  spent  so  many  happy 
years,  at  the  window  where  she  had  sat  nursing  her  pretty 
children,  and  sobbed  and  said :  "  O  Lord  God,  who  saidst 
to  Abraham  and  Sarah,  Go  forth  from  your  land  and  from 
your  kindred,  to  a  land  that  I  will  show  you,  guide  us,  I 
pray  Thee,  in  the  way  of  Thy  fear.  So  we  leave  our 
house  door  open  out  of  love  for  Thee  ;  do  thou  unclose  to 
us  the  door  of  Thy  kingdom." 

Then  both  wept  and  went  on  their  way. 

And  when  they  had  come  to  Jerusalem  they  venerated 
the  sacred  places,  and  they  sought  the  Abbot  Daniel  in  the 
solitudes  of  Scete  in  Egypt,^  and  asked  his  advice.  He  bade 

'  Daniel,  abbot  in  Scete,  is  mentioned  in  the  "Acts  of  S.  Arsenius  "  as  living  after 
^ ^ 

Andronicus  go  to  the  monastery  of  Tabenna,  and  then  he 
placed  Athanasia  in  a  laura  of  Scete  that  she  might  hve  in  a 
cell  by  herself,  and  only  assemble  with  the  monks  for  the 
Eucharist  on  the  Lord's  Day.  And  as  she  was  now  past  the 
middle  life,  he  bade  her  cut  her  hair  and  assume  the  habit 
of  a  hermit.  Thus  passed  twelve  years.  And  then  a  great 
longing  arose  in  the  heart  of  Andronicus  to  visit  the  Holy 
Places  once  more.  So  he  asked  permission  of  his  abbot,  and 
it  was  accorded  him.  He  was  now  a  very  aged  man, 
bent,  and  he  walked  leaning  on  a  staff,  and  had  a  long  white 

Now,  after  several  days,  he  arrived  towards  noon  at  a  tree 
in  the  desert,  and  he  would  have  rested  there,  when  he  saw 
another  old  man  with  grey  hair  and  face  scorched  with  the 
sun,  leaning  against  the  trunk,  exhausted  with  the  heat  and 
with  much  walking.  Then  he  saluted  him  and  sat  down, 
and  the  two  old  men  fell  a  talking  together. 

But  it  must  be  told  that  this  second  old  hermit  was 
Athanasia,  who  was  also  on  a  journey  to  the  Holy  Land. 
And  when  she  saw  her  husband,  her  heart  trembled,  but  she 
would  not  disclose  who  she  was.  Andronicus,  however, 
knew  her  not,  for  her  beauty  had  been  burnt  out  by  the  sun 
and  worn  away  with  fasting. 

So  Andronicus  said  :  "What  is  thy  name,  brother?" 
And  she  answered  :   '"I  am  called  Athanasius." 
Andronicus   said:    "Whither   art   thou    journeying,    my 

She  replied,  "  I  go  to  visit  the  Holy  Places." 
Then  he  said  :  "My  heart  yearns  for  thy  society;  let  us 
journey  together." 

So  it  fell  out,  by  the  Lord's  Providence,  that  the  old  man 
and  his  wife  made  their  last  journey  together.      And  they 

A.D.  444.  He  also  conveyed  to  Scete  the  body  of  S.  Thomais.  He  is  nieiitioned  by 
Cassian  in  his  4th  Colloquy.     Cassian  had  met  and  spoken  with  him. 


Oct.  9.]       SS.  Andronicus  and  Athanasia.         201 

came  together  to  Jerusalem,  and  they  prayed  together,  and 
fasted  together,  and  visited  together  the  sepulchre  of  the 
Lord,  and  together  received  the  Holy  Eucharist. 

Then  said  Andronicus,  "  We  will  return  to  Egypt,  and  if 
it  please  thee,  we  will  return  together." 

And  Athanasia  said :  "  I  am  well  pleased  that  it  should  be 

And  when  they  came  to  the  tree  where  they  had  met,  then 
Andronicus  pointed  with  his  staff,  and  said,  "  Thither  lies 
my  way."  And  she  pointed  in  another  direction,  and  said, 
"  But  my  way  lies  yonder."  And  both  were  exceeding 

Then  said  Andronicus,  "  Brother  Atlianasius,  we  are  both 
old,  and  ought  not  to  dwell  alone.  Thy  company  has  been 
to  me  passing  pleasant,  and  now  I  cannot  bear  to  part  with 
thee.  Come  and  share  with  me  my  cell,  and  should  I  die 
first,  thou  shalt  close  my  eyes ;  but  if  thou  diest  first,  then  I 
will  lay  mine  hand  on  thine." 

And  Athanasia  turned  her  face  away  and  wept  a  Httle,  and 
then  said  :  "  I  will  come  with  thee,  my  brother."  So  the  old 
people  were  reunited;  but  Andronicus  wist  not  that  his  com- 
panion was  his  wife,  only  a  great  tenderness  and  love  for  his 
associate  was  manifest  in  him.  And  thus  passed  several 

Now  there  was  an  old  hermit  whom  Andronicus  knew,  who 
visited  his  cell  at  intervals,  and  conversed  on  heavenly  things 
with  him  and  Athanasius  his  companion. 

One  day,  after  this  old  hermit  had  left,  Andronicus  came 
running  after  him,  with  tears  on  his  cheeks,  and  crying,  "  The 
Abbot  Athanasius  is  migrating  to  the  Lord  ! " 

So  the  hermit  returned,  and  found  Athanasius  lying  ill 
with  fever  ;  and  the  sick  monk  wept.  Then  said  the  hermit, 
"What!  dost  thou  weep,  when  thou  shouldest  rejoice  that 
thou  art  on  thy  way  to  meet  the  Lord  ?  " 



202  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  9. 

But  she  said,  "  I  am  weeping  for  my  friend  Andronicus, 
for  I  know  that  he  will  miss  my  society.  And  now,  I  pray 
thee,  when  I  am  dead,  thrust  thy  hand  under  my  head,  and 
thou  wilt  find  a  scrap  of  writing,  and  do  thou  give  it  to  An- 
dronicus." Then  they  wept  around  the  dying  monk,  and  the 
Holy  Eucharist  was  brought,  and  Athanasia  received  the 
Lord's  Body  and  Blood,  and  sighed,  and  fell  asleep  in  the 

Now  when  the  monks  came  to  place  the  dead  on  a  bier 
for  the  funeral,  a  slip  of  parchment  was  found  under  the 
head,  and  it  was  given  to  Andronicus.  And  when  he  had 
read  it,  he  lifted  up  his  voice  and  wept  aloud,  and  threw 
himself  on  the  corpse,  and  said,  "  This  is  my  wife  Atha- 
nasia ! " 

So  it  was  known  through  all  the  desert  cells  that  the  old 
Abbot  Athanasius  was  in  truth  a  woman.  Then  from  every 
monastery  and  cell  came  forth  monks  and  anchorites,  even 
from  the  remotest  rocks  far  away  in  the  wildest  wastes,  and 
they  came  in  their  white  vestments,  after  the  manner  of 
Scete,^  waving  branches  of  palms  and  green  boughs;  and 
they  bore  the  body  of  Athanasia  to  its  last  resting-place, 
praising  God  with  joy  that  He  had  magnified  His  name  in  a 
feeble  woman. 

And  the  old  hermit  remained  in  the  cell  of  Andronicus,"  that 
he  might  celebrate  the  seventh  day  of  the  Blessed  Athanasia," 
and  after  that  he  sought  to  bring  the  Abbot  Andronicus  away, 
to  be  with  him.  But  Andronicus  would  not  leave  that  spot, 
for  he  said  he  would  tarry  there  till  the  Lord  bade  him  rejoin 
his  wife.  Then  the  hermit  sadly  said  farewell,  and  took  his 
departure.  But  he  had  not  gone  a  day's  journey,  when  there 
came  one  running  after  him,  who  said,  "  Return,  for  the 
Abbot  Andronicus  is  ill  with  fever."  So  he  went  back,  and 
sent  a  message  to  Scete,  saying,  "  Come  quickly,  for  the 

'  So  in  the  original  Acts. 


^ ^ 

Oct.  9.]       SS.  Andr Opticus  and  A thanasia.        203 

Abbot  Andronicus  is  following  Athanasia."  And  they  hasted 
and  came,  and  found  him  breathing ;  and  when  they  had 
prayed  he  fell  asleep  in  the  Lord,  and  he  was  laid  beside 
his  wife  and  companion  in  religion,  Athanasia. 

S.  SAVIN,  H. 

(5TH    CENT.) 

[Gallican  and  Benedictine  Martyrologies.  At  Tarbes  on  Oct.  ii. 
The  day  of  his  translation  on  Aug.  5.  Authority  : — a  life  by  an 
anonymous  writer  of  uncertain  date,  incorporated  in  the  office  for  S. 
Savin  in  the  proper  of  Tarbes.] 

It  was  the  good  fortune  of  the  writer  in  boyhood  to  occupy 
one  summer  a  chateau  in  the  vale  of  Lavedan,  on  the  moun- 
tain side,  opposite  the  height  on  which  stands  the  interesting 
church  of  S.  Savin.  The  vale  of  Lavedan,  one  of  the  most 
beautiful  in  the  Pyrenees,  is  now  rendered  famous  by  having 
Lourdes,  the  noted  place  of  pilgrimage,  at  its  mouth.  It  is 
traversed  by  those  who  seek  the  baths  of  Cauterets,  or  the 
beauties  of  Luz  and  the  cirque  of  Gavarnie. 

Argelez  lies  at  the  mouth  of  the  lateral  Val  d'Azun,  which 
opens  into  the  Lavedan.  Thence  a  road  ascends,  shaded  by 
chestnuts  and  oaks,  to  the  rich  Romanesque  west  entrance  of 
the  once  famous  and  still  interesting  church  of  S.  Savin. 

The  first  appearance  of  S.  Savin  is  eminently  striking ; 
the  massive  walls,  the  large  rude  stones  with  which  it  is 
built,  its  beautiful  portal,  its  exquisite  side-door,  its  strange 
extinguisher-shaped  spire,  the  large  space  which  it  covers,  as 
if  it  was  the  sole  occupant  of  that  noiseless,  deserted  village 
that  surrounds  it,  impress  one  with  mingled  sentiments  of 
admiration  and  regret.      The  present  church  dates  from 

^ ^ 

204  Lives  of  the  Saints.  \oc\..^. 

the  1 2th  century,  and  has  been  frequently  described  by 

In  the  choir  of  the  church,  formerly  abbatial,  there  is  a 
series  of  paintings  on  wood,  in  compartments,  which  set  forth 
the  most  remarkable  events  of  the  life  and  death  of  S.  Savin. 
These  paintings  are  ascribed  to  the  15  th  century,  and  ex- 
hibit no  small  artistic  merit.  It  would  be  desirable  that  some 
competent  hand  were  employed  to  restore  them,  as  the 
colouring  begins  to  fade  and  the  inscriptions  have  become 

S.  Savin  was  born  at  Barcelona  some  time  in  the  8th  cen- 
tury. Shortly  after  his  birth,  his  mother  was  left  a  widow, 
and  devoted  herself  with  assiduity  to  his  education.  She 
directed  her  labour  to  form  his  young  mind  for  God  rather 
than  for  the  world,  by  imparting  early  principles  of  piety  and 
religious  knowledge ;  his  precocious  intelligence  admirably 
responded  to  her  care. 

As  he  was  bom  in  a  high  position,  it  was  considered  desir- 
able to  finish  his  education  by  residence  in  foreign  countries ; 
and  his  mother  with  difficulty  was  induced  to  consent  that  he 
should  pay  a  visit  to  the  court  of  his  uncle,  Hentilius,  Count 
of  Poitiers,^  which  was  one  of  the  most  brilliant  then  in 
France.  Savin  left  his  beloved  mother  with  a  heavy  heart. 
His  secret  intention  was  to  seek  that  knowledge  alone  which 
could  profit  his  soul;  and  accordingly,  on  his  journey  he 
avoided  the  highways  of  great  cities,  and  sought  his  lodging 
generally  in  the  Benedictine  monasteries.  In  due  time  he 
arrived  in  Poitiers,  where  he  was  cordially  received  by  his 
uncle,  who  caressed  him  as  his  relative,  and  treated  him  with 
all  the  dignity  due  to  a  young  prince.  As  a  mark  of  his  con- 
fidence, Hentilius  placed  him  in  charge  of  the  education  of 
his  son  and  heir.     This  employment,  which  was  one  of  dis- 

'  There  was  no  such  Count  of  Poitiers.      The  legend  has  probably  magnified  some 
petty  noble  into  a  count. 

^ ^ 

Oct.  9.]  '^-  Savm.  205 

tinction,  had  no  influence  upon  the  heart  of  Savin,  and  he 
continued  to  divide  his  time  between  prayer,  the  duties  of 
his  situation,  and  the  care  of  the  poor.  He  Hved  with  the 
greatest  simplicity,  fasted  rigidly,  dressed  modestly,  and  kept 
a  most  frugal  table.  He  resisted  all  the  temptations  to 
pleasure  which  surrounded  him  in  that  luxurious  court,  and 
laboured  to  inspire  the  mind  of  his  pupil  with  the  sentiments 
of  piety  and  charity  by  wliich  he  himself  was  animated. 
There  is  a  pleasing  sketch  of  this  event  of  his  life  in  one  of 
the  compartments  of  the  pictures  which  have  been  men- 
tioned, with  the  legend,  "  Com  S.  Sevi  instruix  lo  Filh  deu 
Comte  en  Santitat." 

The  result  of  this  teaching  in  the  heart  of  the  young  count 
was  an  earnest  desire  to  unite  himself  to  his  cousin,  and 
with  him  devote  his  life  to  the  service  of  God  in  a  monastery. 
With  this  intention  he  left  his  father's  house  secretly,  and 
retired  to  the  Monastery  of  Liguge,  dedicated  to  S.  Martin, 
under  the  rule  of  S.  Benedict,  near  Poitiers.  Nothing  could 
exceed  the  anguish  of  the  countess,  his  mother,  upon  learn- 
ing this  intelligence.  She  sought  Savin  at  once,  threw  herself 
at  his  feet,  and  in  her  desolation  implored  him  to  bring 
back  to  her  that  idoHzed  son  whom  she  had  confided  to  his 
care.  She  cried  out :  "  Restore  to  me  my  child ;  it  is  you 
who  have  taken  him  away.  You  have  a  mother  yourself, 
think  what  Avould  be  her  grief  if  you  were  to  abandon  her 
for  ever."  She  called  upon  Savin  instantly  to  depart,  and 
compel  his  cousin  to  leave  the  monastery  and  to  return  to 
the  parental  roof.  But  he  replied  that  he  too  had  left  a 
mother  by  whom  he  was  adored,  that  he  too  had  renounced 
the  most  brilliant  prospects,  that  he  too  had  resolved  to 
abandon  the  world,  and  that  he  never  could  advise  another 
to  hesitate  at  a  sacrifice  which  he  himself  was  about  to  make  ; 
that  his  Divine  Master  had  said,  "He  who  loveth  father 
or   mother   more    than   Me,    is   unworthy   of    Me."       He 

►j, . ^ 

^ ..J, 

206  Lives  of  the  Saints.  \.oc\..<i. 

hastened  to  the  monastery,  but  far  from  advocating  the 
wishes  of  the  countess,  he  urged  his  cousin  to  remain  faith- 
ful to  his  call,  and  on  that  same  day  was  clothed  himself 
with  the  habit  of  S.  Benedict.  He,  with  his  cousin,  entered 
the  noviciate,  and  during  three  years  these  two  young  friends, 
to  whom  the  world  offered  so  much  of  its  pleasures  and 
honours,  voluntarily  subjected  themselves,  for  the  love  of 
Jesus  Christ,  to  all  the  austerities  of  the  cloister,  its  obedi- 
ence, its  silence,  and  its  poverty.  The  ceremony  of  their 
"  clothing  "  is  represented  in  one  of  the  pictures  :  "  Com 
S.  Sevi  et  lo  Filh  deu  Comte  Receben  lors  habits  a  Poeyties." 

The  ascetic  spirit  of  Savin  was  not  formed  to  be  content 
with  the  simple  monastic  rule ;  it  aspired  to  higher  things  and 
sighed  for  greater  perfection,  in  the  eremitical  life.  He  con- 
sulted the  abbot,  but  he  prudently  refrained  from  advising 
him.  Savin,  however,  persevered,  and  soon  overcame  all 
doubting.  He  bade  adieu  to  his  cousin  and  the  monastery, 
traversed  France  with  tlie  staff  and  in  the  garb  of  a  pilgrim, 
living  by  the  alms  which  he  begged  on  the  way,  until  divine 
inspiration  directed  him  to  the  valley  of  which  he  was  or- 
dained to  be  the  patron  and  benefactor. 

Having  reached  Tarbes,  he  presented  himself  to  the 
bishop,  who  then  occupied  the  see  of  S.  Justin  and  S.  Faus- 
tus,  and  having  informed  him  of  his  project,  obtained 
his  approbation  and  benediction.  Having  penetrated  the 
mountains  by  the  glorious  valley  of  the  Lavedan,  he  found 
a  spot  of  unspeakable  beauty,  near  where  the  Pic  de  Vixon 
apparently  closed  the  valley.  Here  there  existed  a  Bene- 
dictine monastery,  which  had  been  built  upon  the  ruins  of 
■in  ancient  castle,  believed  to  have  belonged  to  the  Gallo- 
Roman  epoch,  as  its  name,  Palatium  ^miliatium,  would 
indicate.  This  name  it  retained  until  the  death  of  S.  Savin. 
Savin  addressed  himself  to  the  abbot  of  this  monastery, 
whose  name  was  Forminius.    His  reception  by  him  forms  the 

►J<. »J( 

Oct.  9.]  ^-  Savin.  207 

subject  of  one  of  the  pictures  :  "  Com  S.  Sevi  Fo  Recebut  per 
lo  Abbat  Formings  et  los  Religios."  The  abbot  received  him 
hospitably,  and  learning  from  him  his  design,  was  not  slow 
to  recognize  in  it  the  marks  of  a  true  vocation.  He  desired 
much  to  retain  the  hermit  in  the  vicinity  of  his  monastery, 
and  with  this  object  conducted  him  to  a  solitary  spot  in  the 
mountains,  called  Pouey-Aspe,  about  two  miles  and  a  half 
distant,  wild,  uncultivated,  abrupt,  with  the  mountains  of 
Cabaleros  at  its  back.  However  beautiful  was  the  view  that 
met  the  eye  from  this  spot,  it  was  an  interest  of  a  different 
order  that  determined  Savin  to  adopt  it  for  his  abode. 
From  this  place  he  could  see  between  the  rocks,  in  a  solitary 
valley  near  Villelongue,  the  hermitage  where  a  countryman 
of  his,  S.  Orens,  had  lived  in  solitude  for  many  years  until 
called  to  the  see  of  Auch,  and  this  association  had  a  charm 
for  the  soul  of  Savin,  giving  him  as  it  were  a  companion 
from  his  native  land  to  encourage  and  support  him  in  the 

Under  the  shadows  of  these  lofty  mountains,  generally 
covered  \\ath  snow  and  enveloped  in  frequent  fogs,  with  a 
climate  as  cold  as  if  it  belonged  to  the  frozen  north,  Savin 
found  a  retreat  suited  to  his  mortified  spirit.  He  built  with 
his  own  hands  a  small  hut,  which  was  scarcely  adequate  to 
shelter  him  from  the  weather  or  to  protect  him  from  the 
wolves  and  bears.  It  took  but  little  time  to  construct  this 
cabin,  which  was  eight  feet  long  and  five  feet  broad,  the 
walls  of  dry  stone  and  thatched  with  rushes.  The  Abbot 
Forminius  frequently  visited  Savin  in  his  solitude,  seeking 
instruction  from  his  conversation  and  edification  from  his 
example.  During  one  of  these  visits,  a  short  time  after  he 
had  completed  his  hermitage,  he  was  surprised  to  learn  from 
Savin  that  he  considered  his  habitation  too  comfortable,  and 
had  determined  to  arrange  for  himself  a  new  style  of  abode 
He  dug  a  pit  in  the  earth  seven  feet  long  and  five  feet  deep, 


2o8  Lives  of  the  Saints. 

[Oct.  9. 

and  here  he,  as  it  were,  buried  himself  alive — making  a 
grave  his  bed. 

The  abbot  remonstrated  with  him,  and  endeavoured  to 
dissuade  him  from  persevering  in  what  he  considered  to  be 
an  exaggerated  penance.  "  I  alone  know  myself,"  replied 
the  hermit ;  "  I  alone  can  measure  the  expiation  due  for  my 
sins.  Every  person  should  do  what  he  can;  I  have  done 
that  which  I  ought." 

In  this  place,  like  Elias  on  Mount  Carmel,  our  saint 
attained  the  most  perfect  spirit  of  prayer  and  mortification. 
Clad  in  a  single  garment,  which  lasted  him  for  thirteen  years, 
he  used  to  walk  bare-foot  over  the  rocks,  even  during  the 
frozen  winter.  When  the  snow  fell  thick  upon  his  hut,  and 
the  night-wind  shook  its  slender  foundations,  when  through 
the  darkness  no  sound  disturbed  the  silence  save  the  roaring 
of  the  wild  animals,  his  fearless  soul  remained  unshaken ; 
absorbed  in  contemplation,  he  heeded  not  the  tempest  that 
raged  nor  the  beasts  that  howled  about  him. 

Savin  suffered  much  during  the  summer  from  thirst,  the 
little  spring  which  suppHed  him  being  dried  up  by  the  excessive 
heats.  On  one  of  these  occasions,  in  seeking  to  allay  his 
thirst  at  a  neighbouring  well,  he  had  to  cross  the  meadow  of 
a  person  named  Chromasse,  belonging  to  the  village  of  Uz. 
This  man,  irritated  at  seeing  a  beggar,  as  he  thought,  tres- 
passing upon  his  land,  sent  his  servants  to  drive  him  away. 
They  executed  his  order  with  much  brutality,  and  one  of 
them  struck  the  hermit  and  injured  him  severely.  Savin 
bore  this  with  patience ;  but,  if  we  may  trust  the  legend, 
his  Divine  Master,  taking  vengeance  into  His  own  hands, 
showed  that  His  servant  could  not  be  outraged  with  im- 
punity. The  man  who  had  assaulted  him  became  possessed 
by  the  devil,  and  his  master  was  struck  blind.  But  Savin,  in 
his  charity,  fell  upon  his  knees  and  implored  the  Lord  to 
relieve  the  afflicted  transgressors,  and  thus  enable  him  to 


repay  evil  Avith  good.  Thereupon  the  servant  was  delivered 
from  the  demon,  but  his  master,  Chromasse,  was  condemned 
to  remain  blind  for  many  years,  until,  touching  the  saint's 
body  after  his  death,  he  miraculously  recovered  his  sight. 
This  incident  is  represented  by  one  of  the  pictures  :  "  Com 
S.  Sevi  Feyta  Sa  Cella,  Cromassio  lo  Menassa."  Having 
thus  failed  in  his  effort  to  slake  his  thirst,  he  sought  relief 
from  God,  and,  like  Moses  of  old,  striking  the  rock  with  his 
staff,  there  issued  forth  an  abundant  stream  which  continued 
to  flow  to  this  day. 

As  Savin  progressed  in  holiness  the  fame  of  his  sanctity 
extended  throughout  the  country.  Whenever  any  misfortune 
befell  the  shepherds  on  the  mountains  they  resorted  to  him, 
certain  that  his  prayers  would  protect  or  relieve  them.  His 
lieart  and  his  hut  were  always  open.  If  he  had  not  wealth 
to  share  with  them,  he  had  words  that  consoled,  prayers 
that  healed,  counsels  that  supported. 

A  priest  of  the  valley  was  one  day  crossing  the  bridge  of  the 
Gave,  near  Pierrefitte,  when  suddenly  he  and  his  horse  fell 
into  the  torrent.  At  the  time  the  waters  were  swollen  by  the 
melting  snow,  and  the  priest  felt  himself  carried  along  in 
the  flood  to  destruction.  In  this  position  he  lifted  his  soul 
to  God,  and  his  thoughts  to  the  solitary  of  Pouey-Aspe. 
Savin  happened  to  see  the  accident  from  a  distance,  and, 
witnessing  the  struggle  with  death,  he  prayed  in  faith  and 
tears  for  the  deliverance  of  the  dro\vning  man,  whose  horse 
by  a  desperate  effort  reached  the  bank.  The  priest,  recog- 
nizing in  his  rescue  the  interposition  of  Savin,  hastened  to 
Pouey-Aspe  to  thank  him  for  his  preservation.  This 
incident  is  portrayed  in  the  series  of  pictures :  "  Com  lo 
Capera  Tomba  en  la  Ribera  Se  Reclama  S.  Sevi." 

There  is  a  tradition  in  the  valley,  that  one  evening,  being 
in  his  cell  and  wanting  a  light,  he  put  the  candle  to  his 
heart,  which  emitted  a  flame  that  communicated  itself  to 

VOL.  XI.                                                                                       14 
^_ ^ 

* ^ 

2IO  Lives  of  the  Saints.  \ocx.^. 

the  taper  and  continued  to  burn  vividly  throughout  the 

At  last  Savin  drew  near  to  the  close  of  his  earthly  pil- 
grimage. Like  so  many  holy  men  of  all  times,  he  had  a 
presentiment  of  his  approaching  death,  and  accordingly  sent 
for  the  Abbot  Forminius  to  bid  him  a  last  farewell.  The 
abbot  answered  that  he  could  not  come  until  the  next  day, 
as  he  was  detained  by  business  of  the  monastery ;  thereupon 
Savin  sent  a  second  messenger  to  him  to  say  that  "  to-morrow 
it  would  be  too  late,  for  a  greater  occupation  would  engross 
him."  When  this  intelligence  became  known,  a  number  of 
the  monks  and  priests  of  the  neighbouring  parishes  hurried 
to  attend  his  death-bed.  Even  when  in  this  condition,  he 
still  occupied  himself  with  the  interests  of  others,  and 
nominated  as  his  successor  in  the  hermitage  one  whose 
prayers  and  macerations  should  have  for  their  object,  like 
his  own,  the  edification  and  salvation  of  the  people  of  the 
valley  of  Lavedan. 

When  the  supreme  moment  had  arrived — tliat  moment 
full  of  ineffable  joy  for  the  elect,  full  of  terrible  mystery  for 
those  Avho  have  loved  the  world  more  than  God — blessed 
Savin,  fortified  by  the  last  sacraments,  his  hands  extended 
towards  heaven,  his  brow  beaming,  his  lips  murmuring, 
closed  his  career  on  earth  and  began  tliat  which  knows 
no  ending.  His  friend.  Abbot  Forminius,  was  absent,  but 
the  tolling  of  the  death-knell  announced  to  him  and  the 
valley  that  their  benefactor,  their  counsellor,  was  no  longer 
among  them.  Orders  were  issued  for  the  removal  of  his 
body  from  the  hermitage  to  the  monastery,  whither  it  was 
translated  with  great  pomp  and  much  mourning,  and  de- 
posited in  a  tomb  in  the  abbatial  church,  built  on  the  site  of 
the  Emilian  Palace.  Subsequently  it  was  removed  to  the 
apse  of  the  church,  and  there  it  remains  at  the  present 

* —^ 

Q^j  ^  J  S.  Ghislain.  2 1 1 


(about  a.d.  681.) 

[Roman,  Gallican,  and  Belgian  Martyrologies.  Authorities  :  —  a  lif 
written  at  the  end  of  the  9th  or  loth  cent,  from  documents,  "  Cartulis 

The  name  of  this  Saint,  Gisel,  Ghysel,  or  Ghyselen,  in 
Flemish  means  "  a  hostage,"  and  according  to  his  biographer, 
he  was  born  in  Athens,  not,  however,  of  Greek  parents, 
perhaps,  but  possibly  of  Frank  ones.  He  entered  a 
monastery  of  the  Order  of  S.  Basil  and  was  ordained  priest. 
He  afterwards  came  to  Rome,  and  thence  rambled  north 
till  he  reached  Hainault,  and  there  settled  in  an  old  ruined 
Roman  fort,  along  with  two  disciples,  Lantebert  and 

One  day.  King  Dagobert  was  out  hunting,  when  the  dogs 
roused  a  bear,  which  took  to  flight  and  sought  refuge  under 
the  mantle  of  Ghislain,  which  was  hanging  from  the  branch 
of  a  tree  whilst  the  saint  was  engaged  in  gardening.  There 
the  bear  stood  at  bay  and  the  dogs  would  not  touch  her. 
The  huntsmen,  thinking  that  Ghislain  and  his  disciples  had 
bewitched  the  hounds,  fell  on  them  and  beat  them,  till  the 
king,  galloping  up,  bade  them  desist.  "Why  have  you 
arrested  my  dogs  and  deprived  them  of  their  prey?"  asked 
the  king. 

"Sire,"  answered  Ghislain,  "the  bear  came  here,  I  did 
not  call  her,  and  she  took  refuge  under  the  shadow  of  my 
mantle.     Take  her,  I  need  her  not." 

But  Dagobert  would  not  hurt  the  bear;  he  called  off  his 
dogs  and  retired. 

Now  when  Ghislain  had  done  his  work,  he  arose  and  put 
on  his  mantle;  then  the  bear  got  up,  and  took  the  hermit's 

i * 


2 1 2  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  9. 

"  basket,  in  which  was  his  mystery,  which  he  used  at  the  sacred 
solemnity  of  the  mass,"  ^  and  walked  forward,  carrying  it  in 
her  mouth.  Then  Ghislain  cried  out,  "  O  God  of  infinite 
mercy !  assist  me  to  recover  what  I  have  lost." 

Then  he  and  his  companions  ran  after  the  bear.  And 
an  eagle  came  and  flew  before  them  to  show  the  way. 
Presently  they  came  on  some  shepherds  watching  their 
flocks,  and  Ghislain  asked,  "  Have  ye  seen  a  bear  pass  this 
way,  my  masters,  carrying  something?"  They  answered 
[lim,  "  We  did  see  a  she-bear  go  by,  with  something  like  a 
garment  in  her  mouth,  and  she  went  yonder  to  her  lair." 

Then  Ghislain  pushed  through  the  branches  and  found 
where  the  bear  had  her  lair,  and  there  were  cubs  in  it,  and 
they  were  playing  with  their  paws  and  mouths  with  tlic 
vestment.  And  Ghislain  adjured  the  bears  to  surrender 
what  they  had  got,  and  not  to  trouble  him  any  more.  Then 
he  snatched  his  chasuble  from  the  cubs  and  ran  away  with  it. 

Afterwards  he  built  a  monastery  on  the  spot  where  the 
bear's  lair  had  been,  and  called  it  Ursidongus,  but  after 
his  death  it  took  his  name.  At  the  old  fort  where  he  had  first 
lived  he  was  the  means  of  founding  a  nunnery  which  he  dedi- 
cated to  SS.  Peter  and  Paul,  for  S.  Waldetrude,  the  wife  of 
S.  Vincent  Madelgar.  Waldetrude  was  a  kinswoman  of 
Dagobert.  Vincent  Madelgar  had  deserted  her  in  order  to 
become  a  monk,  and  had  been  shorn  by  S.  Authbert  at 
Hautmont.  Waldetrude  lived  at  home  with  her  children  and 
trained  them  carefully.  But  Ghislain  sought  her  out  and 
urged  her  to  leave  the  world,  its  obligations  and  responsi- 
bilities, and  take  refuge  in  a  nunnery.  At  his  instigation 
also,  she  placed  her  daughter,  Aldegund,  then  a  little  child, 
in  the  nunnery  of  Maubeuge.  The  old  Roman  fort  where 
Ghislain  had  settled  belonged  to  that  Hildulf,  Duke  of 
Lobbes,  whose  wife  Aia  was  a  relation  of  Waldetrude.      By 

'  His  sacred  vestment,  as  appears  from  what  follows. 


Oct.  9.]  '^-  Ghislain.  213 

the  advice  of  Ghislain,  Waldetrude  bought  the  land  and 
founded  on  it  according  to  his  instructions  the  house  of 
canonesses,  which  became  the  nucleus  afterwards  of  the 
to\vn  of  Mons.     She  is  commemorated  on  April  9th. 

In  remembrance  of  the   origin  of  their  monastery,  the 
monks  of  S.  Ghislain  always  keep  a  bear  and  an  eagle. 


(a.d.  1591.) 

[Roman  Martyrology,  at  Valencia  on  Oct.  20.  Beatified  by  Paul  V. 
in  1608,  and  canonized  by  Clement  X.  in  1671.  Authorities  : — the 
Bull  of  his  Canonization,  and  his  life  by  S.  Vincent  Justinian  Antesti,  a 
comrade  of  the  saint.  Also  another  life  by  Bartholomew  Avignone, 
O.  P.,  in  1623.] 

S.  Louis  Bertrand  was  born  in  the  year  1526,  of  pious 
Catholic  parents,  John  Louis  Bertrand  and  Joanna  Angela 
de  los  Exarches,  his  second  wife,  at  Valencia,  in  Spain.  He 
was  baptized  in  the  parish  church  of  S.  Stephen,  and  in  the 
very  font  in  which  S.  Vincent  Ferrer  had  been  regenerated. 
His  biographers  think  it  was  a  sure  presage  of  his  future 
sanctity,  that  when  he  was  a  little  child  he  would  cease  from 
crying  if  given  an  image  to  play  with.  It  was  the  custom 
of  the  boys  in  Valentia  to  make  little  cones  of  wet  gun- 
powder, and  fire  them  on  the  eve  of  S.  Dionysius — those 
small  fireworks  English  schoolboys  call  "  blue  devils."  The 
father  of  Louis  Bertrand,  when  a  lad,  was  busily  engaged 
piling  up  a  blue  devil  one  vigil  of  S.  Dionysius,  when  a  spark 
fell  into  the  bowl  of  gunpowder  he  had  beside  him,  and  ig- 
nited it.  The  explosion  scorched  his  face  and  burnt  the 
eyelashes  and  brows  off.  Though  he  was  scarred,  he  provi- 
dentially lost  neither  his  sight  nor  his  life.  His  safety  he 
attributed   to   the   intercession   of  S.  Vincent    Ferrer,  and 


^ ^ 

214  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct. , 

therefore  maintained  through  Ufc  an  ardent  devotion  towards 
that  saint,  and  had  his  son  Louis  baptized  in  the  same 
font,  and  instructed  him  from  early  infancy  in  habits  of  de- 
votion to  that  apostolic  preacher.  The  commanding  figure 
of  Vincent  Ferrer,  thus  impressed  on  the  child's  mind  by  his 
father,  influenced  his  whole  after  Hfe. 

At  the  age  of  fifteen  the  boy  was  fired  with  ambition  to 
make  a  pilgrimage  to  Compostella.  He  had  got  some  way, 
when  his  father  sent  after  him,  and,  vmder  the  pretence  that 
his  mother  was  dangerously  ill,  induced  him  to  return  home. 
As  the  bent  of  the  boy's  mind  was  very  decided,  John  Louis 
Eertrand  dressed  him  in  a  cassock.  His  mother,  when  she 
came  to  change  the  sheets  of  his  bed  on  Saturday,  found  that 
he  had  often  not  slept  in  them  throughout  the  week.  He 
had  spent  his  night  in  prayer,  or  lying  on  the  floor.  She  gave 
him  a  scolding,  and  made  a  gimlet-hole  in  his  door,  through 
which  she  might  observe  him.  She  saw  him  one  morning 
tumbling  his  bedclothes,  to  make  believe  that  he  had  slept 
in  them,  but  in  reality  he  had  not  lain  on  his  bed  all  night. 

He  was  obedient  and  gentle.  His  mother  was  wont, 
rather  more  frequently  than  was  necessary,  to  scold  the  ser- 
vants. Whenever  Louis  heard  her,  he  caught  up  a  book 
of  pious  meditations,  ran  to  the  scene,  and  began  to  read 
at  the  top  of  his  voice,  till  he  had  stilled  his  mother's 
voluble  tongue. 

Louis  took  a  strong  fancy  to  join  the  Dominican  Order,  and 
went  to  the  convent  of  that  society  at  Valencia,  and  besought 
the  prior  to  admit  him  and  invest  him  with  the  habit ;  but 
when  his  father  heard  of  his  purpose  he  hurried  to  the  con- 
vent, and  told  the  prior  that  Louis  had  been  a  delicate,  un- 
healthy child,  and  was  quite  unfit  for  an  austere  life.  On  his 
representation,  therefore,  the  youth  was  refused  admission. 
Louis  bore  his  disappointment  with  resignation,  but  walked 
often  by  the  sea,  looking  at  the  white  walls  of  the  convent, 

ij, _ .^ 

*- * 

Oct.  9.]  S.  Louis  Bertrand.  215 

and  crying  when  he  heard  the  Dominican  bell  ringing  for  the 

He  waited  his  time,  till  the  then  prior,  Fernandez,  was 
removed,  and  another  prior,  F.  Johannes  Mico,  was  in  his 
room ;  and  then,  without  saying  a  word  to  any  one,  being  at 
the  time  eighteen  years  old,  he  secretly  made  his  profession 
to  the  new  prior,  and  assumed  the  habit  of  a  novice.  His 
parents  were  only  aware  of  what  he  had  done  when  he  did 
not  return  to  their  house  at  night.  However,  on  account  of 
his  bodily  infirmities,  the  prior  dismissed  him  shortly  after, 
but  was  induced  once  more  to  receive  him  by  his  persistence 
in  his  intention  to  become  a  friar  of  the  Order  of  Preachers. 
For  some  time  he  abandoned  study,  that  he  might  devote 
himself  to  contemplation ;  but  as  he  began  to  form  strange 
and  erroneous  religious  notions,  either  his  own  good  sense  or 
the  advice  of  his  superior  obliged  him  to  read  theology,  and 
he  studied  the  works  of  x^quinas  with  great  profit. 

He  had  been  invested  with  the  Dominican  habit  on 
Aug.  26,  1544;  he  took  his  final  vows  on  Aug.  27,  in  the 
following  year,  and  was  ordained  priest  in  1547,  when  aged 
twenty-two.  He  was  sent  shortly  afterwards  to  the  convent 
of  Santa  Cruz,  at  Lombai.  One  November  night,  in  the 
year  following,  Louis  thought  he  saw  his  father  standing 
by  his  bedside,  looking  ghastly  pale,  and  wrapped  in  a 
winding-sheet.  When  he  woke  next  morning  he  talked  the 
matter  over  with  his  confessor.  An  hour  or  two  later  came 
a  ring  at  the  convent  bell.  A  messenger  from  Valencia  en- 
treated Father  T^ouis  Bertrand  to  hasten  forthwith  to  his 
father's  death-bed.  The  saint  at  once  flew  to  his  home, 
and  found  his  father  dying.  "  My  son,"  said  the  old  man, 
"  I  thought  at  one  time  it  was  a  most  grievous  matter  that 
you,  my  eldest  son,  should  have  entered  a  religious  Order, 
but  now  it  consoles  me  to  see  you  in  that  habit."  After  his 
father's  death,  Louis  Bertrand  beat  himself,  and  fasted  and 

^ _ ___ . . _ >j. 

prayed  for  eight  years,  to  liberate  the  soul  of  John  T^ouis 
from  purgatory.  When  asked  why  it  was  that  John  Louis 
Bertrand  was  afflicted  with  penal  fire  for  so  long  a  time,  his 
son  replied  that  the  reason  was- — so  it  had  been  revealed  to 
him — because  his  father  had  attended  a  certain  nobleman's 
funeral.  One  morning  Louis  dreamed  that  he  saw  a  friend, 
Friar  Raphael  Caslello,  up  to  his  neck  in  water ;  he  told 
him  of  his  vision.  Not  long  after,  Father  Castello  went  to 
Majorca,  and  returned  in  the  ship  which  was  conveying  the 
queen-dowager  to  Spain.  A  violent  storm  arose  whilst  the 
vessel  was  near  Ivica.  Then  "  an  internal  voice  urged  F. 
Raphael  Castello  to  get  into  the  boat ;"  accordingly  the  friar 
scrambled  into  the  boat,  and  made  off  in  it,  leaving  the  queen- 
dowager,  the  captain,  and  all  on  board  the  ship  to  be  drowned. 
They  perished  accordingly,  but  the  friar  got  safe  to  land, 
though  wet  by  tlie  sea-water  up  to  his  neck.  And  so  the  vision 
of  the  saint  was  verified  by  the  event. 

In  1549  S.  Louis  Bertrand  Avas  made  master  of  the  novices, 
and  ruled  them  harshly,'  being  anxious  that  they  should  taste 
the  discipline  of  the  Order  in  its  full  severity  before  they  took 
the  irrevocable  vows.  He  was  accustomed  to  scourge  him- 
self severely,  and  had  certain  chosen  spots  for  the  perform- 
ance of  this  discipline,  which  he  particularly  affected.  Such 
was  the  sacristy  of  the  convent  of  Our  Lady  of  Mercy,  to 
which  he  was  most  partial,  as  it  was  a  gloomy  spot,  and  very 
frightening  to  a  nervous  person.  Another  favourite  locality 
was  the  schoolroom  of  the  novices ;  and  there  the  walls  and 
floor  were  sometimes  splashed  with  his  blood.  One  of  the 
novices  threatened  to  tell  the  prior.  "  Silence,  I  implore 
you,  for  the  love  of  God,"  said  Louis ;  "  1  will  act  more  dis- 
creetly in  future."  His  discretion  consisted  in  tying  a  towel 
round  his  loins  to  prevent  the  blood  from  dribbling  on  to 
the  floor.     He  did  not,  however,  confine  his  blows  to  him- 

'  "  Novellos  illos  rigide  aspereque  educans." 


S.  LOUIS  BERTRAND.    After  Cahier. 

Oct.  9- 


Oct.  9.]  S.  Louis  Bertrand.  2 1 7 

self,  in  his  charity  he  distributed  them  freely  among  his  pu- 
pils, whom  he  whipped  on  the  smallest  excuse — for  breaking 
silence,  for  sleeping  a  wink  too  long,  for  a  wrong  note  in 
choir,  and  for  the  most  trifling  faults.'  The  reason  why  he 
so  severely  lashed  tlieir  backs  was,  as  he  was  careful  to  ex- 
plain to  them,  to  reduce  the  amount  of  suffering  they  would 
have  to  endure  in  purgatory. 

He  urged  on  the  novices  the  necessity  for  reading,  for  he 
found  that  the  more  learned  a  friar  became  the  more  he  loved 
his  cell;  but  he  was  very  decided  in  forbidding  the  lay- 
brethren  the  use  of  any  book.  The  Rosary  and  the  Lord's 
Prayer  were  the  only  books  for  them,  he  said. 

He  possessed  some  common  sense.  When  he  noticed 
how  scrupulous  two  novices  were  about  the  saying  of  their 
offices,  how  particular  they  were  about  mere  trifles,  "  They 
will  never  do  any  good,"  said  Louis  Bertrand.  And  so  the 
event  proved,  for  they  had  to  be  turned  out  for  disorderly 
and  disreputable  conduct.  A  novice  of  a  few  months  came 
to  him  to  inform  him  he  was  favoured  with  visions.  "  Oh, 
so  soon?"  said  Louis.     "  Then  you  are  no  good." 

Father  Clemens  Benet  having  died,  Louis  informed  the 
brethren  that  he  had  seen  him  tortured  in  purgatory  because 
he  had  once  allowed  himself  in  hot  weather  to  wear  linen 
next  his  skin.  Father  Clemens  was  at  length  liberated  by 
the  prayers  of  the  saint  \  but  his  example  served  to  awe 
the  brethren  and  novices,  and  make  them  renounce  shirts 
with  holy  horror. 

An  Indian  was  sent  to  the  convent  from  America,  who  had 
been  converted  and  transformed  into  a  Dominican.  He 
proved  a  very  indifferent  friar,  but  he  was  interesting  as  a 
man.  He  fired  the  imagination  of  some  of  the  brethren, 
especially  that  of  Louis  Bertrand;  and  when  he  assured 
them  that  preachers  were  often  killed,  and  sometimes  eaten, 

'  Just.  Antcst.  c.  ii.  22. 



2i8  Lives  of  the  Saints,  [Oct.» 

by  the  savages,  the  enthusiasm  of  Louis  was  beyond  restraint. 
He  implored  his  superior  to  send  him  to  America.  The  prior 
would  not  hear  of  his  going,  his  relations  refused  money  \ 
but  Louis  was  intent  on  seeking  martyrdom  in  the  New 
World.  Finding  him  so  resolved,  leave  was  tardily  accorded, 
and  he  departed  on  foot  for  Setabi.  When  he  was  gone,  the 
friars  overhauled  his  box,  and  found  that  it  contained  a  choice 
and  varied  collection  of  instruments  of  self  torture — horsehair 
shirts,  iron  chains,  wire  whips,  and  flat  strips  of  tin  perforated 
with  holes,  for  slapping  the  flesh  and  raising  blisters. 

At  Setabi,  a  messenger  from  the  prior  overtook  him  and 
gave  him  money  for  the  purchase  of  an  ass  on  which  to  ride 
the  rest  of  his  way.  So  he  reached  Seville  and  embarked  on 
board  a  ship  bound  for  the  mouth  of  the  Magdalena. 

Unfortunately,  little  of  the  history  of  the  mission  of  the 
holy  man  in  Bolivia  is  known.  He  traversed  great  distances 
and  preached  to  the  Lidians.  He  suffered  severely  from  the 
intense  heat  and  from  the  remoteness  of  the  stations  from 
each  other.  In  Spain  he  had  been  able  to  confess  twice  a 
day,  whereas  now  he  was  deprived  of  this  solace,  save 
occasionally.  He  arrived  with  his  two  servants,  Moors 
armed  with  guns,  at  an  Indian  village,  where  he  preached 
for  several  days  without  success.  He  ascertained  that  the 
natives  superstitiously  venerated  the  bones  of  an  idol  priest, 
and  kept  them  enshrined  in  their  temple.  Louis,  one 
morning  early,  stole  the  bones,  bundled  them  into  a  bag  he 
carried,  and  made  off  with  them,  along  with  his  two  guards. 
It  was  not  long  before  the  Indians  were  aware  of  the 
robbery,  and  Louis  was  pursued.  The  natives  threatened 
him  with  instant  death  unless  he  gave  up  to  them  what  he 
had  taken,  and  Louis,  alarmed  at  their  gestures  and  threats, 
surrendered  the  bones.  The  Indians  would  have  given  him 
poultry  and  some  peacocks  in  gratitude  for  having  restored 
to  them   their  inestimable  treasure,   but   Louis  refused  the 


^ ^ 

Oct.  9.]  •5".  Louis  Bertrand.  2 1 9 

present  sternly,  perhaps  insolently,  for  he  so  irritated  them 
that  they  nearly  fell  on  him  again,  but  was  rescued  by  the 
cacique,  who  feared  to  embroil  himself  and  the  villagers 
with  the  Spaniards,  if  the  father  was  murdered. 

As  Louis  addressed  the  natives  in  Spanish,  not  having 
acquired  their  tongue,  it  is,  perhaps,  not  Avonderful  that  his 
sermons  did  not  produce  instant  conviction  in  their  minds. 
His  biographer  indeed  asserts  that  though  he  spoke  in 
Spanish  the  Indians  understood  him,  but  this  was  probably 
near  the  Spanish  settlements.  He  took  with  him  at  first  an 
interpreter,  but  the  man,  either  by  malice  or  through  igno- 
rance, did  not  faithfully  explain  the  words  of  the  preacher, 
and  Louis  was  obliged  to  dismiss  him. 

He  converted  and  baptized  a  small  Indian  boy  and  took 
him  about  with  him  as  server  at  mass.  On  one  occasion, 
whilst  Louis  was  absent,  the  natives,  who  were  keeping  a  feast 
to  their  gods,  took  the  boy  and  sacrificed  him,  and  on  the 
return  of  the  father  told  him  the  lad  had  been  eaten  by  an 

The  barbarity  with  which  the  unfortunate  Indians  were 
treated  by  the  Spanish  governors  moved  his  soul  to  indig- 
nation. On  one  occasion,  when  he  was  preaching  in  the 
cathedral  to  a  crowd  of  naked  savages,  the  governor  entered 
with  his  men,  cudgelled  them,  and  saying,  "  Get  to  your 
work,  you  idle  rascals,"  drove  them  from  the  church  before 
S.  Louis  had  finished  his  sermon. 

At  this  time  that  most  noble  and  heroic  of  men,  Bartholo- 
mew de  las  Casas,  wrote  his  famous  appeal  to  the  Emperor 
Charles  V.  against  the  treatment  the  poor  natives  met  with 
from  Christian  hands.  He  abdicated  his  bishopric  of  Chiapa, 
and  visited  Spain,  to  wring  from  the  sovereign  protection  for 
the  unfortunate,  suffering  people,  and  devoted  the  rest  of  his 
life  to  the  advocacy  of  their  cause.  When  Louis  Bertrand 
heard  that  Las  Casas  was  returning  to  Spain,  a  vehement 

►ii -* 

^ . 1^ 

2  20  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Od.  9. 

desire  came  over  him  also  to  revisit  his  native  land.  He  had 
spent  seven  years  in  Bolivia,  and  he  had  had  enough  of  it. 

He  sailed  for  his  native  land  on  S.  Luke's  day,  1579,  and 
on  reaching  Seville  pushed  on  at  once  for  Valencia.  He 
reached  that  city  late  in  the  evening,  and  was  obliged  to 
sleep  outside  the  walls ;  he  laid  himself  to  rest  in  his 
brother's  garden.  On  the  morrow,  when  he  came  to  his 
convent,  the  friars  were  excited  and  delighted  to  see  him 
again,  sunburnt  and  thin,  but  looking  pale. 

He  remained  there  till  the  following  year,  when  he  was  made 
prior  of  S.  Onuphrius  near  Valencia ;  the  convent  was  poor 
and  in  bad  repair.  Louis  rebuilt  the  tottering  walls  and 
retiled  the  roof.  In  1575  he  was  elected  prior  of  the  con- 
vent at  Valencia.  One  day  he  was  rebuking  a  friar  for  his 
ignorance;  "Well,"  said  the  friar,  "the  devil  was  learned 
and  yet  was  damned."  Some  years  after  the  friar  died  and 
his  soul  appeared  to  Louis,  according  to  the  account  of  the 
latter,  and  informed  him  that  he  burned  in  flames  till  par- 
doned by  him  for  having  answered  so  pertly.  Louis  is  said 
to  have  performed  many  miracles.  In  Bolivia  he  suspected 
he  was  poisoned  because  he  felt  a  pain  in  his  stomach,  and  a 
worm  came  out  of  his  mouth.  On  another  occasion,  to  con- 
vince a  native  cacique  of  the  truth  of  Christianity,  he  drank  a 
cup  of  poison  before  him  without  injury.  The  miracles  he 
performed  were  numerous.  One  rainy  evening  a  Jesuit  put 
up  for  the  night  in  his  convent,  his  clothes  were  drenched, 
and  he  had  evidently  caught  a  feverish  chill.  All  night  he 
tossed  on  his  bed  with  a  racking  headache ;  but  in  the  morn- 
ing, when  he  visited  Louis  Bertrand  and  began  to  talk  to 
him,  his  headache  went  off.  He  was  of  the  greatest  assist- 
ance to  women  in  childbirth,  and  seems  to  have  been  sent 
for  on  such  occasions  by  the  matrons  of  Valencia.  His 
prayers  were  believed  to  expedite  matters.  On  one  occasion, 
when  he  could  not  attend  personally,  he  wrote  on  a  strip  of 


^ ^ 

Oct. 9.]  S.  Louis  Bertrand.  221 

paper,  "  Nesciens  Mater  Virgo  virum,  peperit  sine  dolore 
Salvatorem,  ipsum  Regem  angelorum  sola  Virgo  lactabat 
ubere  de  coelo  pleno,"  and  bade  the  suffering  woman  hold  it 
in  her  hand.     She  did  so  with  the  happiest  results. 

That  great  saint  and  reformer,  S.  Theresa,  had  recourse  to 
Louis  Bertrand,  and  received  comfort  from  his  advice  under 
her  greatest  difficulties.  When  she  wrote  to  him  about  her 
design  of  establishing  a  reformation  of  the  Carmelite  Order, 
he  sent  her  the  following  answer  :  "  Because  the  lionour  of 
God  is  highly  concerned  in  your  intended  undertaking,  I 
took  some  time  to  recommend  it  to  Him  by  my  poor  prayers. 
For  this  reason  I  deferred  so  long  my  answer.  I  now  bid 
you  take  courage  in  the  name  of  the  Lord,  who  will  favour 
you.  It  is  in  His  name  that  I  assure  you  your  reformation 
will  be,  within  the  space  of  fifty  years,  one  of  the  most  illus- 
trious Orders  in  the  Church." 

S.  Louis  preached  the  divine  word  during  twelve  years, 
without  intermission,  in  several  dioceses  in  Spain.  He 
trained  up  excellent  preachers,  who  succeeded  him  in  the 
ministry  of  the  word.  The  first  lesson  he  gave  them 
was,  that  humble  and  fervent  prayer  must  always  be  the 
principal  preparation  of  the  preacher;  for  words  without 
works  will  never  have  the  power  to  touch  and  change  hearts. 
Words  must  be  animated  by  the  spirit  of  prayer,  and  must 
derive  their  force  and  efficacy  from  this  source,  or  they  will 
be  but  as  sounding  brass  and  a  tinkling  cymbal,  pleasing 
indeed  to  the  ear,  but  not  touching  and  firing  the  heart. 

During  the  last  two  years  of  his  life  he  was  afflicted  with 
several  disorders,  under  which  he  constantly  prayed  to  God, 
in  the  words  of  S.  Augustine :  "  Here  cut,  here  burn,  here 
spare  not,  that  I  may  find  mercy  for  eternity."  Under  his 
infirmities  he  showed  no  failing  of  zeal.  In  1580  he 
preached  the  Lenten  course  of  sermons  at  Xatwa,  and  went 
thence  to  preach  in  the  cathedral  of  Valencia,  but  was  so  ill, 

►jf — — >J< 

that  he  had  to  be  carried  from  the  pulpit  to  his  bed,  from 
which  he  never  rose.  Amidst  the  tears  of  all  who  surrounded 
him  he  remained  cheerful.  The  archbishop  of  Valencia 
ministered  to  him  with  his  own  hands,  giving  him  medicine 
and  food,  till  he  gave  up  his  soul  to  God,  on  the  9th  of 
October,  1581,  at  the  age  of  fifty-five. 

A  portrait  of  the  saint,  painted  after  his  death,  was  placed 
by  the  Archbishop  of  Valencia  in  a  chapel  of  his  cathedral. 
An  engraving  from  it  is  given  by  the  Bollandists. 

The  body  of  the  saint  reposes  in  a  silver  shrine  in  the 
church  of  the  Dominicans  at  Valencia ;  it  is  visible  through 
glass.  A  silver  statue  of  him  has  the  breast  open,  and 
exhibits  one  of  his  arm  bones  behind  glass. 

^ »J« 


Oct.  lo.] 

6".  Pinitus.  223 

October  10. 

S.  Pinitus,  B.  o/Giiossus,  inCrete;  circ.  a.d.  i8o. 

SS.  Gekkon  and  CoMi'.,  MM.  at  Cologne;  circ.  a.d.  286. 

S.  Clarus,  B.  of  Nantes  ;  beginning  of  ^th  cent. 

SS.  EuLAMPlus  AND  EuLAMPiA,  MM.  at  Nicomedia ;  i,tli  cent. 

S.  Bassian,  C.  at  Constantinojilc ;  circ.  a.d.  456. 

S.  Cerbonius,  B.  of  Pioiiibino,  in  Tuscany;  circ.  a.d.  575. 

S.  Paxti.inus,  B.  of  York;  a.d.  644. 

S.  Telechild,  V.  Abss.  ofjonarrc;  -jth  cent. 

S.  Tancha,  VM.  at  Treyes,  in  France. 

S.  John  of  Bridlington,  C.  in  Vork ;  a.d.  1379. 

S.  Francis  Borgia,  C.S.y.  at  Rome ;  a.d.  1572. 


(.A.BOUT  A.D.    180.) 

[Roman  Martyrology.     Ado  and  Usuaidus.     Authority : — Eusebius, 
Hist.  Eccl.  iv.  21-23.] 

USEBIUS  speaks  of  Pinitus,  Bishop  of  Gnossus, 
in  Crete,  who  lived  at  the  time  of  Dionysius  of 
Corinth.     Dionysius  wrote  to  Pinitus,  "  not  to  im- 
pose on  the  bretliren,  witliout  necessity,  too  severe 
a  burden  in  regard  to  purity,  but  to  pay  regard  to  the  infirmity 
of  the  great  bulk  of  the  people."     To  which  Pinitus,  writing  in 
reply,  said  that  he  admired  and  applauded  Dionysius,  but  ex- 
horted him,  at  the  same  time,  to  impart  some  time  or  other 
food  which  was  stronger  to  his  flock,  and  to  feed  tliem  with 
writings"  abounding  in  more  perfect  doctrine,  so  that  they 
might  not  remain  constantly  imbibing  the  mere  milk  of  doc- 
trine, and  grow  old  under  a  discipline  calculated  for  children. 
"  In  this  epistle  also,  the  correct  views  which  Pinitus  cherished, 
and  his  solicitude  for  those  committed  to  his  care,  also  his 
learning  and  intelligence  in  divine  matters,  appear  evidently." 

I ^ 


2  24  Lives  of  the  Saints.  oct.  lo. 


(about  a.d.  286.) 

[Ado,  Usuardus,  Floras,  Sarum,  York,  and  Hereford,  German  and 
Modem  Roman  Martyrologies.  Authority  : — a  Passion  by  Ilelinand  of 
Froimont  in  the  13th  cent.] 

The  greatest  confusion  concerning  these  martyrs  reigns  in 
the  ancient  Martyrologies.  The  names  of  the  martyrs  vary  ; 
there  are  Gereon,  Cassius,  Florentius,  Victor,  Agrippinus, 
Marusus,  and  on  these  names  changes  are  rung.  A  vague 
tradition,  floating  down  the  stream  of  time,  recorded  that  a 
portion  of  the  Theban  legion,  quartered  at  Cologne  and  at 
Xanten,  on  the  Rhine,  had  suffered  about  the  same  time  as 
Maurice  and  his  company  at  Agaunum,  and  the  Martyrologies 
gave  such  names  as  were  remembered.  But  of  the  facts 
nothing  was  known,  till  gradually  legend  grew  round  them, 
relics  were  discovered  and  attributed  to  them,  imaginations 
worked,  and  in  the  13th  century  the  passion  of  the  martyrs 
had  been  elaborated  sufficiently  for  a  monk  of  Froimont  to 
commit  it  to  writing.  The  number  of  martyrs  was  made 
318  or  319,  or  even  330.  It  is  almost  a  pity  that  imagination 
did  not  stretch  a  little  further,  and  then  there  would  have 
been  one  for  each  day  in  the  year.  When  the  church  of 
Xanten  was  being  enlarged,  in  1284,  the  new  foundations  in 
the  old  burial-ground  intersected  graves,  and  many  bones 
were  found.  These  were  eagerly  assumed  to  have  belonged 
to  the  Theban  martyrs,  and,  as  such,  receive  veneration 
there  to  this  day. 

In  some  ancient  copies  of  the  Martyrology  of  Jerome,  the 
passion  of  316  martyrs  at  Cologne  is  stated,  "  whose  names 
God  only  knows." 

S.  Helena  is  supposed  also  to  have  found  the  bodies  of 


>f( ^ 

Oct.  lo.]        SS.  Eidampius  and  Eulampia.  225 

the  martyrs  at  Bonn,  and  to  have  erected  churches  there,  and 
in  Cologne,  over  their  relics.  This  is  the  story  of  Helinand  ; 
it  does  not  demand  serious  consideration.  According  to 
the  same  writer,  Gereon  suffered  at  Cologne  with  318  com- 
panions, and  Victor  with  330  more,  at  Xanten ;  Cassius  and 
Florentius,  and  others,  numbers  not  recorded,  at  Bonn.  To 
fill  up  the  gaps  made  by  this  butchery,  Maximian  was  obliged 
to  send  into  Mauritania  for  some  more  soldiers ;  but  these, 
on  their  arrival,  were  also  found  to  be  infected  with  Christian 
belief.  Another  decimation  took  place,  and  some  360  more 
were  martyred,  and  their  bones  laid  alongside  of  those  of 
Gereon  and  his  companions.    (See  Oct.  15.) 


(4TH   CENT.) 

[Greek  Meneea  and  Menology.     Roman  Maityrology.     Authority  :-- 
The  Greek  Acts,  late  and  not  trastworthy.] 

The  Acts  say  that  Maximian,  in  his  seventh  year,  issued 
an  edict  against  the  Christians,  and  that  Eulampius  and 
Eulampia  suffered  at  Nicomedia,  in  Bithynia.  The  seventh 
year  of  Maximian  is  293,  when  there  was  no  persecution. 
Moreover,  Maximian  did  not  bear  rule  in  the  East.  His 
palace  was  at  Milan,  that  of  Diocletian  at  Nicomedia. 
But  Maximinus  did  persecute  in  the  East  in  306,  when 
Caesar.  Maximinus  assumed  the  title  of  Emperor  in  307, 
and  when  persecution  relaxed  he  renewed  it.  The  persecu- 
tion was  stopped  by  edict  of  Galerius  in  311.  Maximinus 
died  in  313.  Probably,  though  Acts,  Mensea,  and  Me- 
nology assert  that  Maximian  was  the  persecutor,  we  must 
read  Maximin  for  Maximian.  Maximin  was  made  Caesar 
in  305,  and  the  seventh  year  may  be  312.  But  not  much 
VOL.  XI.  15 
^ (j* 

^ . . »J, 

226  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  10. 

reliance  can  be  placed  on  the  figures  or  names  in  the  late 

The  edict  given  in  tliem  begins,  "  Maximianus,  Emperor, 
to  the  inhabitants  of  the  metropolis  of  Nicomedia,"  &c.  And 
considering  that  Maximian  had  nothing  to  do  with  Nico- 
media, and  that  the  seventli  year  of  Maximin  as  Emperor 
would  be  314,  a  year  after  his  death,  we  may  judge  of  the 
worthlessness  of  such  statements  in  the  Acts, 

When  the  persecution  broke  out  in  Nicomedia,  Eulampius, 
a  young  Christian,  together  with  many  other  Christians,  fled 
the  city  and  hid  themselves  in  caves.  After  a  while  they  had 
consumed  all  their  provisions,  and  therefore  were  obliged  to 
send  one  of  tlieir  number  into  the  town  to  buy  bread.  They 
selected  Eulampius,  who,  being  a  boy,  might  escape  obser- 
vation. Eulampius  had  unfortunately  cliosen  the  day  for 
entering  the  city  when  all  the  inhabitants  were  attending  in 
the  temple  to  offer  sacrifice  according  to  the  commands  of 
tlie  Emperor.  The  boy  saw  the  edict  nailed  up  at  the  gates, 
and  stood  still  to  read  it.  The  soldiers  guarding  the  gates 
spoke  to  him,  and  he  turned  and  ran  away.  The  watch 
pursued  him,  outstripped  and  arrested  him,  and  asked  him 
his  name  and  why  he  had  attemi)ted  flight.  As  he  did  not 
answer,  they  suspected  that  he  was  a  Christian,  bound  him, 
and  put  him  in  ward. 

Next  day  he  was  brought  before  the  prefect,  and  the  guards 
told  their  tale.  But  the  governor,  ])itying  his  simplicity  and 
youth,  said,  "  Ye  have  acted  wrongly  and  rashly.  This  is  an 
ignorant  country  boy,  and  ye  have  bound  him  without  cause. 
Knock  oft"  his  chains,  and  place  him  by  me." 

The  boy  was  at  once  freed  and  brought  to  the  governor, 
who  addressed  him  kindly,  saying,  "  Boy,  what  is  your 
name  ?     Are  you  a  slave  or  free  ?  " 

"  I  am  the  Lord's  servant,"  answered  he,  "  and  my  name 
is  Eulampius.     I  am  of  honourable  birth." 

^ ■^ 

qn — ^^ 

Oct.  lo.]       6'^S'.  Eulanipius  and  Eulampia.         227 

"  Well,  boy,"  said  the  prefect,  "  if  you  belong  to  an 
honourable  family,  behave  honourably,  and  go  and  sacrifice 
and  return  to  me." 

"  To  whom  shall  I  sacrifice?" 

"  To  Dios,  or  to  Apollo,  or  to  the  great  goddess  Demeter." 

"  He  who  trusts  in  them  falls  into  perdition,"  answered 
Eulampius.     "  They  are  but  idols,  the  work  of  men's  hands." 

Then  the  governor  was  angry,  and  ordered  Eulampius  to 
be  stripped  and  beaten.  After  he  had  received  many  strokes, 
the  kind-hearted  governor  said,  "  That  will  do  \  spare  him, 
and  let  him  get  up.'" 

Eulampius  rose,  and  defied  liim  and  his  gods,  in  language 
excited  and  violent,  and  which  seems  to  have  been  quite  as 
much  an  exhibition  of  temper  in  a  boy  smarting  after  a 
whipping  as  of  Christian  zeal  in  a  martyr  for  the  foith. 

He  succeeded  in  sufficiently  incensing  the  governor  to 
order  his  suspension  on  the  little  horse. 

Suddenly,  from  among  tlie  bystanders  broke  a  young  girl, 
who,  rushing  up  to  Eulampius,  threw  her  aims  round  his 
neck,  sobbing.  Tliis  was  Eulampia,  his  sister.  vShe  was  at 
once  arrested,  and  conducted  to  prison  along  with  her 
brother,  and  on  the  morrow  both  were  executed  Avith  the 

The  untmstworthy  Acts  have  intruded  a  whole  series  of 
tortures  which  do  not  hurt  the  martyrs.  They  are  plunged 
in  boihng  lead,  and  come  forth  refreshed,  but  cold  steel  in 
these  cases  is  infallible;  and  we  may  be  quite  sure  when  we 
read  of  a  martyr  suffering  by  the  sword  after  a  string  of  un- 
successful attempts  at  execution  by  fire,  water,  poison,  wild 
beasts,  cS:c.,  that  these  tortures  were  not  tried,  but  are  the 
invention  of  the  author  of  the  Acts  in  their  present  form. 

^ •{< 

^ — — ^ 

228  Lives  of  the  Saints.  ^^^^  ^^_ 


(about  a.d.  575.) 

[Roman  Martyrology.  Authorities  : — Mention  by  S.  Gregory  the 
Great  in  his  Dialogues,  and  a  life  written  not  Ijcfore  the  loth  cent.] 

S.  Cerbonius,  a  native  of  northern  Africa,  on  the  Vandal 
invasion  tied  to  Italy  and  came  to  Piombino,  of  which  city 
he  became  bishop.  Tlie  people  of  the  neighbourhood  were, 
however,  speedily  tired  of  their  bishop,  for  every  Sunday  he 
rose  at  break  of  day  and  said  mass.  When  they  arrived  at 
the  church  the  bishop  and  his  clergy  were  breakfasting,  and 
they  had  to  return  to  their  homes  without  having  performed 
their  religious  duties.  At  length  they  could  endure  it  no 
longer,  and  complained  to  Pope  Vigilius,  who,  on  hearing  of 
what  Cerbonius  did,  blazed  up  into  wrath,  and  sent  legates 
to  Piombino  to  bring  the  bishop  to  Rome.  They  arrived  on 
Saturday.  Next  morning  very  early,  Cerbonius  awoke  and 
said  to  his  deacon,  "  Go  out  and  see  if  the  time  has  arrived 
for  mass."  The  deacon  returned  to  say  that  a  white  streak 
was  showing  above  the  eastern  hills.  Cerbonius  and  his 
priests  accordingly  got  up  and  said  mass.  Wlien  the  legates 
crawled  out  of  bed,  they  found  the  bishop  and  his  clergy 
enjoying  their  breakfasts. 

"  Come  and  eat  with  us,''  said  Cerbonius. 

"  We  are  not  heretics  to  eat  before  mass." 

"  That  is  over  an  hour  ago,"  answered  the  bishop. 

The  legates  started  for  Rome  with  the  bishop.  On  the 
way  they  got  thirsty,  and  he  discovered  for  them  a  spring  of 
water.  He  cured  three  men  suffering  from  fever,  and 
astonished  the  legates  into  thinking  that,  after  all,  he  was  a 
saint,  and  not  a  heretic.     When  they  came  near  to  Rome, 


Oct.  10.]  '^-  Cerbonius.  229 

they  left  Cerbonius  and  went  on  to  Vigilius  and  told  him  of 
the  marvels  wrought  by  the  bishop  on  the  way. 

Whilst  Cerbonius  was  waiting,  he  saw  a  flight  of  geese 
coming  his  way.  He  at  once  made  the  sign  of  the  cross 
over  them  and  said,  "You  have  not  licence  from  the  Lord  to 
fly  anywhere  till  you  have  followed  me  to  the  presence  of  the 
Lord  Pope."  Then  he  marched  fonvard  with  his  staff",  the  geese 
following  demurely, — and  lo  !  he  met  the  Pope,  attended  by 
his  clergy  in  chasubles  and  dalmatics,  with  incense  burning, 
coming  to  do  honour  to  the  saint  who  had  found  a  spring  of 
water  and  at  whose  word  tertian  ague  had  disappeared.  The 
two  processions  met  and  united,  and  the  Pope,  followed  by 
his  clergy,  walked  with  Cerbonius  and  the  geese  in  his  train 
to  the  altar  of  S.  Peter's,  where  Cerbonius  blessed  the  geese 
and  gave  them  leave  to  depart. 

Next  morning,  at  daybreak,  Cerbonius  went  into  the 
Pope's  chamber,  pulled  him  out  of  bed,  and  made  him  put 
his  foot  on  his  own  foot,  and  his  hand  in  his  own  hand,  and 
look  up  into  heaven.  He  then  asked  the  Pope,  stupefied 
with  sleep,  if  he  did  not  hear  angels  singing,  and  Vigilius 
having  said  he  did  hear  something  of  the  kind,  was  allowed 
to  go  back  to  bed  again,  whilst  Cerbonius  went  oft"  to  say 
mass.  After  this  the  Pope  gave  him  leave  to  say  his  mass  at 
any  hour  of  the  morning  that  pleased  him,  and  sent  him 
back  at  once  to  Piombino. 

Totila,  the  Gothic  King,  is  said  by  S.  Gregory  to  have 
exposed  the  old  bishop  to  be  hugged  by  a  bear  in  the 
amphitheatre,  but  the  bear,  instead  of  hurting  him,  crouched 
at  his  feet  and  licked  them.  He  was  allowed  to  depart,  and 
he  fled  to  the  isle  of  Elba,  and  there  died.  His  body  was 
brought  back  to  Piombino,  and  there  reposes. 


230  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  10. 


(A.D.   644.) 

[Martyrology  of  Bede,  Ado,  Notker,  Roman  Martyrology,  York  and 
Hereford  Calendars.  Authority  : — Mention  by  Bede.  Tlie  following 
is  a  condensation  from  Montalembert's  "Monks  of  the  West."] 

Eede  informs  us  that  about  a  century  after  the  first 
landing  of  the  Saxons,  under  Hengist,  in  the  county  of 
Kent,  their  neighbours  the  Angles,  crossing  the  North  Sea, 
founded  on  the  opposite  coast  of  Britain  two  colonies,  long 
distinct,  sometimes  united,  but  finally  combined  together 
under  the  name  of  Northumbria.  The  wall  anciently  raised 
by  the  Emperor  Severus,  from  the  mouth  of  the  Solway  to 
that  of  the  Tyne,  to  check  the  Caledonian  incursions,  was 
their  boundary.  The  oldest  of  the  two  kingdoms  was  that 
of  the  Bernicians  to  the  north.  Their  chief,  Ida — who,  like 
Hengist,  claimed  to  be  a  descendant  of  Odin — established 
his  residence  in  a  fortress  which  he  called  Bamborough, 
after  his  wife  Bebba,  witli  that  conjugal  reverence  so  often 
illustrated  even  among  the  most  savage  Germans.  The 
British  bards  in  return  have  named  this  queen  the  Fair 
Traitress,  because  she  was  of  British  origin  and  fought  in  the 
foremost  ranks  on  the  field  of  battle  against  her  countrymen. 
The  imposing  remains  of  this  fortress,  situated  on  a  de- 
tached rock  on  the  coast,  still  surprise  and  arrest  the 
traveller.  From  this  point  the  invasion  of  the  Angles 
spread  over  the  fertile  valleys  of  the  Tweed  and  Tyne. 

The  second  colony,  that  of  the  Deirians,  to  the  south,  was 
concentrated  principally  in  the  valley  of  the  Tees  and  in  rhe 
extensive  region  which  is  now  known  as  Yorkshire.  The  first 
chief  of  the  Deirians  of  whom  anything  is  known  was  that 
Alia  or  Ella,  whose  name — pronounced  by  the  young  slaves 

*— ^ 

Oct,  to.]  S.  Pattlinus.  231 

exposed  for  sale  in  the  Forum — suggested  to  S.  Gregory  the 
hope  of  soon  hearing  the  Allekiia  echo  through  his  kingdom. 
This  region  to  the  north  of  the  Humber  was  precisely  that 
which  had  suffered  most  from  the  Caledonian  incursions ;  and 
according  to  some  authors,  the  Saxons  of  Hengist,  called  in 
the  character  of  aUies  by  the  Britons  to  their  aid,  were  already 
established  before  the  arrival  of  the  Deirian  colony.  But 
Ida  and  his  Angles  would  not  in  any  character  hold  tenure 
under  their  Germanic  compatriots  from  the  south  of  the 
island,  and  instead  of  fighting  against  the  Picts  and  Scots 
they  leagued  themselves  with  them  to  crush  the  ill-starred 

Ida,  who  had  twelve  sons,  and  who  reigned  twelve  years, 
used  fire  and  sword  against  the  natives  with  such  animosity 
that  the  British  bards  surnamed  him  the  Man  of  Fire,  or  the 
Great  Burner.  They  withstood  him  to  the  last  extremity, 
and  he  fell  in  battle  against  them.  But  his  grandson,  Ethel- 
frid,  took  a  terrible  revenge.  He  was  Ella's  son-in-law,  and 
at  the  death  of  the  latter,  and  to  the  prejudice  of  the  rights 
of  the  chiefs  son,  Ethelfrid  reunited  the  two  kingdoms  of 
Deiria  and  Bernicia,  and  mustering  to  his  own  standard  all 
the  Anglo-Saxons  of  Northumbria,  he  subdued  or  massacred 
a  greater  multitude  of  the  Britons  than  any  other  of  the 
invading  chiefs.  He  was,  says  Bede,  the  ravaging  wolf  of 
Holy  Writ :  in  the  morning  he  devoured  his  prey,  and  in  the 
evening  he  divided  his  spoil.  The  vanquished,  who  had  called 
his  grandfather  the  Burner,  had  only  too  good  cause  to  call 
Ethelfrid  the  Ravager. 

He  had  not,  however,  like  his  predecessors,  the  Cale- 
donians for  auxiliaries.  They  had  become  Christians,  and 
far  from  seconding  the  pagan  invaders,  the  Dalriadian  Scots 
recently  established  in  Great  Britain  came  to  the  succour  of 
the  Britons  who  were  their  fellow-Christians.  Their  king 
Aidan  marched  against  Ethelfrid  at  the  head  of  a  numerous 

232  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oa.  10. 

army.  The  Scots  and  the  Saxons  met  at  Degotane,  near  the 
existing  frontier  of  England  and  Scotland.  After  a  desperate 
struggle  the  Scots'  army  Avas  cut  to  pieces,  and  this  defeat 
put  an  end  for  ever  to  any  desire  on  the  part  of  the  northern 
Celts  to  undertake  the  defence  of  their  brethren  of  the  south 
against  the  Teutonic  conquerors. 

Having  conquered  the  Scots,  the  formidable  heathen  threw 
himself  on  the  Britons  of  Wales.  After  this  he  completed 
the  conquest  of  Northumbria,  and  fell,  ten  years  later,  in  an 
encounter  with  his  countrymen,  the  East  Angles,  under  the 
command  of  King  Redwald. 

East  Anglia,  as  the  name  itself  indicates,  was  occupied 
by  a  colony  of  the  same  race  as  the  Angles  of  Northumbria. 
On  the  death  of  the  first  Christian  king  of  Kent,  Redwald 
inherited  the  title  of  Bretwalda,  which  gave  him  a  certain 
military  supremacy  over  the  whole  Anglo-Saxon  federation. 
He  had  given  shelter  to  the  son  of  Ella,  who,  while  still  a 
child,  had  been  dethroned  by  his  brother-in-law,  the  terrible 
Ethelfrid.  This  young  prince,  named  Edwin,  grew  up  at 
Redwald's  Court  and  had  even  been  married  to  the  daughter 
of  his  protector.  Ethelfrid,  seeing  in  him  a  rival  and  a 
successor,  employed  by  turns  threats  and  bribes  to  induce 
Redwald  to  surrender  the  royal  exile.  The  East  Anglian 
prince  was  on  the  point  ot  yielding,  when  one  of  the  friends 
of  Edwin  caine  by  night  to  apprise  him  of  his  danger,  and 
offered  to  conduct  him  to  a  place  of  refuge,  where  neither 
Redwald  nor  Ethelfrid  should  be  able  to  discover  him. 
"  No,"  replied  the  young  and  generous  exile  ;  "  I  thank  you 
for  your  goodwill,  but  I  shall  do  nothing.  Why  should  I 
begin  again  to  wander  a  vagabond  through  every  part  of  the 
island,  as  I  have  too  much  done  ?  If  I  must  die,  let  it  be 
rather  by  the  hand  of  this  great  king  than  by  that  of  a 
meaner  man."  Notwithstanding,  moved  and  agitated  by  the 
news,  he  went  out  and  seated  himself  on  a  rock  before  the 

^ ^ 

^ ^i 

Oct.  lo.]  -^^  Pciulinus.  233 

palace,  where  he  remained  for  a  long  time  alone  and  un- 
noticed, a  prey  to  agonizing  uncertainty. 

All  at  once  he  beheld  before  him,  in  the  midst  of  the 
darkness,  a  man,  whose  countenance  and  dress  were  un- 
known to  him,  who  asked  him  what  he  did  there  alone  in 
the  night,  and  added,  "  What  wilt  thou  promise  to  him  who 
shall  rid  thee  of  thy  grief  by  dissuading  Redwald  from 
delivering  thee  up  to  thy  enemies,  or  doing  thee  any  harm?'' 
"  All  that  may  ever  be  in  my  power,"  answered  Edwin. 
"And  if,"  continued  the  unknown,  "he  undertook  to  make 
thee  king,  and  a  king  more  powerful  than  all  thine  ancestors, 
and  all  the  other  kings  in  England?"  Edwin  promised 
anew  that  his  gratitude  would  be  commensurate  with  such 
a  service.  "  Then,"  said  the  stranger,  "  if  he  who  shall  have 
exactly  foretold  to  thee  such  great  fortunes,  offers  thee 
counsels  more  useful  for  thy  welfare  and  thy  life  than  any 
of  thy  fathers  or  kinsmen  have  ever  received,  dost  thou 
consent  to  follow  them  ?"  The  exile  swore  that  he  would 
implicitly  obey  him  by  whom  he  should  be  rescued  from 
such  great  peril  and  made  king. 

Thereupon  the  unknown  placed  his  right  hand  upon  his 
head,  saying,  "  When  a  like  sign  shall  be  shown  thee,  then 
recall  this  hour,  thy  words,  and  thy  promise."  With  this 
he  disappeared  so  suddenly  that  Edwin  believed  he  had 
spoken  not  with  a  man,  but  with  a  spirit.  A  moment  after, 
his  friend  came  running  to  announce  that  he  had  no  longer 
anything  to  fear,  and  that  King  Redwald,  having  confided 
his  project  to  the  cpeen,  had  been  dissuaded  by  her  from  his 
breach  of  faith. 

Under  the  generous  influence  of  the  queen,  Redwald  not 
only  refused  to  give  up  the  exiled  prince,  but  having  sent 
back  the  ambassadors  intrusted  with  the  costly  presents  of 
Ethelfrid,  he  declared  war  against  him.  The  result  was  that 
Ethelfrid  having  been  defeated  and  slain,  Edwin  was  estab- 



234  Lives  of  the  Saints. 

[Oct.  10. 

lished  as  king  in  Northumbria  by  his  protector  Redwald, 
who  was  now  the  chief  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  federation.  The 
sons  of  Ethelfrid,  although  on  the  mother's  side  nephews  of 
the  new  king,  were  obliged  to  fly  like  Edwin  himself  in  his 
youth.  They  went  for  refuge  to  the  Dalriadian  Scots.  We 
shall  presently  see  what  resulted  from  tliis  exile  to  Northum- 
bria and  the  whole  of  England. 

Like  his  brother-in-law  Ethelfrid,  Edwin  reigned  over  the 
two  united  kingdoms  of  Deira  and  Bernicia ;  and,  like  him, 
he  waged  a  vigorous  war  against  the  Britons  of  Wales. 
Having  thus  become  the  dreaded  chief  of  the  Angles  of  the 
North,  he  found  himself  esteemed  and  sought  after  by  the 
P^ast  Angles,  who,  on  the  death  of  their  king,  Redwald, 
offered  him  the  sovereignty.  But  Edwin  preferred  to  repay 
the  protection  which  he  had  received  from  Redwald  and  his 
wife  by  leaving  the  kingdom  of  East  Anglia  to  their  son. 
He  reserved,  however,  the  military  supremacy  which  Red- 
wald had  exercised,  as  well  as  the  title  of  Bretwalda,  which 
had  passed  from  the  King  of  Kent  to  the  King  of  East 
Anglia,  but  which,  after  being  held  by  Edwin,  was  to  remain 
always  attached  to  the  Northumbrian  monarchy. 

Thus  then  was  accomplished  the  mysterious  prediction  of 
Edwin's  nocturnal  visitor.  He  was  now  a  king,  and  more 
powerful  than  any  of  the  English  kings  before  him.  For  the 
supremacy  of  the  Bretwalda,  added  to  the  vast  extent  of 
country  occupied  by  the  Angles  of  the  north  and  east,  se- 
cured to  the  King  of  Northumbria  a  preponderance  alto- 
gether different  from  that  of  the  petty  kings  of  the  south  who 
had  borne  the  title  before  him.  Having  reached  this  un- 
hoped-for elevation,  and  having  lost  his  first  wife,  a  daughter 
of  the  King  of  East  Anglia,  he  sought  a  second  bride,  and 
asked  in  marriage  the  sister  of  the  King  of  Kent,  the  daughter 
of  Ethelbert  and  Bertha,  a  descendant  of  Hengist  and  Odin 
through  her  father,  and  of  S.  Clotild  through  her  mother. 


Oct.  TO.]  S.  Paulinus.  235 

She  was  called  Ethelburga,  that  is, ''  noble  protectress."  Her 
brother  Eadbald  at  first  refused  the  demand  of  the  King  of 
Northumbria.  He  answered  that  it  was  impossible  for  him 
to  betroth  a  Christian  virgin  to  a  pagan,  lest  the  faith  and 
the  sacraments  of  the  true  God  should  be  profaned  by  making 
her  live  with  a  king  who  was  a  stranger  to  His  worship.  Far 
from  being  offended  at  this  refusal,  Edwin  promised  that,  if 
the  princess  were  granted  to  him,  he  would  do  nothing  against 
the  faith  which  she  professed,  but,  on  the  contrary,  she  might 
freely  observe  all  the  rites  of  her  religion,  along  with  all  who 
might  accompany  her  to  his  kingdom— men  or  women,  priests 
or  laymen.  He  added,  that  he  Avould  not  himself  refuse  to 
embrace  his  wife's  religion,  if,  after  having  had  it  examined 
by  the  sages  of  his  council,  he  found  it  to  be  more  holy  and 
more  worthy  of  God  than  his  own. 

It  was  on  these  conditions  that  her  mother  Bertha  had  left 
her  country  and  her  Merovingian  family,  to  cross  the  sea  and 
wed  the  King  of  Kent.  The  conversion  of  that  kingdom 
had  been  the  reward  of  her  sacrifice.  Ethelburga,  destined 
like  her  mother,  and,  still  more  than  she,  to  be  the  means  of 
introducing  a  whole  people  to  the  knowledge  of  Christianity, 
followed  the  maternal  example. 

But  the  royal  virgin  was  intrusted  to  the  Northumbrians 
only  under  the  guardianship  of  a  bishop,  charged  to  preserve 
her  from  all  pagan  pollution  by  his  exhortations,  and  also  by 
the  daily  celebration  of  the  heavenly  mysteries. 

This  bishop,  by  name  Paulinus,  was  one  of  those  still  sur- 
viving Roman  monks  who  had  been  sent  by  S.  Gregory  to 
the  aid  of  S.  Augustine.  He  had  been  twenty-five  years  a 
missionary  in  the  south  of  Great  Britain  before  he  was  con- 
secrated Bishop  of  Northumbria  by  the  third  successor  of 
Augustine  at  Canterbury.  Having  arrived  with  Ethelburga 
in  Edwin's  kingdom,  and  having  married  them,  he  longed  to 
see  the  whole  of  the  unknown  nation  amongst  whom  he  had 

^ _ ,j, 


236  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  10. 

come  to  pitch  his  tent,  espoused  to  Christ.  Unlike  Augustine, 
after  his  landing  on  the  shores  of  Kent,  it  is  expressly  stated 
that  Pauhnus  was  disposed  to  act  upon  the  Northumbrian 
people  before  attempting  the  conversion  of  the  king.  He 
laboured  with  all  his  might  to  add  some  Northumbrian  con- 
verts to  the  small  company  of  the  faithful  that  had  accom- 
panied the  queen.  But  his  efforts  were  for  a  long  time  fruit- 
less ;  he  was  permitted  to  preach,  but  no  one  was  converted. 
Pope  Boniface  V.,  at  the  suggestion,  no  doubt,  of  Paulinus, 
addressed  two  letters  to  the  King  and  Queen  of  Northum- 
bria.  He  exhorted  the  glorious  king  of  the  EngHsh,  as  he 
calls  him,  to  follow  the  example  of  so  many  other  emperors 
and  kings,  and  especially  of  his  brother-in-law  Eadbald,  in 
submitting  himself  to  the  true  God,  and  not  to  let  himself 
be  separated,  in  the  future,  from  that  dear  half  of  himself 
who  had  already  received  in  baptism  the  pledge  of  eternal 
bliss.  He  conjured  the  queen  to  neglect  no  effort  to  soften 
and  inflame  the  hard  and  cold  heart  of  her  husband,  to  make 
him  understand  the  beauty  of  the  mysteries  in  which  she  be- 
lieved, and  the  rich  reward  which  she  had  found  in  her  own 
regeneration,  to  the  end  that  they  twain,  whom  human  love 
had  made  one  flesh  here  below,  might  dwell  together  in 
another  life,  united  in  an  indissoluble  union.  But  neither 
the  letters  of  the  Pope  nor  the  sermons  of  the  bishop,  nor 
the  importunities  of  the  queen,  prevailed  to  triumph  over 
the  doubts  of  Edwin.  A  providential  event,  however,  occurred 
to  shake,  without  absolutely  convincing  him.  On  the  Easter- 
day  after  his  marriage,  an  assassin,  sent  by  the  King  of  the 
West  Saxons,  made  his  way  to  the  king,  and,  under  the  pre- 
text of  communicating  a  message  from  his  master,  tried  to 
stab  him  with  a  double-edged  poisoned  dagger,  which  he 
held  hidden  under  his  dress.  Prompted  by  that  heroic  de- 
votion for  their  princes  which  among  all  the  Germanic  bar- 
barians  co-existed  with  continual  revolts   against  them,  a 

^ — — >J( 

Oct.  lo.]  S.  Paulinus.  237 

lord  named  Lilla,  having  no  shield  at  hand,  threw  himself 
between  his  king  and  the  assassin,  who  struck  with  such 
force  that  his  weapon  reached  Edwin  even  through  the  body 
of  his  faithful  friend.  The  same  night,  the  night  of  the 
greatest  of  Christian  festivals,  the  queen  was  delivered  of  a 
daughter.  While  Edwin  was  rendering  thanks  to  his  gods 
for  the  birth  of  his  first-born,  the  Bishop  Paulinus  began,  on 
his  part,  to  thank  the  Lord  Christ,  assuring  the  king  that  it 
was  he  who  by  his  prayers  to  the  true  God  had  obtained 
that  the  queen  should  bear  her  first  child  without  mishap, 
and  almost  without  pain.  The  king,  less  moved  by  the 
mortal  danger  that  he  had  just  escaped  than  by  the  joy  of 
being  a  father  without  peril  or  hurt  to  his  beloved  Ethel- 
burga,  was  charmed  by  the  words  of  Paulinus,  and  promised 
to  renounce  his  idols  for  the  service  of  Christ,  if  Christ  granted 
him  life  and  victory  in  the  war  which  he  was  about  to  wage 
against  the  king  who  had  tried  to  procure  his  assassination. 
As  a  pledge  of  his  good  faith  he  gave  the  new-born  child  to 
the  bishop,  that  he  might  consecrate  her  to  Christ.  This 
first  child  of  the  king,  the  first  native  Christian  of  the  Nor- 
tlmmbrian  nation,  was  baptized  on  Whitsunday  along  with 
seven  persons  of  the  royal  household.  She  was  named  Ean- 
fieda,  and  was  destined,  like  most  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  prin- 
cesses, to  exercise  an  influence  over  the  destiny  of  her  country. 
Edwin  came  back  victorious  from  his  struggle  with  the 
guilty  king.  On  his  return  to  Northumbria,  though  since 
giving  his  promise  he  had  ceased  to  worship  idols,  he  would 
not  at  once,  and  \vithout  further  reflection,  receive  the  sacra- 
ments of  the  Christian  faith.  But  he  made  Paulinus  give 
him  more  fully  the  reasons  of  his  belief.  He  frequently  con- 
ferred with  the  wisest  and  best-instructed  of  his  nobles  upon 
the  part  which  they  would  counsel  him  to  take.  Finally, 
being  by  nature  a  man  sagacious  and  reflective,  he  passed 
long  hours  in  soUtude,  his  lips  indeed  closed,  but  discussing 

i^ . _ »Ji 


238  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  m 

many  things  in  the  depth  of  his  heart,  and  examining,  with- 
out intermission,  which  rehgion  he  ought  to  prefer. 

Meanwhile,  Pauhnus  saw  time  passing  away  without  the 
Word  of  God  which  he  preached  being  Hstened  to,  and  with- 
out Edwin  being  able  to  bow  the  pride  of  his  intelligence 
before  the  divine  humihty  of  the  Cross.  Being  informed  of 
the  prophecy,  and  the  promise  wliich  had  put  an  end  to  the 
exile  of  the  king,  he  believed  that  the  moment  for  recalHng 
tliem  to  him  had  come.  One  day,  when  Edwin  was  seated 
by  himself,  meditating  in  the  secret  of  his  own  heart  upon 
the  religion  which  he  ought  to  follow,  the  bishop  entered 
suddenly,  and  placed  liis  right  hand  on  his  head,  as  the  un- 
known had  done  in  the  vision,  asking  him  if  he  recognized 
that  sign.  The  king,  trembling,  would  have  thrown  himself 
at  the  feet  of  Paulinus ;  but  he  raised  him  up,  and  said  gently, 
"Thou  art  now  delivered,  by  God's  goodness,  from  the 
enemies  that  thou  fearedst.  He  has  given  thee  the  kingdom 
which  thou  desiredst.  Remember  to  accomplish  thy  third 
promise,  which  binds  thee  to  receive  the  faith  and  to  keep 
its  commandments.  It  is  thus  only  that,  after  being  enriched 
with  the  divine  favour  here,  tliou  wilt  be  aljle  to  enter  with 
God  into  the  fellowship  of  the  eternal  kingdom." 

"Yes,"  answered  Edwin,  at  length,  "  I  feel  it;  I  ought  to 
be,  and  I  will  be,  a  Christian."  But,  always  true  to  his  cha- 
racteristic moderation,  he  stipulated  only  for  himself.  He 
said  that  he  would  confer  with  his  great  nobles,  his  friends, 
and  his  councillors,  in  order  that,  if  they  decided  to  believe 
as  he  did,  they  should  all  together  be  consecrated  to  Christ  in 
the  fountain  of  life. 

Paulinus  having  expressed  his  approval  of  this  proposal, 
the  Northumbrian  parliament  was  assembled  near  to  a  sanc- 
tuary of  the  national  worship,  already  celebrated  in  the  time 
of  the  Romans  and  Britons,  at  Godmundham,  hard  by  the 
gates  of  York.     Each  member  of  this  great  national  council 


^ _ ^ 

Oct. lo]  S.  Paulimis.  239 

was,  in  his  turn,  asked  his  opinion  of  the  doctrine  and  wor- 
ship. The  first  wlio  answered  was  the  high  priest  of  the 
idols,  by  name  Co'ifi,  a  singular  and  somewhat  cynical  per- 
sonage. "  My  opinion,"  said  he,  "  is  most  certainly  that  the 
religion  which  we  have  hitherto  followed  is  worth  nothing ; 
and  this  is  my  reason:  Not  one  of  thy  subjects  has  served 
our  gods  with  more  zeal  than  I  have,  and  notwithstanding, 
there  are  many  of  thy  people  who  have  received  from  thee 
far  greater  gifts  and  dignities.  But  if  our  gods  were  not  good 
for  nothing,  they  would  have  done  something  for  me  who 
have  served  them  so  well.  If  then,  after  ripe  examination, 
thou  hast  found  this  new  religion  which  is  preached  to  us 
more  efficacious,  let  us  hasten  to  adopt  it." 

One  of  the  great  chiefs  held  different  language,  in  which 
is  revealed  to  us  that  religious  elevation  and  poetic  melan- 
choly wherewith  the  minds  of  these  Germanic  heathens  were 
often  imbued.  "  Thou  rememberest,  perhaps,"  said  he  to 
the  king,  "  what  sometimes  happens  in  the  winter  evenings, 
whilst  thou  art  at  supper  witli  thine  ealdormen  and  thanes  : 
while  the  good  fire  burns  within,  and  it  rains  and  snows,  and 
the  wind  howls  without,  a  sjDarrow  enters  at  the  one  door 
and  flies  out  quickly  at  the  other.  During  that  rapid  passage 
it  is  sheltered  from  the  rain  and  cold ;  but  after  that  brief  and 
pleasant  moment  it  disappears,  and  from  winter  returns  to 
winter  again.  Such  seems  to  me  to  be  the  life  of  man,  and 
his  career  but  a  brief  moment  between  that  which  goes  before 
and  that  which  follows  after,  and  of  which  we  know  nothing. 
If  then  the  new  doctrine  can  teach  us  something  certain,  it 
deserves  to  be  followed." 

After  much  discourse  of  the  same  tendency,  for  the  as- 
sembly seems  to  have  been  unanimous,  the  high  priest  Coifi 
spoke  again  with  a  loftier  inspiration  than  that  of  his  first 
words.  He  expressed  the  desire  to  hear  Paulinus  speak  of 
the  God  whose  envoy  he  professed  to  be.    The  bishop,  with 

4, _ -»j< 


240  Lives  of  the  Saints.  foct.  10. 

permission  of  the  king,  addressed  the  assembly.  When  he 
had  finished,  the  high  priest  cried,  "  For  a  long  time  I  have 
understood  the  nothingness  of  all  that  we  worshipped,  for 
the  more  I  endeavoured  to  search  for  truth  in  it  the  less  I 
found  it ;  but  now  I  declare,  without  reserve,  that  in  this 
preaching  I  see  the  shining  of  the  truth  which  gives  light 
and  salvation  and  eternal  blessedness.  I  vote  then  that  we 
give  up  at  once  to  fire  and  to  the  curse  the  altars  which  we 
have  so  uselessly  consecrated."  The  king  immediately  made 
a  public  declaration  that  he  adhered  to  the  gospel  preached  by 
Paulinus — that  he  renounced  idolatry  and  adopted  the  faith 
of  Christ.  "But  who,"  asked  the  king,  "will  be  the  first  to  over- 
throw the  altars  of  the  ancient  gods,  and  to  profane  their 
sacred  precincts?"  "I,"  repHed  the  high  priest;  whereupon 
he  prayed  the  king  to  give  him  arms  and  a  stallion,  that  he 
might  the  more  thoroughly  violate  the  rule  of  his  order, 
Avhich  forbade  him  to  carry  arms  and  to  mount  aught  but  a 
mare.  Mounted  on  the  king's  steed,  girt  with  a  sword,  and 
lance  in  hand,  he  galloped  towards  the  idols,  and  in  the 
sight  of  all  the  people,  who  believed  him  to  be  beside  him- 
self, he  dashed  his  lance  into  the  interior  of  their  temple. 
The  profaning  steel  buried  itself  in  the  wall ;  to  the  surprise 
of  the  spectators,  the  gods  were  silent  and  the  sacrilege  re- 
mained unpunished.  Then  the  people,  at  the  command  of 
the  high  priest,  proceeded  to  overthrow  and  burn  the  temple. 
These  things  occurred  in  the  eleventh  year  of  Edwin's 
reign.  The  whole  Northumbrian  nobility  and  a  large  part 
of  the  people  followed  the  example  of  the  king,  who  was 
baptized  with  much  solemnity  on  Easter-day  (627)  by 
PauHnus  at  York,  in  a  wooden  church,  built  in  haste  while 
the  catechumens  were  prepared  for  baptism.  Immediately 
afterwards  he  built  around  this  improvised  sanctuary  a  large 
church  in  stone,  which  he  had  not  time  to  finish,  but  which 
has  since  become  the  splendid  minster  of  York,  and  the 


>J< ■ ^ 

Oct.  lo.]  S.  PmUimts.  241 

metropolitan  church  of  the  north  of  England.  The  town  of 
York  had  been  already  celebrated  in  the  time  of  the  Ro- 
mans. The  Emperors  Severus  and  Constantius  Chlorus 
had  died  there.  The  Northumbrians  had  made  it  their 
capital,  and  Edwin  there  placed  the  seat  of  the  episcopate, 
filled  by  his  teacher  PauUnus. 

The  king  and  the  bishop  laboured  together  for  six  years 
for  the  conversion  of  the  Northumbrian  people,  and  even  of 
the  English  population  of  the  neighbouring  regions.  The 
chiefs  of  the  nobility  and  the  principal  servants  of  the  king 
were  the  first  to  receive  baptism,  together  with  the  sons  of 
Edwin's  first  marriage.  The  example  of  a  king  was,  however, 
far  from  being  enough,  among  the  Anglo-Saxons,  to  deter- 
mine the  conversion  of  a  whole  people;  and  the  first  Christian 
king  and  the  first  bishop  of  Northumbria  did  not  think  of 
employing  undue  constraint.  Doubtless  it  required  more 
than  one  effort  on  their  part  to  overcome  the  roughness,  the 
ignorance,  the  indifference  of  the  heathen  Saxons.  But  they 
had,  at  the  same  time,  much  encouragement,  for  the  fervour 
of  the  people  and  their  anxiety  for  baptism  were  often 
wonderful.  Paulinus  having  gone  with  the  king  and  queen, 
who  several  times  accompanied  him  on  his  missions,  to  a 
royal  villa  far  to  the  north,  they  remained  there,  all  three,  for 
thirty-six  days  together,  and  during  the  whole  of  that  time 
the  bishop  did  nothing  else  from  morning  till  night  than 
catechize  the  crowds  that  gathered  from  all  the  villages 
around,  and  afterwards  baptize  them  in  the  river  which 
flowed  close  by.  At  the  opposite  extremity  of  the  country, 
to  the  south,  the  name  of  Jordan  is  still  given  to  a 
portion  of  the  course  of  the  river  Derwent,  near  the  old 
Roman  ford  of  Malton,  in  memory  of  the  numerous 
subjects  of  Edwin  that  were  there  baptized  by  the 
Roman  missionary.  Everywhere  he  baptized  in  the  rivers 
or  streams,  for  there  was  no  time  to  build  churches.     How- 

VOL.  XI.  16 

* i 

242  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  10. 

ever,  he  built  near  Edwin's  principal  palace  a  stone  church, 
whose  calcined  ruins  were  still  visible  after  the  Reformation, 
as  well  as  a  large  cross  with  this  inscription  :  Paidinus  hie 
prcedicavit  et  celebravit. 

Passing  the  frontiers  of  the  Northumbrian  kingdom, 
Paulinus  continued  his  evangelistic  course  among  the 
Angles  settled  to  the  south  of  the  Humber,  in  the  maritime 
province  of  Lindsey.  There  also  he  baptized  many  people 
in  the  Trent ;  and  long  afterwards  old  men,  who  had  in 
their  childhood  received  baptism  at  his  hands,  recalled  with 
reverent  tenderness  the  venerable  and  awe-inspiring  stranger, 
whose  lofty  and  stooping  form,  black  hair,  aquiline  nose,  and 
emaciated,  but  imposing  features,  impressed  themselves  on 
every  beholder,  and  proclaimed  his  southern  origin.  The 
beautiful  monastic  church'  of  Southwell  consecrates  the 
memory  of  the  scene  of  one  of  those  multitudinous  baptisms, 
and  it  is  to  the  mission  of  Bishop  Paulinus  on  this  side  the 
Humber  that  we  trace  the  foundation  of  the  magnificent 
cathedral  of  Lincoln. 

It  was  in  the  stone  church  built  by  Paulinus  at  Lincoln, 
after  the  conversion  of  the  chief  Saxon  of  that  town,  with  all 
his  house,  that  the  metropolitan  bishop  of  York  had  to  pro- 
ceed to  the  consecration  of  the  fourth  successor  of  Augustine 
in  the  metropolitan  see  of  Canterbury.  Honorius  was,  like 
Paulinus,  a  monk  of  Mount  Coelius  at  Rome,  and  one  of  the 
first  companions  of  S.  Augustine  in  his  mission  to  England. 
He  was  a  disciple  of  S.  Gregory,  and  had  learned  from  the 
great  pontiff  the  art  of  music,  and  it  was  he  who  led  the 
choir  of  monks  on  the  occasion  of  the  first  entrance  of  the 
missionaries,  thirty  years  before,  at  Canterbury.  The  Pope 
then  reigning  was  also  named  Honorius,  first  of  that  name. 
He  sent  the  pallinm  to  each  of  the  two  metropolitans,  and 
ordained  that  when  God  should  take  to  Himself  one  of  the 
two  the  other  should  appoint  a  successor,  in  order  to  avoid 

^ ^ 

— * 

Oct.  lo.]  •S.  Paulinus.  243 

the  delay  of  a  reference  to  Rome,  so  difficult  by  reason  of 
the  great  distance  to  be  travelled  by  sea  and  land. 

The  Pope  also  \vrote  to  King  Edwin  to  congratulate  him 
on  his  conversion  and  on  the  ardour  and  sincerity  of  his 
faith,  and  to  exhort  him  to  read  much  in  the  works  of 
S.  Gregory,  whom  he  calls  the  Preacher  of  the  English,  and 
whom  he  recommends  the  king  to  take  for  his  perpetual  in- 
tercessor with  Gcd.  But  when  this  letter  reached  England 
Edwin  was  no  more. 

The  six  years  which  passed  between  his  conversion  and 
his  death  may  certainly  be  reckoned  among  the  most  glori- 
ous and  happy  that  it  was  ever  given  to  any  Anglo-Saxon 
prince  to  know.  He  speedily  raised  Northumbria  to  the 
head  of  the  Heptarchy.  On  the  south  his  ardent  zeal  for 
the  faith  which  he  had  embraced  after  such  ripe  reflection 
extended  its  influence  even  to  the  populations  which,  with- 
out being  subjected  to  his  direct  authority,  yet  belonged  to 
the  same  race  as  his  subjects.  The  East  Angles,  as  we  have 
seen,  had  offered  him  their  crown,  and  he  had  refused  it.  But 
he  used  his  influence  over  their  young  king,  who  owed  to  him 
his  elevation  to  the  throne,  to  induce  him  to  embrace  the 
Christian  religion,  with  all  his  subjects.  Edwin  thus  paid  the 
ransom  of  the  generous  pity  that  the  royalty  of  East  Anglia 
had  lavished  on  his  youth  and  his  exile. 

On  the  north  he  extended  and  consolidated  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  dominion  as  far  as  the  isthmus  which  separated 
Caledonia  from  Britain;  and  he  has  left  an  ineffaceable 
record  of  his  reign  in  the  name  of  the  fortress  built  upon  the 
rock  which  commanded  the  entrance  of  the  Forth,  and  which 
still  lifts  its  sombre  and  Alpine  front — true  Acropolis  of  the 
barbarous  north — from  the  midst  of  the  great  and  picturesque 
city  of  P!^dinburgh  {^Edwiij's  bin-gJi). 

On  the  west  he  continued,  with  less  ferocity  than  Ethelfrid, 
but  with  no  less  valour  and  success,  the  contest  with  the 

* — — ^ 

^ _ ^ 

244  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Od.  10. 

Britons  of  Wales.  He  pursued  them  even  into  the  islands 
of  the  channel  which  separates  Great  Britain  from  Ireland ; 
and  took  possession  of  the  Isle  of  Man,  and  another  isle, 
which  had  been  the  last  refuge  of  the  Druids  from  the  Roman 
dominion,  and  which,  after  its  conquest  by  Edwin,  took  the 
name  of  the  victorious  race,  Anglesey. 

Within  his  own  kingdom  he  secured  a  peace  and  security 
so  unknown  both  before  and  after  his  reign  that  it  passed  into 
a  proverb.  It  was  said  that  in  the  time  of  Edwin  a  woman 
with  her  new-born  child  might  traverse  England  from  the 
Irisli  Channel  to  the  North  Sea  without  meeting  any  one  who 
would  do  her  the  least  wrong.  It  is  pleasant  to  trace  his 
kindly  and  minute  care  of  the  well-being  of  his  subjects  in 
such  a  particular  as  that  of  the  copper  cups  which  he  had 
suspended  beside  the  fountains  on  the  highways,  that  the 
passers-by  might  drink  at  their  ease,  and  which  no  one 
attempted  to  steal,  whether  from  fear  or  from  love  of  the 
king.  Neither  did  any  one  ever  reproach  him  for  the  un- 
wonted pomp  which  distinguished  his  train,  not  only  when 
he  Avent  out  to  war,  but  when  he  rode  peacefully  through 
his  towns  and  provinces,  on  which  occasions  the  lance, 
surmounted  with  a  large  tuft  of  feathers,  which  the  Saxons 
had  borrowed  from  the  Roman  legions,  and  which  they  had 
made  the  sacred  standard  of  the  Bretwalda,  and  the  ensign 
of  the  supreme  sovereignty  in  their  confederation,  was  always 
carried  before  him  in  the  midst  of  his  military  banners. 

But  all  this  grandeur  and  prosperity  were  about  to  be  en- 
gulfed in  a  sudden  and  great  calamity. 

There  were  other  Angles  than  those  who,  in  Northumbria 
and  East  Anglia,  were  already  subdued  and  humanized  by 
the  influence  of  Christianity :  there  remained  the  Angles  of 
Mercia,  the  great  central  region  stretching  from  the  Humber 
to  the  Thames.  The  kingdom  of  Mercia  was  the  last  state 
organized  out  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  conquest.     It  had  been 

^ _ • ^ 

Oct.  lo.]  '^-  Pciulinus.  245 

founded  by  that  portion  of  the  invaders  who,  finding  all  the 
eastern  and  southern  shores  of  the  island  already  occupied, 
were  compelled  to  advance  into  the  interior.  It  became  the 
centre  of  the  Pagan  resistance  to,  and  occasional  assaults 
upon,  the  Christian  Propaganda,  which  was  henceforth  to 
have  its  head-quarters  in  Northumbria.  The  Pagans  oi 
Mercia  found  a  formidal)le  leader  in  the  person  of  Penda, 
who  was  himself  of  royal  extraction,  or,  as  was  then  believed, 
of  the  blood  of  Odin,  and  had  reigned  for  twenty-two  years, 
but  who  was  inflamed  by  all  the  passions  of  a  barbarian,  and, 
above  all,  devoured  with  jealousy  of  the  fortunes  of  Edwin 
and  of  the  power  of  the  Northumbrians.  Since  Edwin's 
conversion  these  wild  instincts  were  intensified  by  fanaticism. 
Penda  and  the  Mercians  remained  faithful  to  the  worship  oi 
Odin,  whose  descendants  all  the  Saxon  kings  believed  them- 
selves to  be. 

Edwin  and  the  Northumbrians  were,  therefore,  in  their  eyes, 
no  better  than  traitors  and  apostates.  But,  more  surprising 
still,  the  original  inhabitants  of  the  island — the  Christian 
Britons,  who  were  more  numerous  in  Mercia  than  in  any 
other  Anglo-Saxon  kingdom — shared  and  excited  the  hatred 
of  the  Pagan  Saxons  against  the  converts  of  the  same  race. 
The  Welsh  Britons,  who  maintained  their  independence,  but 
who  for  more  than  a  century  liad  been  constantly  menaced, 
defeated,  and  humiUated  by  Ida,  Ethelfrid,  and  Edwin,  pro- 
fessed and  nourished  their  antipathy  Avith  even  greater 
bitterness.  Their  chief,  Ceadwalla  or  Cadwallon,  the  last 
hero  of  the  Celtic  race  in  Britain,  at  first  overcome  by  Edwin, 
and  forced  to  seek  refuge  in  Ireland  and  in  Armorica,  had 
returned  thence  with  rage  redoubled,  and  with  auxiliaries 
from  the  other  Celtic  races,  to  recommence  the  struggle 
against  the  Northumbrians.  He  succeeded  in  forming  an 
alliance  with  Penda  against  the  common  enemy.  Under 
these  two   chiefs  an  immense  army,  in  which  the  British 

,j, >J< 

t^. — _ ^ 

246  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  10. 

Christians  of  Wales  jostled  the  Pagans  of  Mercia,  invaded 
Northumbria.  Edwin  awaited  them  at  Hatfield,  on  the 
southern  frontier  of  his  kingdom.  He  was  there  disastrously 
defeated,  and  perished  gloriously,  sword  in  hand,  scarce 
forty-eight  years  of  age,  dying  a  death  which  entitled  him  to 
be  ranked  amongst  the  martyrs.  His  eldest  son  fell  with 
him ;  the  younger,  taken  prisoner  by  Penda,  who  swore  to 
preserve  his  life,  was  infamously  murdered.  Northumbria 
was  ravaged  with  fire  and  sword,  and  its  recent  Christianity 
completely  obliterated. 

It  is  not  known  why  Northumbria,  after  the  death  oi 
Edwin  and  his  son,  was  not  subjugated,  and  shared  among 
the  conquerors;  but  it  remained  divided,  enslaved,  and 
was  plunged  once  more  into  Paganism.  Deira  fell  to  Osric. 
cousin-german  of  Edwin ;  Bernicia  to  Eanfrid,  one  of  the 
sons  of  Ethelfrid,  who  had  returned  from  his  exile  in  Scot- 
land. Both  had  received  baptism — the  one  with  his  cousin 
at  York,  the  other  at  the  hands  of  the  Celtic  monks  of  lona. 
But  a  Pagan  reaction  was  the  inevitable  consequence  of  the 
overthrow  of  the  first  Christian  king  of  Northumbria.  The 
two  princes  yielded  to  that  reaction,  and  renounced  their 
baptism,  but  without  gaining  anything  thereby.  The  King  of 
Deira  was  killed  in  battle  with  the  Britons  ;  and  the  King  of 
Bernicia  was  murdered  at  an  interview  which  he  had  sought 
with  the  savage  Cadwallon. 

Bishop  Pauhnus  did  not  consider  himself  called  upon  to 
remain  a  witness  of  such  horrors.  His  one  thought  was  to 
place  in  safety  the  widow  of  King  Edwin,  that  gentle  Ethel- 
burga  who  had  been  confided  to  him  by  her  brother  for  a 
different  destiny.  He  brought  her  back  by  sea  to  her 
brother's  kingdom,  with  the  daughter  and  the  two  youngest 
sons  whom  she  had  borne  to  Edwin.  Even  beside  her 
brother,  the  King  of  Kent,  she  was  afraid  to  keep  them  in 
England;  and,  wishing  to  devote  her  own  mdowhood  to 

►J<~ -* 

^___ __ ^ 

Oct.  lo.]  ^^  Tancha.  247 

God,  she  entrusted  them  to  the  King  of  the  Franks,  Dago- 
bert,  her  cousin,  at  whose  court  they  died  at  an  early  age. 
As  to  Paulinus,  who  had  left  in  charge  of  his  church  at  York 
only  a  brave  Italian  deacon,  he  found  the  episcopal  see  of 
Rochester  vacant,  in  consequence  of  the  death  of  the  Roman 
monk,  who  was  the  titular  bishop,  and  who,  sent  by  the 
primate  to  the  Pope,  had  just  been  drowned  in  the  Mediter- 
ranean. Paulinus  was  invested  with  this  bishopric  by  the 
king  and  by  the  Archbishop  Honorius,  whom  he  had  himself 
consecrated  at  Lincoln.  And  there  he  died,  far  from  his 
native  land,  after  having  laboured  during  forty-three  years  for 
the  conversion  of  the  English. 

S.  TANCHA,  V.M. 

(date  unknown.) 

[Gallican  Martyrology.  Authority  :— The  Lections  of  the  Troyes 

Tancha  was  the  daughter  of  a  farmer  at  S.  Ouen,  near 
Arcis,  in  the  diocese  of  Troyes.  Her  godfather  was  a  kins- 
man living  at  Arcis.  When  Tancha  was  aged  sixteen,  her 
father  and  mother  were  invited  to  attend  the  dedication  feast 
at  Arcis  by  their  kinsman.  They  went  thither,  leaving  Tancha 
in  charge  of  the  house ;  but  her  godfather  was  disappointed 
at  the  girl  not  being  present  at  the  merrymaking  and  dancing, 
and  sent  a  servant  to  fetch  her,  with  her  parents'  consent. 
Neither  the  servant  nor  the  girl  were  ever  seen  alive  again. 
The  man  disappeared,  and  nothing  was  ever  known  of  what 
had  become  of  him;  but  the  body  of  the  girl,  murdered,  with 
face  bruised,  and  throat  cut,  was  found  some  days  after, 
hidden  in  a  thicket  of  thorns.  Popular  imagination  con- 
cluded that  she  had  died  rather  than  lose  her  honour,  when 

k -^ 

* * 

248  Lives  of  tJie  Saints.  [Oct.  10. 

assaulted  by  the  serving-man.  The  lections  of  the  Troyes 
Breviary  give  an  animated  and  interesting  conversation  which 
passed  between  the  murderer  and  his  victim ;  but  as  no  one 
was  present  to  overhear  it,  and  the  murderer  was  never  caught, 
it  is  purely  the  creation  of  the  author  of  the  life  inserted  in 
the  Breviary.  She  is  said  also  to  have  got  up  after  sl^e  was 
killed,  and  walked  some  way  with  her  head  in  her  hands. 
Various  other  traditional  embellishments  adorn  the  story. 
That  Tancha  was  murdered  by  the  man,  either  because  she 
resisted  him  or  to  prevent  her  from  accusing  him  for  having 
wronged  her,  is  probable  enough. 

The  head  of  the  saint  would  have  been  lost  in  1793,  had 
it  not  been  saved  by  Tanche  Labreuveux,  of  Lhuitre,  sister 
of  the  sacristan,  from  the  violence  of  the  revolutionary  mob. 
In  1840,  she  restored  it  to  the  ecclesiastical  authorities.  On 
Oct.  10,  1846,  a  commemorative  cross  was  erected  on  the 
scene  of  the  murder.     The  skull  is  in  the  church  at  Lhuitre. 


(yi.D.  1379.) 

[Wilson,  in  his  Anglican  Mavtyrology  of  i6oS.  Butler,  and  the  Acta 
Sanctorum.     Authority  : — A  life  by  Hugh  the  Canon.] 

This  saint  was  born  at  Thwang,  near  Bridlington,  and 
from  earliest  childhood  lived  to  God.  At  the  age  of  twelve 
he  took  a  vow  of  chastity,  and  on  reaching  an  age  of  discre- 
tion entered  the  house  of  Augustinian  canons  at  Bridhngton. 
His  life  is  absolutely  devoid  of  a  single  incident  of  interest. 
The  only  legend  of  any  beauty  in  it  is  an  importation.  It  is 
the  old  story  of  carr)dng  loaves  to  the  poor,  and  on  being 
detected  the  loaves  are  found  to  be  transformed.  In  most 
cases  they  become  roses ;  in  the  story  of  S.  Nothburga  they 

^ . Vji 


Oct.  lo.]  '^-  -Francis  Borgia.  249 

are  turned  into  chips  of  wood,  in  the  lap  of  John  of  Brid- 
lington they  became  stones.  S.  John  studied  at  Oxford,  and 
passed  through  the  successive  offices  of  cellarer,  precentor, 
and  prior  of  his  monastery,  and  closed  a  life  without  interest 
in  1379. 


(a.d.  1572.) 

[Roman  Martyrology.  Beatified  by  Urban  VIII.  in  1624,  and 
canonized  in  1716  by  Clement  IX.,  and  his  festival  fixed  for  Oct.  ic 
by  Innocent  XI.  in  1683.  Authority  : — His  life,  written  by  Ribaden- 
eira,  who  was  his  confessor  during  nine  years.  Another  life  by  Vasquez, 
also  at  one  time  the  saint's  confessor,  used  by  Verjus  in  his  "Vie  dc 
S.  Francois  Borgia."] 

Alexander  VI,,  the  pope  of  infamous  memory,  was  mar- 
ried before  he  became  pope.  He  was  a  Borgia,  and  his  wife 
was  Julia  Famese.  Among  other  children  he  had  John 
Borgia,  duke  of  Gandia.  John  Borgia  married  Joanna  of 
Aragon,  daughter  of  Alphonso,  natural  son  of  Ferdinand  V. 
of  Aragon.  John  Borgia,  third  duke  of  Gandia,  was  the 
father  of  S.  Francis,  the  subject  of  this  notice.  The  saint 
was  bom  in  15 10,  at  Gandia,  the  seat  of  the  family,  in 
Valencia.  He  was  brought  up  in  all  the  gravity  and  state 
of  a  Spanish  noble's  house. 

In  1520  the  young  Francis  ran  a  risk  of  losing  his  life. 
A  seditious  monk,  having  by  his  sermons  excited  the  citizens 
of  Valencia  to  take  up  arms  and  punish  certain  criminals  in 
a  tumultuary  manner,  the  people,  pleased  with  this  exercise 
of  power,  and  with  the  discovery  of  their  own  importance, 
not  only  refused  to  lay  down  their  arms,  but  formed  them- 
selves into  troops  and  companies,  that  they  might  be  re- 
gularly trained  to  martial  exercises.  To  obtain  security 
against  the  oppression  of  the  grandees  was  the  motive  of 



250  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  10. 

this  association,  and  proved  a  powerful  bond  of  union ;  for 
as  the  aristocratic  privileges  and  independence  were  more 
complete  in  Valencia  than  in  any  other  of  the  Spanish 
kingdoms,  the  nobles,  being  scarcely  accountable  for  their 
conduct  to  any  superior,  treated  the  people,  not  merely  as 
vassals,  but  as  slaves.  They  were  alarmed,  however,  at  the 
progress  of  this  unexpected  insurrection,  but  as  they  could 
not  repress  it  without  having  recourse  to  arms,  it  became 
necessary  to  appeal  to  the  emperor,  and  ask  his  permission 
to  attack  the  insurgents.  At  the  same  time  the  people  made 
choice  of  deputies  to  represent  their  grievances,  and  to  im- 
plore the  protection  of  their  sovereign.  Happily  for  the 
latter,  they  arrived  at  court  when  Charles  V.  was  exaspe- 
rated to  a  high  degree  against  the  nobihty.  Piqued  at  their 
resistance  to  his  will  in  a  matter  on  which  he  had  set  his 
heart,  and  moved  by  the  justice  of  the  complaints  of  the 
delegates  of  the  people,  he  decided  in  favour  of  the  latter, 
and  rashly  authorized  them  to  continue  in  arms.  The  de- 
puties returned  in  triumph,  and  were  received  by  their  fellow- 
citizens  as  the  deliverers  of  their  country.  The  insolence  of 
the  multitude  increased  with  their  success  :  they  rose  against 
the  nobles,  drove  them  from  the  city,  and  entrusted  the 
government  of  it  to  magistrates  of  their  own  election.  This 
was  speedily  followed  by  the  sacking  of  the  castles  and 
palaces  of  the  grandees  throughout  Valencia,  and  in  their 
rage  against  those  who  had  oppressed  them,  they  perpetrated 
great  cruelties.  The  amied  mob  surrounded  the  mansion  of 
the  Duke  of  Gandia,  and  tore  it  down  ;  with  the  greatest 
difficulty,  and  in  disguise,  the  duke  escaped  with  his  mother 
and  daughters.  The  young  Francis  was  mounted  on  a  horse, 
and  galloped  without  drawing  rein  to  Diani,  where  his  father 
carried  him  by  boat,  for  greater  security,  to  a  strong  tower 
built  on  a  rock  ;  afterwards,  the  country  being  still  disturbed, 
the  duke  sent  him  to  Saragossa,  to  his  uncle,  the  Archbishop 


^ ►J* 

Oct.  lo]  S.  Francis  Borgia.  251 

Don  John  of  Aragon.  The  archbishop  gave  him  a  house  and 
retinue  suitable  to  his  rank,  and  provided  him  with  masters 
in  grammar,  music,  and  fencing. 

From  Saragossa,  Francis  was  sent  to  Baeza  in  Ciranada, 
to  his  great  grandmother,  Donna  Maria  de  Luna,  wife  of 
Don  Henriquez,  uncle  and  master  of  the  household  to  Ferdi- 
nand, Regent  of  Castile,  and  Grand  Commander  of  Leon. 
Thence  he  was  sent  to  Tordesillas,  to  be  taken  into  the 
service  of  the  Infanta  Catharine,  sister  of  Charles  V.,  who 
was  shortly  to  be  married  to  John  IIL,  King  of  Portugal. 
The  marriage  took  place  in  1525,  but  Francis  did  not 
accompany  her  to  Portugal,  as  his  father  had  greater  views 
for  his  son  in  Spain.  He  therefore  recalled  him,  and 
sent  him  back  to  the  Archbishop  of  Saragossa,  to  have  his 
education  completed.  Francis  was  then  aged  fifteen,  and 
after  he  had  finished  rhetoric  he  studied  philosophy  for  two 

In  1528  he  was  removed  to  the  court  of  Charles  V.,  where 
he  made  himself  a  general  favourite  by  his  courtesy  of  manner 
and  cordiality  of  disposition.  At  the  age  of  nineteen  he  was 
married  to  Eleanor  de  Castro,  a  Portuguese  lady  of  high  rank 
and  considerable  personal  attractions.  On  the  occasion  of 
his  marriage,  the  emperor  created  him  Marquis  of  Lombay. 
By  her  Francis  became  the  father  of  eight  children  ;  the  eldest, 
Charles  Borgia,  inherited  his  father's  title.  In  1536  Francis 
Borgia  followed  Charles  V.  in  his  ill-advised  and  vainglorious 
expedition  into  Provence. 

S.  Francis  saw  the  emperor,  his  master,  harassed  by  Mont- 
morency, his  troops  weakened  by  disease,  and  dispirited  by 
disaster,  the  more  intolerable  because  wholly  unexpected. 
The  emperor,  after  spending  two  inglorious  months  in  Pro- 
vence, without  having  performed  anything  suitable  to  his  vast 
preparations,  after  having  lost  half  his  troops  by  disease  or 
famine,  was  forced  to  retire.     The  retreat  became  a  rout. 

* ^ 

252  Lives  of  the  Saints,  [Oct.  10. 

He  was  pursued  by  tlie  French  troops,  assisted  by  crowds  of 
peasants  eager  to  be  avenged  on  those  who  had  brought  de- 
solation on  their  country,  and  Charles  could  only  bring  a 
shattered  remnant  of  his  magnificent  army  back  within  the 
frontiers  of  Milan.  Unable  to  bear  exposure  to  the  scorn  of 
the  Itahans  after  such  a  sad  reverse  of  fortune,  he  embarked 
with  Francis  and  other  of  his  immediate  attendants  for 

The  saint  accompanied  Charles  V.  on  another  equally  dis- 
astrous expedition,  that  against  Algiers,  and  saw  the  destruc- 
tion of  another  great  army  under  circumstances  scarcely  less 
ignominious.  These  two  expeditions,  with  their  fatal  termi- 
nations, may  have  led,  and  probably  did  powerfully  lead,  to 
the  final  change  in  the  life  of  Francis  Borgia. 

In  1539  a  somewhat  dramatic  event  occurred,  which 
marked  tlie  conversion  of  the  saint.  He  had  been  much  in 
the  company  of  the  Empress  Isabella,  and  had  contracted 
for  her  a  warm  devotion.  Charles  V.  was  at  Toledo,  striving 
to  wring  a  grant  of  money  out  of  the  reluctant  Cortes  of 
Castile,  when  Isabella  died.  The  Marquis  and  Marchioness 
of  Loml:)ay  were  commissioned  by  the  emperor  to  attend  her 
corpse  to  Elvira,  where  she  was  to  be  buried.  When  the 
funeral  convoy  arrived  at  Elvira,  and  the  marquis  delivered 
the  corpse  into  the  hands  of  the  magistrates,  it  was  required 
that  he  should  take  oath  that  the  body  he  delivered  over  was 
that  of  Isabella  of  Portugal.  The  leaden  coffin  lid  was  re- 
moved, that  he  might  look  on  the  face  of  the  dead,  and  so 
take  the  required  oath.  But  decomposition  liad  made  such 
fearful  ravages,  that  every  trace  of  the  wonderful  beauty  of 
the  late  queen  was  gone,  and  all  that  remained  of  her  was  a 
festering  mass  of  corruption.  Francis  took  the  required  oath, 
not  because  he  could  recognise  the  body,  but  because  of  the 
care  he  had  taken  with  it,  which  made  it  certain  that  nobody 
could  have  changed  it  on  the  road. 


Oct.  lo.]  S.  Francis  Borgia.  253 

The  impression  made  on  his  soul  by  this  spectacle  he  was 
never  able  to  shake  off.  It  finally  determined  him  to  quit 
the  world  so  soon  as  God  should  remove  the  hindrances 
which  now  prevented  him  from  taking  such  a  step. 

On  the  return  of  Francis  to  Toledo  the  emperor  made 
him  viceroy  of  Catalonia,  and  created  him  knight  and  com- 
mander of  the  order  of  S.  lago.  Francis  entered  on  the 
discharge  of  his  new  duties  with  singular  zeal.  He  made  a 
clean  sweep  of  the  brigands  who  infested  the  province, 
made  travelling  dangerous,  and  obstructed  commerce.  The 
judges  were  venal.  He  kept  a  sharp  watch  upon  them,  and 
insisted  on  their  discharging  their  duties  with  expedition  and 
impartiality.  He  set  up  schools  and  hospitals,  and  was  a 
model  of  piety  to  the  whole  province.  He  had  formerly 
been  accustomed  to  communicate  monthly,  he  now  commu- 
nicated weekly. 

Whilst  Francis  Borgia  was  governor  of  Catalonia,  F. 
Aretino  Aroaz,  a  member  of  the  Jesuit  Order,  only  recently 
founded,  came  to  preach  in  Barcelona.  By  this  means 
Francis  became  acquainted  with  the  new  institute,  and  was 
much  struck  with  its  character,  and  with  what  he  heard  ol 
the  life  of  its  founder.  He  even  wrote  to  S.  Ignatius  and 
received  from  him  letters  in  reply. 

Whilst  Francis  was  viceroy  of  Catalonia,  his  father  died, 
and  he  inherited  the  family  estates  and  titles.  Shortly  after, 
he  obtained  leave  to  resign  his  charge,  and  he  then  repaired 
to  court,  and  was  appointed  master  of  the  household  of  the 
Infanta  Maria  of  Portugal,  then  on  the  point  of  being 
married  to  Philip,  the  son  of  the  emperor.  The  death  of 
the  princess  before  the  projected  marriage  took  place,  set 
the  saint  at  liberty  to  follow  his  own  inclination,  and  he 
retired  to  Gandia,  in  1543,  and  built  in  it  a  Jesuit  college 
and  a  Dominican  convent. 

His  wife  shortly  after  fell  ill ;  Francis  began  to  pray  for 


254  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  10. 

her  recovery,  but  his  internal  consciousness  assuring  him 
that  he  could  not  carry  out  his  plan  of  renouncing  the  world, 
if  she  were  to  recover,  he  discontinued  his  supplications  for 
her  restoration,  and  she  died  March  27th,  1546. 

A  few  days  later,  F.  Pierre  Lefevre  arrived  at  Gandia,  to 
lay  the  first  stone  of  a  college  of  Jesuits  which  the  duke 
designed  to  erect  in  princely  style.  Francis  went  through 
the  spiritual  exercises  of  S.  Ignatius  with  him  with  such 
benefit  that  he  wrote  to  the  Pope  to  request  him  to  pro- 
nounce his  apostolic  approval  of  them.  Another  fruit  of 
the  course  was  that  Francis  Borgia  definitely  resolved  to  join 
the  Society  of  Jesus.  He  wrote  to  S.  Ignatius  on  this  sub- 
ject, but  the  great  founder  in  his  reply  advised  the  duke  to 
defer  the  execution  of  his  design  till  his  children  were  placed 
in  such  a  position  in  life  as  no  longer  to  need  his  parental 
care.  This  advice  was  so  reasonable  that  Francis  was 
obliged  to  submit.  Ignatius  gave  him  four  years  for  attend- 
ing to  his  children,  but  Francis  Avas  only  required  to  wait 
during  three,  as  his  family  was  settled  by  marriage  or  other- 
wise within  that  time. 

In  the  year  of  the  jubilee  of  1550,  Francis  Borgia  started 
for  Rome,  accompanied  by  his  second  son,  John,  and  thirty 
servants.  He  was  received  with  great  honour;  several 
ambassadors  and  cardinals  came  to  meet  him  as  he 
entered  the  Eternal  City,  with  their  gorgeous  carriages  and 
liveries.  The  Pope  offered  him  rooms  in  his  palace,  but 
Francis  Borgia  decHned  them  that  he  might  visit  the  Jesuit 
College,  and  cast  himself  at  the  feet  of  S.  Ignatius.  It  was 
supposed  that  Francis  Borgia  would  be  created  cardinal,  on 
this  occasion,  as  he  had  two  brothers  cardinals  ;  but  he  left 
Rome  almost  immediately,  and  returned  to  Spain.  He  did 
not,  however,  go  back  to  Gandia,  but  retired  to  Ognate  in 
Guipuscoa,  whence  he  wrote  to  the  emperor,  requesting 
leave  to  resign  his  duchy  in  favour  of  his  eldest  son ;  he 

* ^ 

-*]  S.  Francis  Borgia.  255 

received  the  consent  of  Charles  V.,  and  the  act  of  resigna- 
tion was  made  by  him  at  Ognate  before  a  notary.  He  then 
had  his  hair  cut,  put  off  his  ducal  robes,  and  put  on  the 
Jesuit's  habit.  This  took  place  in  155 1.  After  a  devout  prepa- 
ration he  was  ordained  priest,  in  the  same  year,  and  said  his 
first  mass  privately  in  the  castle  of  Loyola.  On  the  morrow, 
to  satisfy  the  devotion  of  the  people,  he  said  another 
solemnly  in  the  town  of  Vergara.  The  crowd  was  so  great 
that  there  was  not  room  to  contain  it  in  the  church,  and  an 
altar  had  to  be  erected  in  a  field ;  such  numbers  came  to 
communicate  at  his  hand  that  he  was  not  able  to  put  off  his 
vestments  till  three  o'clock  in  the  afternoon. 

The  inhabitants  of  Ognate  gave  him  a  hermitage  in  the 
neighbourhood,  and  there  he  constructed  wooden  cells  foi 
himself  and  his  companions. 

Multitudes  came  to  see  the  Duke  of  Gandia  transformed 
into  a  hermit,  and  his  solitude  was  broken  in  upon  by  the 
unfailing  streams  of  visitors.  S.  Ignatius  hearing  of  this, 
ordered  him  to  preach  in  Portugal.  He  therefore  departed 
on  this  mission,  which  was  attended  witli  considerable 

From  Portugal  he  returned  to  Spain,  and  his  exertions  at 
Valladolid  and  elsewhere  gained  many  disciples  to  the  new 
Order.  S.  Ignatius  accordingly  made  him  Vicar  General  for 

S.  Ignatius  died  in  1556,  and  F.  Laynez  was  elected 
second  General  of  the  society,  and  nine  years  after,  on  the 
death  of  Laynez,  S.  Francis  was  chosen  his  successor,  and 
removed  to  Rome  as  the  head-quarters  of  the  society.  In 
1570,  the  year  before  the  battle  of  Lepanto,  he  was  sent  by 
Pope  Pius  v.,  with  his  nephew  Cardinal  Alexandrini,  on  an 
embassy  into  France,  Spain,  and  Portugal,  to  engage  the 
Christian  princes  to  send  succours  for  the  defence  of 
Christendom  against  the  Mahomedans.     S.  Francis  was  at 





Lives  of  the  Saints. 

[Oct.  10. 

that  time  very  infirm,  the  journey  and  anxieties  were  too 
much  for  him,  and  he  fell  so  ill  at  Ferrara,  after  having 
accomplished  the  legation,  that  his  cousin,  the  Duke  of 
Ferrara,  sent  him  back  to  Rome  in  a  litter.  He  died  on 
October  ist,  1572,  at  the  age  of  sixty-two. 


— * 

Oct.  II.  SS.  Zenais  and  PJdlonilla.  257 

October  11. 

SS.  Zenais  and  Philonilla,  at  Tarsus  in  Cilicia;  ist  cent. 

SS.  NiCASius,  Quirinus,  and  Scubiculus,  mm.  at  Ecos;  a.d.  286. 

SS.  Tarachus,  Probus,  .^nd  Andronicus,  MM.  at  Anazarbus  ui 

Cilicia;  a.d.  304. 
S.  Nect.^rius,  Pair,  of  Constant  inofile  ;  a.d.  391. 
S.  Germanus,  B.  of  Besatigon ;  circ.  a.d.  407. 
S.  SisiNNius,  Pair,  of  Constantinople ;  a.d.  427. 
S.  Firminus,  B.  of  Uzes  in  France;  a.d.  453. 
S.  Kenny,  Ab.  of  Kilkenny ;  a.d.  599. 
S.  Ethelburga,  V.  Aiss.  of  Barking  in  Essex;  qth  cent. 
S.  Paldo,  Ab.  ofS.  Vi?icent  at  Bencvento ;  a.d.  720. 
S.  Julia,  K.  Abss.  ofPavilly  ijt  Nonnandy ;  ^thcent. 
S.  Win.\rd,  C.  at  Latigres ;  Zth  cent. 
S.  GuMMAR,  C.  at  Lyre  in  Brabant;  Zth  cent. 
S.  Bruno,  Abp.  of  Cologtte ;  a.d.  965. 



[Greek  Menology  and  Mensea,  Modem  Roman  Martyrology,  inserted 
by  Baronius.  Authority : — The  late  Greek  Acts  and  the  notices  in  the 
Menology,  &c.] 

ENAIS  and  Philonilla  are  said  to  have  been 
natives  of  Tarsus  in  Cilicia,  and  kinswomen  of 
S.  Paul  the  Apostle.  They  abandoned  their 
native  town  and  devoted  themselves  to  medical 
science,  making  their  skill  in  curing  the  maladies  of  the  body 
a  vehicle  for  instructing  the  souls  of  their  patients.  They 
inhabited  a  cave  in  a  forest  dedicated  to  Demeter,  near 
Tarsus,  along  with  three  pious  men  named  Pappas,  Pateras, 
and  Philoc)rris.  When,  however,  persecution  was  feared, 
the  two  women  sent  their  three  male  companions  back  to 
Tarsus,  as  they  were  less  likely  to  attract  attention  in  the 
midst  of  a  throng  than  in  sohtude.  They  parted  with  pro- 
VOL.  XL  1 7 


258  Lives  of  tJie  Saints.  [Oct.  u. 

fusion  of  tears,  and  Zenais  was  so  heart-broken  that  she 
prayed  God  to  remove  her  from  this  wicked  world.  No 
sooner  had  she  risen  from  her  devotion  than  she  trod  on  a 
thorn,  and  as  she  was  sitting  down  to  pull  it  out  of  her  foot, 
she  died.  Philonilla,  her  sister,  remained  in  the  cave  till 
her  death.  What  became  of  the  three  men  is  not  stated. 
The  Greek  Menologies  do  not  designate  the  damsels  as 
Virgins,  and  therefore  Baronius  did  not  give  them  this  title 
in  tlie  Roman  Martyrology. 


(about  a.d.  2S6.) 

[Roman  and  Gallican  Martyrologies.  Authority  : — The  purely  fabu- 
lous Acts.] 

The  legend  of  S.  Nicasius — it  is  nothing  more — relates 
that  he  was  an  Athenian,  converted  by  S.  Paul,  and  that  he 
came  to  Gaul  with  S.  Dionysius  the  Areopagite.  This  is  all 
nonsense:  the  invention  of  those  who  wished  to  establish  an 
apostolic  origin  for  the  Church  of  Gaul.  According  to  the 
same  authority  he  received  his  mission  from  Pope  Clement  I. 
He  accompanied  S.  Denys  to  Paris,  and  there  left  him,  that 
he  might  push  further  north  along  the  banks  of  the  Seine. 
At  Vaux,  the  saint,  who  was  accompanied  by  Quirinus  and 
Scubiculus,  found  the  country  ravaged  by  a  dragon.  Quirinus 
put  the  stole  of  vS.  Nicasius  round  him,  and  rendered  him 
harmless.  At  Roche-Guyon  the  apostles  converted  the  lady 
Pientia,  who  inhabited  the  castle ;  and  having  opened  the 
eyes  of  a  blind  priest  of  idols,  called  Clairus,  baptized  him 

Nicasius  pushed  on  to  Rouen,  and  made  that  the  head- 


Oct.  II.]  SS.  Nicasius  and  Others.  259 

quarters  of  his  mission.  He  built  a  church  there,  and 
S.  Denys  came  from  Paris  to  consecrate  it. 

The  procurator  Fescennius  Sisinnius  had  Nicasius  and 
his  companions  arrested  and  executed  at  Ecos,  between  La 
Roche-Guyon  and  Les  Andelys,  near  the  river  Epte.  The 
bodies  lay  very  still  till  the  executioners  had  departed,  and 
night  had  fallen,  when  they  cautiously  got  up,  looked  about 
with  the  stumps  of  their  necks,  and  seeing  the  coast  clear, 
picked  up  their  heads,  and  stole  off  with  them  under  their 
arms  to  the  river  side.  They  waded  across  to  an  islet,  now 
called  Gasny,  where  they  thought  they  could  be  comfortable, 
and  then  put  down  their  heads,  and  lay  their  bodies  at  length 
upon  the  grass.  Lady  Pientia,  who  had  been  looking  on 
with  not  unreasonable  surprise,  followed,  buried  the  saints, 
and  built  a  chapel  over  them.  The  father  of  Pientia  by  this 
means  became  aware  that  his  daughter  was  a  Christian.  He 
therefore  cut  off  her  head,  and  with  it  also  that  of  the  old 
priest  Clairus.     They  were  buried  beside  S.  Nicasius. 

There  probably  never  was  a  S.  Nicasius,  bishop  of  Rouen ; 
but  the  reminiscence  of  early  veneration  for  Nicasius,  bishop 
of  Rheims,  and  martyr  under  the  Vandals  in  the  5th  century, 
became  transformed  in  course  of  time  into  the  belief  that 
Nicasius  had  suffered  in  the  diocese  of  Rouen,  and  was  the 
first  bishop  of  that  see.  Some  of  the  Hsts  of  the  bishops  of 
Rouen  even  include  this  Nicasius,  and  reckon  him  as  eleventh 

Relics  at  Meulan,  in  the  church  of  S.  Nicolas,  portions  at 
Evreux,  others  at  Ecos. 


* . Ij, 

260  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  n. 


(a.d.  304.) 

[Roman  and  all  the  classical  Latin  Martyrologies.  By  the  Greeks  on 
Oct.  12.  Authority: — The  very  precious  Acts  :  these  are  composed  of 
the  proconsular  acts,  written  by  the  public  notary,  a  copy  of  which 
was  obtained  from  the  Spiculator  Sebastus  by  those  who  completed  the 
account  for  the  sum  of  200  denarii.  The  rest  is  written  by  Marcius, 
Felix,  and  Vero,  three  eye-witnesses  of  the  passion  of  the  Saints.  The 
whole  account  was  sent  as  a  letter  to  the  Church  of  Iconium  by  that 
in  Anazarbus.] 

Tarachus  was  a  Roman  by  extraction,  though  bom  in 
Isauria;  he  had  served  in  the  army,  but  had  procured  his 
discharge,  for  fear  of  being  compelled  to  do  something  that 
was  contrary  to  the  duty  of  a  Christian  ;  he  was  at  that  time 
sixty-five  years  old.  Probus,  a  native  of  Pamphilia,  had  re- 
signed a  considerable  fortune,  that  he  might  be  more  at 
liberty  to  serve  Christ.  Andronicus  was  a  young  nobleman, 
of  one  of  the  principal  families  of  the  city  of  Ephesus.  They 
were  apprehended  at  Pompeiopolis  in  Cilicia,  and  presented 
to  Numerianus  Maximus,  governor  of  the  province,  upon  his 
arrival  in  that  city,  and  by  his  order  were  conducted  to  Tar- 
sus, the  metropolis,  to  wait  his  return.  Maximus  having 
arrived  there,  and  seated  himself  on  his  tribunal,  Demetrius, 
the  centurion,  brought  them  before  him,  saying,  they  were  the 
persons  who  had  been  presented  to  him  at  Pompeiopolis,  for 
professing  the  impious  religion  of  the  Christians,  and  dis- 
obeying the  command  of  the  emperors.  Maximus  addressed 
himself  first  to  Tarachus,  observing  that  he  began  with  him 
because  he  was  in  years,  and  then  asked  his  name. 

Tarachus  replied  :  "  I  am  a  Christian." 

Maximus.  "  Speak  not  of  thy  impiety,  but  tell  me  thy 


Oct.  H.]  •S''5'.  Tarachus  and  Others.  261 

Tarachus.  "  I  am  a  Christian." 

Maxinms.  "  Strike  him  upon  the  mouth,  and  bid  him  not 
answer  one  thing  for  another." 

Tarachus,  after  receiving  a  buffet  on  his  jaws,  said:  "  I 
tell  you  ray  true  name.  If  you  would  know  that  which  my 
parents  gave  me,  it  is  Tarachus;  when  I  bore  arms  I  went  by 
the  name  of  Victor." 

Maxinms.  "  What  is  thy  profession,  and  of  what  country 
art  thou  ?" 

Tarachus.  "  I  am  of  a  Roman  family,  and  was  born  at 
Claudiopolis,  in  Isauria.  I  am  by  profession  a  soldier,  but 
quitted  the  service  upon  the  account  of  my  religion." 

Maximus.  "  Thy  impiety  rendered  thee  unworthy  to  bear 
arms  ;  but  how  didst  thou  procure  thy  discharge  ?  " 

Tarachus.  "  I  asked  it  of  my  captain,  Publio,  and  he  gave 
it  me." 

Maximus.  "  In  consideration  of  thy  grey  hairs  I  will 
procure  thee  the  favour  and  friendship  of  the  emperors,  if 
thou  wilt  obey  their  orders.  Draw  near,  therefore,  and 
sacrifice  to  the  gods,  as  the  emperors  themselves  do  all  the 
world  over." 

Tarachus.  "  They  are  deceived  by  the  devil  in  so  doing." 

Maximus.  "  Break  his  jaws  for  saying  the  emperors  are 

Tarachus.  "  I  repeat  it,  as  men,  they  are  deluded." 

Maximus.  "  Sacrifice  to  our  gods,  and  renounce  thy 

Tarachus.  "  I  cannot  renounce  the  law  of  God." 

Maximus.  "  Is  there  any  law,  wretch,  but  that  which  we 

Tarachus.  "  There  is,  and  you  transgress  it  by  adoring 
stocks  and  stones,  the  works  of  men's  hands." 

Maximus.  "  Strike  him  on  the  face,  saying, '  Abandon  thy 
folly.' " 

.j, _ 


262  Lives  of  the  Saints. 


Tarachus.  "What  you  call  folly  is  the  salvation  of  my 
soul,  and  I  will  never  leave  it." 

Maximus.  "  But  I  will  make  thee  leave  it,  and  force  thee 
to  be  wise." 

TaracJms.  "  Do  with  my  body  what  you  please,  it  is  en- 
tirely in  your  power." 

Then  Maximus  said  :  "  Strip  him  and  beat  him  with  rods." 

Tarachus,  when  beaten,  said  :  "  You  have  now  made  me 
truly  ^vise.  I  am  strengthened  by  your  blows,  and  my  con- 
fidence in  God  and  in  Jesus  Christ  is  increased." 

Afaxiinus.  "  Wretch,  how  canst  thy  deny  a  plurality  of 
gods,  when,  according  to  thy  own  confession,  thou  servest 
two  gods?  Didst  thou  not  give  the  name  of  God  to  a  certain 
person  named  Christ  ?  " 

Tarachus.  "  Right ;  for  this  is  the  .Son  of  the  living  God  ; 
He  is  the  hope  of  the  Christians,  and  the  author  of  salvation 
to  such  as  suffer  for  His  sake." 

Maximus.  "  Forbear  this  idle  talk  ;  draw  near,  and  sacri- 

Tarachus.  "I  am  no  idle  talker;  I  am  sixty-five  years 
old  ;  thus  have  I  been  brought  up,  and  I  cannot  forsake  the 

Demetrius  the  centurion  said  :  "  Poor  man,  I  pity  thee  ; 
be  advised  by  me,  sacrifice,  and  save  thyself" 

Tarachus.  "Away,  thou  minister  of  Satan,  and  keep  thy 
advice  for  thy  own  use." 

Maximus.  "Let  him  be  loaded  with  large  chains,  and 
carried  back  to  prison.     Bring  forth  the  next  in  years." 

Demetrius  the  centurion  said  :  "  He  is  here,  my  lord." 

Maximus.  "  What  is  thy  name  ?  " 

Probus.  "  My  chief  and  most  honourable  name  is  Christian ; 
but  the  name  I  go  by  in  the  world  is  Probus." 

Maximus.  "  Of  what  country  art  thou,  and  of  what 
family  ?  " 

ij, _ ijj 

^_ _ ^ 

Oct.  I,.]  •5"'5'.  Ta7'achus  and  Others.  263 

Probus.  "'My  father  was  of  Thrace.  I  am  a  plebeian,  born 
at  Sida  in  Pamphilia,  and  profess  Christianity." 

Maximus.  "That  will  do  thee  no  service.  Be  advised  by 
me,  sacrifice  to  the  gods,  that  thou  mayest  be  honoured  by 
the  emperors,  and  enjoy  my  friendship." 

Probits.  "  I  want  nothing  of  that  kind.  Formerly  I  was 
possessed  of  a  considerable  estate ;  but  I  relinquished  it  to 
serve  tlie  living  God  through  Jesus  Christ." 

Maximus.  "  Take  off  his  garments,  gird  him,  lay  him  at 
his  full  length,  and  lash  him  with  ox-hide  thongs." 

Lemetrius  the  centurion  said  to  him,  whilst  they  were 
beatng  him  :  "  Spare  thyself,  my  friend ;  see  how  thy  blood 
runs  n  streams  on  the  ground." 

PrJjus.  "  Do  what  you  will  with  my  body;  your  torments 
are  sw^et  to  me." 

MaMiniis.  "  Is  this  obstinate  folly  incurable  ?  What  canst 
thou  hcpe  for  ?  " 

Prodis.  "  I  am  wiser  than  you  are,  because  I  do  not  wor- 
ship dev'ls." 

Afaxinus.  "  Turn  him,  and  strike  him  on  the  belly." 

Probiu  "  Lord,  assist  thy  servant." 

Maxinus.  "  Ask  him,  at  every  stripe,  where  is  his  suc- 
cour ?  " 

Probiis.  "He  succours  me,  and  will  succour  me;  for  I 
pay  so  litle  regard  to  your  torments  that  I  do  not  obey 

Maximis.  "  T^ook,  wretch,  upon  thy  mangled  body  :  the 
ground  is  covered  with  thy  blood." 

Probiis.  '■  The  more  my  body  suffers  for  Jesus  Christ,  the 
more  is  my  ioul  refreshed." 

Maxi?mis.  "Put  fetters  on  his  hands  and  feet,  with  his 
legs  distended  in  the  stocks  to  the  fourth  hole,  and  let  no- 
body approach  to  dress  his  wounds.  Bring  the  third  to  the 


264  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  n. 

Demetrius  the  centurion  said  :  "  Here  he  stands,  my  lord." 

Maximiis.  "  What  is  thy  name  ?  " 

Andronicus.  "  My  true  name  is  Christian,  and  the  name 
by  which  I  am  commonly  known  among  men  is  Androni- 

Maximiis.  "  What  is  your  family  ?  " 

Atidronicus.  "  My  father  is  one  of  the  first  rank  in  Ephi- 

Maximus.  "  Adore  the  gods,  and  obey  the  emperors,  vho 
are  our  fathers  and  masters." 

Andronicus.  "  The  devil  is  your  father,  whilst  you  dc  his 

Maximus.  *'  Youth  makes  you  insolent ;  I  have  tocnents 

Andronicus.  "  I  am  prepared  for  whatever  may  haDpen." 

Maximus.  "Strip  him  naked,  gird  him,  and  stretch  him  on 
the  rack." 

Demetrius  the  centurion  said  to  the  martyr :  "  Obey,  my 
friend,  before  thy  body  is  torn  and  mangled." 

Andronicus.  "It  is  better  for  me  to  have  my  >ody  tor- 
mented than  to  lose  my  soul." 

Maximus.  "  Sacrifice,  before  I  put  thee  to  the  nost  cruel 

Andronicus.  "  I  have  never  sacrificed  to  demois  from  my 
infancy,  and  I  will  not  now  begin." 

Athanasius,  the  comicularius,  or  clerk  to  the  aimy,  said  to 
him :  "I  am  old  enough  to  be  thy  father,  and  therefore  take 
the  liberty  to  advise  thee  to  obey  the  governor." 

Andronicus.  "  You  give  me  admirable  advice,indeed, — to 
sacrifice  to  devils  ! " 

Maximus.  "  Wretch,  art  thou  insensible  D  torments  ? 
Thou  dost  not  yet  know  what  it  is  to  suffer  fiie  and  razors. 
When  thou  hast  felt  them,  thou  wilt,  perhaps,  give  over  thy 
folly."  : 


Oct.  II.]  -S^-^-  Tarachus  and  Others.  265 

Andronicus.  "  This  folly  is  expedient  for  us  who  hope  in 
Jesus  Christ.     Earthly  wisdom  leads  to  eternal  death." 

Maximus.  "  Wrench  his  limbs  with  the  utmost  violence." 

Androtiiais.  "  I  have  done  no  evil ;  yet  you  torment  me 
like  a  murderer.  I  contend  for  that  worship  which  is  due  to 
the  true  God." 

Maxiuuis.  "  If  thou  hadst  but  the  least  sense  of  piety, 
thou  wouldst  adore  the  gods  whom  the  emperors  so  religiously 

Andronicus.  "  It  is  not  piety,  but  impiety,  to  abandon  the 
true  God,  and  to  adore  brass  and  marble." 

Maximus.  "  Execrable  villain !  are  then  the  emperors 
guilty  of  impieties  ?     Hoist  him  again,  and  gore  his  sides." 

Andronicus.  "  I  am  in  your  hands ;  do  with  my  body  what 
you  please." 

Afaxifnus.  "  Lay  salt  upon  his  wounds,  and  rub  his  sides 
with  broken  tiles." 

Andronicus.  "  Your  torments  have  refreshed  my  body." 

Maximus.  "  I  will  cause  thee  to  die  gradually." 

Andronicus.  "Your  menaces  do  not  terrify  me;  my  courage 
is  above  all  that  your  malice  can  invent." 

Maximus.  "  Put  a  heavy  chain  about  his  neck,  and  another 
upon  his  legs,  and  keep  him  in  close  prison." 

Thus  ended  the  first  examination ;  the  second  was  held  at 

Flavius  Clemens  Numerianus  Maximus,  governor  of  Cilicia, 
sitting  on  his  tribunal,  said  to  Demetrius  the  centurion  : 
"  Bring  forth  the  impious  wretches  who  follow  the  religion  of 
the  Christians." 

Demetrius  said  :  "  Here  they  are,  my  lord." 

Maximus  said  to  Tarachus :  "  Old  age  is  respected  in 
many,  on  account  of  the  good  sense  and  prudence  that  gene- 
rally attend  it :  wherefore,  if  you  have  made  a  proper  use 
of  the  time  allowed  you  for  reflection,  I  presume  your  own 



266  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  n. 

discretion  has  wrought  in  you  a  change  of  sentiments :  as  a 
proof  of  which,  it  is  required  that  you  sacrifice  to  the  gods, 
which  cannot  fail  to  recommend  you  to  the  esteem  of  your 

Tarachiis.  "  I  am  a  Christian,  and  I  wish  you  and  the 
emperors  would  leave  your  blindness,  and  embrace  the  truth 
which  leads  to  life." 

Maximus.  "  Break  his  jaws  with  a  stone,  and  bid  him  leave 
off  his  folly." 

Tarachus.   "This  folly  is  true  wisdom." 

Maximus.  "Now  they  have  loosened  all  thy  teeth,  wretch, 
take  pity  on  thyself,  come  to  the  altar,  and  sacrifice  to  the 
gods,  to  prevent  severer  treatment." 

Taj'achiis.  "Though  you  cut  my  body  into  a  thousand 
pieces,  you  will  not  be  able  to  shake  my  resolution,  because 
it  is  Christ  who  gives  me  strength  to  stand  my  ground." 

Maximus.  "  Wretch,  accursed  by  the  gods !  I  will  find 
means  to  drive  out  thy  folly.  Bring  in  a  pan  of  burning 
coals,  and  hold  his  hands  in  the  fire  till  they  are  con- 

Tarachus.  "  I  fear  not  your  temporal  fire,  which  soon 
passes ;  but  I  dread  eternal  flames." 

Maximus.  "  See,  thy  hands  are  well  baked ;  they  are  con- 
sumed by  the  fire.  Is  it  not  time  for  thee  to  grow  wise  ? 

Tarachus.  "  If  you  have  any  other  torments  in  store  for 
me,  employ  them  ;  I  hope  I  shall  be  able  to  Avithstand  all 
your  attacks." 

Maximus.  "  Hang  him  by  the  feet,  with  his  head  over  a 
great  smoke." 

Tarachus.  "After  having  proved  an  overmatch  for  your 
fire,  I  am  not  afraid  of  your  smoke." 

Maxitfius.  "  Bring  vinegar  and  salt,  and  force  them  up  his 



Oct.  II.]  '^^^  Tarachus  and  Others.  267 

Tarachus.  "Your  vinegar  is  sweet  to  me,  and  your  salt 

Maximus.  "  Put  mustard  into  the  vinegar,  and  thrust  it 
up  his  nose." 

Tarachus.  "  Your  ministers  impose  upon  you ;  they  have 
given  me  honey  instead  of  mustard." 

Maximus.  "  Enough  for  the  present.  I  will  make  it  my 
business  to  invent  fresh  tortures  to  bring  thee  to  thy  senses ; 
I  will  not  be  baffled." 

Tarachus.  "  You  will  find  me  prepared  for  the  attack." 

Maximus.  "  Away  with  him  to  the  dungeon.  Bring  in 

Demetrius  the  centurion  said :  "  My  lord,  here  is  Probus." 

Maximus.  "  Well,  Probus,  hast  thou  considered  the  matter, 
and  art  thou  disposed  to  sacrifice  to  the  gods,  after  the  ex- 
ample of  the  emperors  ?  " 

Probus.  "  I  appear  here  again  with  fresh  vigour.  The  tor- 
ments I  have  endured  have  hardened  my  body,  and  my  soul 
is  proof  against  all  you  can  inflict.  I  have  a  living  God  in 
heaven  :  Him  I  serve  and  adore,  and  no  other." 

Maximus.  "  What,  villain  ?  are  not  ours  living  gods  ?  " 

Probus.  "  Can  stones  and  wood,  the  workmanship  of  a 
statuary,  be  living  gods  ?  You  know  not  what  you  do  when 
you  sacrifice  to  them." 

Maximus.  "  Wliat  insolence  !  At  least  sacrifice  to  the 
great  god  Jupiter.     I  will  excuse  you  as  to  the  rest." 

Probus.  "Do  not  you  blush  to  call  him  god  who  was 
guilty  of  adulteries,  incests,  and  other  abominable  crimes?" 

Maximus.  "  Beat  his  mouth  with  a  stone,  and  bid  him  not 

Probus.  "Why  this  evil  treatment?  I  have  spoken  no 
worse  of  Jupiter  than  they  do  who  serve  him.  I  utter  no 
lie  :  I  speak  the  truth,  as  you  yourself  well  know." 

Maximus.  "  Heat  bars  of  iron,  and  apply  them  to  his  feet." 



268  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  n. 

Probus.  "  This  fire  is  without  heat ;  at  least  I  feel 

Maxinms.  "  Hoist  him  on  the  rack,  and  let  him  be 
scourged  with  thongs  of  raw  leather  till  his  shoulders  are 

Probus.  "All  this  does  me  no  harm;  invent  something 
new,  and  you  will  see  the  power  of  God  who  is  in  me  and 
strengthens  me." 

Maximus.  "  Shave  his  head,  and  lay  burning  coals  upon 

Probus.  "  You  have  burnt  my  head  and  my  feet.  You  see, 
notwithstanding,  that  I  still  continue  God's  servant,  and  dis- 
regard your  torments.  He  will  save  me :  your  gods  can  only 

Maximus.  "  Dost  thou  not  see  all  those  that  worship  them 
standing  about  my  tribunal  honoured  by  the  gods  and  the 
emperors  ?  They  look  upon  thee  and  thy  companions  with 

Probus.  "  Believe  me,  unless  they  repent  and  serve  the 
living  God,  they  will  all  perish,  because,  against  the  voice  of 
their  own  conscience,  they  adore  idols." 

Maximus.  "  Beat  his  face,  that  he  may  learn  to  say  '  the 
Gods,'  and  not  '  God.' " 

Probus.  "  You  unjustly  destroy  my  mouth  and  disfigure 
my  face,  because  I  speak  the  truth." 

Maximus.  "  I  will  also  cause  thy  blasphemous  tongue  to 
be  plucked  out  to  make  thee  comply." 

Probus.  "Besides  the  tongue  which  serves  me  for  utterance, 
I  have  an  immortal  tongue,  which  is  out  of  reach." 

Maximus.  "  Take  him  to  prison.    Let  the  third  come  in." 

Demetrius  the  centurion  said  :  "  He  is  here." 

Maximus.  "  Your  companions,  Andronicus,  were  at  first 
obstinate  :  but  gained  nothing  thereby  but  torments  and  dis- 
grace, and  have  been  at  last  compelled  to  obey.    They  shall 



Oct.  II.]  '^'^-  TaracJms  aitd  Others.  269 

receive  considerable  recompenses.  Therefore,  to  escape 
the  Hke  torments,  sacrifice  to  the  gods,  and  thou  shalt  be 
lionoured  accordingly.  But  if  thou  refusest,  I  swear  by  the 
immortal  gods  and  by  the  invincible  emperors,  that  thou 
shalt  not  escape  out  of  my  hands  with  thy  Hfe." 

Aiidronicus.  "  Why  do  you  endeavour  to  deceive  me  with 
Hes  ?  They  have  not  renounced  the  true  God.  And  even 
had  they  done  so,  you  should  never  find  me  guilty  of  such 
impiety.  God,  whom  I  adore,  has  clothed  me  with  the  arms 
of  faith  ;  and  Jesus  Christ,  my  Saviour,  is  my  strength  :  so 
that  I  neither  fear  your  power  nor  that  of  your  masters  and 
of  your  gods.  Come,  now,  cause  all  your  instruments  to  be 
displayed  before  my  eyes,  and  employed  on  my  body." 

Maxitmis.  "  Bind  him  to  the  stakes,  and  scourge  him  with 
raw  thongs." 

Andronicus.  "There  is  nothing  new  or  extraordinary  in 
this  torment." 

The  clerk,  Athanasius,  said  :  "  Thy  whole  body  is  but  one 
wound  from  head  to  foot,  and  dost  thou  count  this  nothing  ?  " 

Andronicus.  "  They  who  love  the  living  God  make  small 
account  of  this." 

Maximus.  "  Rub  his  back  with  salt." 

Andronicus.  "  Give  orders,  I  pray  you,  that  they  do  not 
spare  me,  that  being  well  seasoned  I  may  be  in  no  danger 
of  putrefaction,  and  may  be  the  better  able  to  withstand  your 

Maximus.  "  Turn  him,  and  beat  him  upon  the  belly  to 
open  afresh  his  wounds." 

Androtiicus.  "  You  saw  when  I  was  brought  last  before 
your  tribunal,  how  I  was  perfectly  cured  of  the  wounds  I  re 
ceived  by  the  first  day's  tortures.  He  that  cured  me  then 
can  cure  me  a  second  time." 

Maximus,  addressing  himself  to  the  guards  of  the  prison  : 
"  Villains  and  traitors ! "  said  he,  "  did  I  not  strictly  forbid  you 


^ — . ^ 

270  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  n. 

to  suffer  any  one  to  see  them  or  dress  their  wounds?  Yet  see 
here ! " 

Pegasus,  the  jailer,  said  :  "  I  swear  by  your  greatness  that 
no  one  has  apphed  anything  whatever  to  his  wounds,  or  had 
admittance  to  him ;  and  he  has  been  kept  in  chains  in  the 
most  retired  part  of  the  prison  on  purpose.  If  you  catch  me 
in  a  He  I'll  forfeit  my  head." 

Maximus.  "  How  comes  it  then  that  there  is  nothing  to  be 
seen  of  his  wounds  ?  " 

The  Jailer.  "  I  swear  by  your  high  birth  that  I  know  not 
how  they  have  been  healed." 

Andronicus.  "Senseless  man,  the  physician  that  has  healed 
me  is  no  less  powerful  than  He  is  tender  and  charitable.  You 
know  Him  not.  He  cures  not  by  the  application  of  medicines, 
but  by  His  word  alone.  Though  He  dwells  in  heaven,  He  is 
present  everywhere,  but  you  know  Him  not." 

Maximus.  "  Thy  idle  prating  will  do  thee  no  service  ; 
sacrifice,  or  thou  art  a  lost  man." 

Andronicus.  "  I  do  not  change.  I  am  not  a  child  to  be 
wheedled  or  frightened." 

Maximus.  "  Do  not  flatter  thyself  that  thou  shalt  get  the 
better  of  me." 

Andronicus.  "  Nor  shall  you  ever  make  us  yield  to  your 

Maximus.  "  My  authority  shall  not  be  baffled  by  thee." 

Andronicus.  "  Nor  shall  it  ever  be  said  that  the  cause  of 
Jesus  Christ  is  vanquished  by  your  authority." 

Alaxiinus.  "  Let  me  have  several  kinds  of  tortures  in 
readiness  against  my  next  sitting.  Put  this  man  in  prison 
loaded  with  chains,  and  let  no  one  be  admitted  to  visit  them 
in  the  dungeon." 

The  third  examination  was  held  at  Anazarbus.  In  it 
Tarachus  answered  first  with  his  usual  constancy,  saying  to 
all  threats  that  a  speedy  death  would  finish  his  victory  and 



Oct.  II.] 

^'kS'.  Tarachus  and  Others.  271 

complete  his  happiness ;  and  that  long  torments  would  pro- 
cure him  the  greater  recompense. 

When  Maximus  had  caused  him  to  be  bound  and  stretched 
on  the  rack,  he  said  :  "  I  could  allege  the  rescript  of  Dio- 
cletian, which  forbids  judges  to  put  military  men  on  the  rack. 
But  I  waive  my  privilege,  lest  you  should  suspect  me  of 

Maximus  said:  "Thou  flatterest  thyself  with  the  hopes 
of  having  thy  body  eml)almed  by  Christian  women,  and 
wrapped  up  in  perfumes  after  thou  art  dead ;  but  I  will  take 
care  to  dispose  of  thy  remains." 

Tarachus  replied :  "  Do  what  you  please  with  my  body,  not 
only  whilst  it  is  living,  but  also  after  my  death." 

Maximus  ordered  his  lips,  cheeks,  and  whole  face  to  be 
slashed  and  cut. 

Tarachus  said  :  "  You  have  disfigured  my  face ;  but  have 
added  new  beauty  to  my  soul.  I  fear  not  any  of  your  inven- 
tions, for  I  am  clothed  with  the  divine  armour." 

The  tyrant  ordered  spits  to  be  heated,  and  applied  red  hot 
to  his  arm-pits ;  then  his  ears  to  be  cut  off. 

At  which  the  martyr  said :  "  My  heart  will  not  be  less 
attentive  to  the  word  of  God." 

Maximus  said  :  "  Tear  the  skin  off  his  head;  then  cover  it 
with  burning  coals." 

Tarachus  replied  :  "  Though  you  order  my  whole  body 
to  be  flayed  you  will  not  be  able  to  separate  me  from  my 

Maximus.  "Apply  the  red-liot  spits  once  more  to  his 
arm-pits  and  sides." 

Tarachus.  "  O  God  of  heaven,  look  down  upon  me  and 
be  my  judge  ! " 

The  governor  then  sent  him  back  to  prison,  to  be  reserved 
for  the  public  shows  the  day  following,  and  called  for  the 



272  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  n. 

Probus  having  been  brought  forth,  Maximus  again  ex- 
horted liini  to  sacrifice  ;  but,  after  many  words,  ordered  him 
to  be  bound  and  hung  up  by  the  feet,  then  red-hot  spits  to 
be  apphed  to  his  sides  and  back. 

Probus  said  :  "  My  body  is  in  your  power.  May  the  Lord 
of  heaven  and  earth  vouchsafe  to  consider  my  patience,  and 
the  humiUty  of  my  heart." 

Maximus.  "  The  God  whom  thou  implorest  has  dehvered 
thee  into  my  hands." 

Probus.    "  He  loves  men." 

Maxiinus.  "  Open  his  mouth  and  pour  in  some  of  the 
wine  which  has  been  offered  upon  the  altars,  and  thrust 
some  of  the  sanctified  meat  into  his  mouth." 

Probus.  "  See,  O  Lord,  the  violence  they  offer  me,  and 
judge  my  cause  ! " 

Maxwius.  "  Now  thou  seest  that  after  suffering  a  thousand 
torments  rather  than  sacrifice,  thou  hast  nevertheless  par- 
taken of  a  sacrifice." 

Probus.  "You  have  done  no  great  feat  in  making  me 
taste  these  abominable  offerings  against  my  vnW." 

Maximus.  "  No  matter,  it  is  now  done.  Promise  now  to 
do  it  voluntarily,  and  thou  shalt  be  released." 

Probus.  "  God  forbid  that  I  should  yield;  but  know  that 
if  you  should  force  into  me  all  the  abominable  offerings  of 
your  whole  altars,  I  should  not  be  defiled ;  for  God  sees  the 
violence  which  I  suffer." 

Maximus.  "  Heat  the  spits  again,  and  burn  the  calves  of 
his  legs  with  them."  Then  he  said  to  Probus,  "  There  is  not 
a  sound  part  in  thy  whole  body,  and  still  thou  persistest  in 
thy  folly.     Wretch,  what  canst  thou  hope  for?" 

Probus.  "  I  have  abandoned  my  body  to  you  that  my  soul 
may  remain  sound." 

Maximus.  "  Make  some  sharp  nails  red-hot,  and  pierce  his 
hands  with  them." 


Oct.  II.]  '5''5'.  Tarachus  and  Others.  273 

Probus.  "  O  my  Saviour,  I  return  Thee  hearty  thanks 
that  Thou  hast  been  pleased  to  make  me  share  in  Thy 
sufferings  !  " 

Maximtis.    "  The  torments  make  thee  foohsh." 

Probus.  "  Would  to  God  your  soul  were  not  blind,  and  in 

Maxivius.  "  Now  that  thou  hast  lost  the  use  of  all  thy 
members,  thou  complainest  of  my  not  having  deprived  thee 
of  sight.  Prick  him  in  the  eyes,  but  by  little  and  little,  till 
you  have  bored  out  the  organs  of  sight." 

Probus.  "  Behold  I  am  now  blind.  Thou  hast  destroyed 
the  eyes  of  my  body  ;  but  canst  not  take  away  those  of  my 

Maximus.  "  Thou  continuest  still  to  argue,  but  thou  art 
condemned  to  eternal  darkness." 

Probus.  "  Did  you  know  the  darkness  in  which  your  soul 
is  plunged,  you  would  see  yourself  much  more  miserable  than 
I  am." 

Maximus.  "  Thou  hast  no  more  use  of  thy  body  than  a 
dead  man,  yet  thou  talkest  stiJl." 

Probus.  "  So  long  as  any  vital  heat  continues  to  animate 
the  remains  which  you  have  left  me  of  this  body,  I  Avill  never 
cease  to  speak  of  God,  to  praise  and  thank  Him." 

Alaxiinus.  "  What !  dost  thou  hope  to  survive  these  tor- 
ments ?  Canst  thou  flatter  thyself  that  I  shall  allow  thee 
one  moment's  respite  ?" 

Probus.   "  I  expect  nothing  from  you  but  a  cruel  death 
and  I  ask  of  God  only  the  grace  to  persevere  to  the  end  in 
the  confession  of  His  holy  name." 

Maxivius.  "  I  will  leave  thee  to  languish,  as  such  an  im- 
pious wretch  deserves.  Take  him  hence.  Let  the  prisoners 
be  closely  guarded  that  none  of  their  friends  find  access  to 
them.  I  design  them  for  the  shows.  Let  Andronicus  be 
brought  in.    He  is  the  most  resolute  of  the  three." 

VOL.  XI.  18 

,j, ^ 

274  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  n. 

The  answers  and  behaviour  of  the  martyrs  were  often  very 
disrespectful  towards  their  judges.  They  were,  no  doubt, 
exasperated  by  the  pain  they  endured,  and  the  Acts  of  the 
Martyrs  contain  too  often  a  wearisome  string  of  mutual  vitu- 
peration ;  but  it  is  quite  possible  that  the  abusive  expressions 
put  into  the  mouths  of  the  martyrs  were  sometimes  added  by 
the  writers  of  the  Acts. 

S.  Paul,  however,  it  will  be  remembered,  called  his  judge 
a  whited  wall,  and  threatened  him  with  the  anger  of  God ; 
and  S.  Augustine  says  of  the  martyrs,  "  They  were  patient  in 
torments,  faithful  in  their  confession,  constant  lovers  of  truth 
in  all  their  words.  But  they  cast  certain  arrows  of  God 
against  the  impious,  and  provoked  them  to  anger ;  but  they 
wounded  many  to  salvation."  In  the  answers  of  S.  Andronicus 
we  find  many  harsh  expressions,  insulting  to  the  ministers  of 
justice,  which  we  must  regard  as  bursting  from  his  hps  in 
the  agony  of  pain,  when  incapable  of  weighing  well  his  words. 
The  governor  pressed  Andronicus  again  to  comply  with  the 
edict,  adding,  that  his  two  companions  had  at  length  sacri- 
ficed to  the  gods,  and  to  the  emperors  themselves.  The 
martyr  replied :  "  This  is  truly  the  part  of  an  adorer  of  the 
god  of  lies :  and  by  this  imposture  I  know  that  such  men  as 
you  are  like  the  gods  whom  you  serve.  May  God  judge  you, 
O  worker  of  iniquity  !" 

Maximus  ordered  rolls  of  paper  to  be  made,  and  set  on 
fire  upon  the  belly  of  the  martyr ;  then  bodkins  to  be  heated, 
and  laid  red  hot  betwixt  his  fingers.  Finding  him  still  un- 
shaken, he  said  to  him,  "  Do  not  expect  to  die  at  once.  I 
will  keep  thee  alive  till  the  time  of  the  shows,  that  thou 
mayest  behold  thy  limbs  devoured  one  after  another  by  cruel 

Andronicus  answered :  "  You  are  more  inhuman  than  the 
tigers,  and  more  insatiable  for  blood  than  the  most  bar- 
barous murderers." 

«^ —^ 


Oct.  II.]  •5''^.  Tar achus  and  Others.  275 

Maximus.  "  Open  his  mouth,  and  put  some  of  the  sancti- 
fied meat  into  it,  and  pour  some  of  the  wine  into  it  which 
hath  been  offered  to  the  gods." 

Androniciis.  "  Behold,  O  Lord,  the  violence  which  is 
offered  to  me." 

Maximus.  "  What  wilt  thou  do  now  ?  Thou  hast  tasted 
of  the  offerings  taken  from  the  altar.  Thou  art  now  initiated 
into  the  mysteries  of  the  gods." 

Androniciis.  "  Know,  tyrant,  that  the  soul  is  not  defiled 
when  it  suffers  involuntarily  what  it  condemns.  God,  who 
sees  the  secrets  of  hearts,  knows  that  mine  has  not  consented 
to  this  abomination." 

Maximus.  "  How  long  will  this  frenzy  delude  thy  ima- 
gination ?     It  will  not  deliver  thee  out  of  my  hands." 

Andronicus.    "  God  ■will  deliver  me  when  He  pleases." 

Maximus.  "  This  is  a  fresh  extravagance  :  I  will  cause 
that  tongue  of  thine  to  be  cut  out,  to  put  an  end  to  thy 

Andronicus.  "  I  ask  it  as  a  favour  that  those  lips  and 
tongue  with  which  I  have  partaken  of  meats  and  wine 
offered  to  idols,  may  be  cut  off." 

Maximus.  "  Pluck  out  his  teeth,  and  cut  out  his  blas- 
phemous tongue  to  the  very  root ;  bum  them,  and  then 
scatter  the  ashes  in  the  air,  that  none  of  his  impious  com- 
panions, or  of  the  wenches,  may  be  able  to  gather  them  up,  to 
keep  as  something  precious  or  holy.^  Let  him  be  carried  to 
his  dungeon,  to  serve  for  food  to  the  wild  beasts  in  the 

The  trial  of  the  three  martyrs  having  been  concluded, 
Maximus  sent  for  Terentianus,  the  chiliarch,  and  first  magis- 
trate of  the  community  in  Cilicia,  who  had  the  care  of  the 

'  "  Denies  ejus  et  linguam  blasphemam  tollite,  et  comburite,  et  ubique  spargite 
ut  nemo  de  consortibus  ejus  impiis  aut  de  mulierculis,  aliqua  colligat  ut  servet  quas 
pretiosum  aliquid  aut  sanctum  aestimet." 

* — "^ 

>J*- lj< 

276  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  n. 

public  games  and  spectacles,  and  gave  him  orders  to  exhibit 
a  public  show  next  day.  In  the  morning,  a  prodigious  mul- 
titude of  people  flocked  to  the  amphitheatre,  which  was  a  mile 
distant  from  the  town  of  Anazarbus.  The  governor  came 
thither  about  noon.  Many  gladiators  and  others  were  slain 
in  the  combats  of  gladiators  and  by  the  beasts,  and  their 
bodies  were  devoured  or  lay  on  the  ground. 

"We,"  say  the  authors  of  his  Acts,  "  came,  but  stood  on 
an  adjoining  mountain  behind,  looking  over  the  walls  of  the 
amphitheatre,  waiting  the  issue  in  great  fear  and  alarm.  The 
governor  at  length  sent  some  of  the  guards  to  bring  the 
Christians  whom  he  had  sentenced  to  the  beasts.  The 
martyrs  were  in  so  piteous  a  condition  by  their  torments  that, 
far  from  being  able  to  walk,  they  could  not  so  much  as  stir 
their  mangled  bodies.  But  they  were  carried  on  the  backs 
of  porters,  and  thrown  down  in  the  pit  of  the  amphitheatre, 
below  the  seat  of  the  governor.  We  advanced  as  near  as  Ave 
could  on  an  eminence  behind,  and  concealed  ourselves  by 
piling  stones  before  us  as  high  as  our  breasts,  that  we  might 
not  be  known  or  observed.  The  sight  of  our  brethren  in  so 
dismal  a  condition  made  us  shed  abundance  of  tears :  even 
many  of  the  infidel  spectators  could  not  contain  theirs.  For 
no  sooner  were  the  martyrs  laid  down,  than  an  almost  universal 
deep  silence  followed  at  the  sight  of  such  dismal  objects,  and 
the  people  began  openly  to  murmur  against  the  governor  for 
his  barbarous  cruelty.  Many  even  left  the  shows,  and  re- 
turned to  the  cily,  which  provoked  the  governor,  and  he 
ordered  more  soldiers  to  guard  all  the  avenues  to  stop  any 
from  departing,  and  to  take  notice  of  all  who  attempted  it, 
that  they  might  be  afterwards  called  to  their  trial  by  him. 
At  the  same  time  he  commanded  a  great  number  of  beasts 
to  be  let  loose  out  of  their  dens  into  the  arena.  These  fierce 
creatures  rushed  out,  but  all  stopped  near  the  doors  of  their 
lodges,  and  would  not  advance  to  hurt  the  martyrs.  Maximus, 



Oct.  II.] 

^'S.  Tarachus  and  Others.  277 

in  a  fury,  called  for  the  keepers,  and  caused  one  hundred 
strokes  with  cudgels  to  be  given  them,  making  them  respon- 
sible for  the  tameness  of  their  lions  and  tigers,  because  they 
were  less  cruel  than  himself.  He  threatened  even  to  crucify 
them  unless  they  let  out  the  most  ravenous  of  their  beasts. 
They  turned  out  a  great  bear  which  that  very  day  had  killed 
three  men.  He  walked  up  slowly  towards  the  martyrs,  and 
began  to  lick  the  wounds  of  Andronicus.  That  martyr  leaned 
his  head  on  the  bear,  and  endeavoured  to  provoke  him,  but 
in  vain.  Maximus  possessed  himself  no  longer,  but  ordered 
the  beast  to  be  immediately  killed.  The  bear  received  the 
strokes,  and  fell  quietly  before  the  feet  of  Andronicus. 
Terentianus,  seeing  the  rage  of  the  governor,  and  treinbling 
for  himself,  immediately  ordered  a  most  furious  lioness  to  be 
let  out.  At  the  sight  of  her  all  the  spectators  turned  pale, 
and  her  terrible  roarings  made  the  bravest  men  tremble  on 
their  safe  seats.  Yet,  when  she  came  up  to  the  saints,  who 
lay  stretched  on  the  sand,  she  laid  herself  down  at  the  feet  of 
S.  Tarachus,  and  licked  them,  quite  forgetting  her  natural 
ferocity.  Maximus,  foaming  with  rage,  commanded  her  to 
be  pricked  with  goads.  She  then  arose  and  raged  about  in 
a  furious  manner,  roaring  terribly,  and  affrighting  all  the 
spectators  ;  who,  seeing  that  she  had  broken  down  part  of 
the  door  of  her  lodge,  which  the  governor  had  ordered  to  be 
shut,  cried  out  earnestly  that  she  might  be  again  driven  into 
her  lodge.  The  governor  therefore  called  for  the  confectors 
or  gladiators  to  dispatch  the  martyrs  with  their  swords,  which 
they  did.  Maximus  commanded  the  bodies  to  be  mingled 
with  those  of  the  gladiators  who  had  been  slain,  and 
also  to  be  guarded  that  night  by  six  soldiers,  lest  the 
Christians  should  carry  them  off.  The  night  was  very 
dark,  and  a  violent  storm  of  thunder  and  rain  dispei'sed  the 

"  And  when  we  were  seeking  the  bodies,"  continue  the 


278  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.11. 

three  eye-witnesses,  "we  raised  our  hands  to  heaven,  praying 
God  to  show  us  the  reHcs  of  the  saints.  Then,  suddenly,  the 
merciful  God  sent  a  brilliant  star  from  heaven,  which  rested 
on  each  of  the  bodies  of  the  saints  ;  and  the  bright  star  went 
before  us,  showing  the  way.  And  when  we  had  gone  some 
distance,  we  were  tired,  and  we  put  down  the  bodies  and 
rested.  But  the  star  did  not  leave  us.  And  when  we  medi- 
tated where  to  lay  the  bodies,  we  prayed  God  to  perfect  by 
us  the  good  work  that  was  begun.  Then,  filled  with  strength, 
we  went  on,  carrying  the  bodies  to  a  certain  part  of  the  moun- 
tain, when  the  star  vanished.  We  found  an  open  rock,  and 
there  we  laid  the  corpses,  and  concealed  them  carefully,  fear- 
ing inquisition  by  Maximus." 

These  three  Christians,  in  conclusion,  express  their  desire 
to  retire  to  the  cave,  with  resolve  to  spend  there  the  re- 
mainder of  their  days. 

S.  KENNY,  AB. 

(a.d.  599.) 

[Irish  and  Roman  Martjrologies.  Aberdeen  Breviary.  The  life  of 
this  saint  is  not  printed  by  the  Bollandists,  as  not  conducive  to  edifi- 
cation, being  filled  with  prodigies.     Usher  quotes  from  the  same  life.] 

S.  Cainec,  or  Kenny  as  he  is  commonly  called,  was  a 
native  of  Kieimacta,  in  the  north  of  Ireland.  His  father  was 
a  celebrated  bard,  named  Laidec,  of  the  sept  of  Mocudalan. 
Kenny  was  bom  in  the  year  516,  and,  when  arrived  at  the 
age  of  discretion,  wishing  to  acquire  learning  and  lead  a  re- 
ligious life,  went  to  Britain,  and  there  placed  himself  under 
the  venerable  abbot  Docus,  with  whom  he  remained  for 
some  years  in  close  application  to  his  studies,  and  in  the 

^ -^ 

Oct.!..]  S.Kenny.  279 

practice  of  monastic  obedience.  Passing  by  a  pretended 
tour  of  his  to  Rome,  for  which  there  is  not  sufficient 
authority,  we  find  him  afterwards  at  the  school  of  S.  Finnian 
of  Clonard.  Having  left  his  school,  he  is  said  to  have 
preached  for  some  years  in  the  northern  parts  of  Ireland. 
After  some  time  Kenny  proceeded  towards  the  south  of 
Ireland,  and  having  stayed  for  a  while  in  some  religious 
house,  wrote  a  copy  of  the  four  Gospels,  which  was  long 
preserved,  and  was  called  Glass-Kinnich,  or  the  Chain  of 
Cainech.  It  is  probable  from  the  name  that  this  was  a  sort 
of  running  commentary  on  the  Gospels.  Thence  he  went  to 
Upper  Ossory,  and  being  kindly  received  by  the  inhabitants, 
founded  the  great  monastery  of  Aghaboe.  The  time  of  its 
foundation  is  not  known,  but  it  was  prior  to  the  year  577. 
Aghaboe  became,  in  course  of  time,  the  residence  of  the 
Bishop  of  Ossory,  the  see  of  Saigir  having  been  transferred 
to  it. 

It  is  said  that  Cainech,  under  the  patronage  of  Colman 
MacFeraidhe,  prince  of  Ossory,  founded  other  monastic 
establishments  in  that  country.  In  the  life  of  S.  Columba  we 
read  that  that  saint  was  in  a  boat  at  sea,  when  there  burst 
over  him  a  furious  storm.  When  his  disciples  in  the  vessel 
besought  his  prayers,  "  It  is  not  for  me  to  pray  for  you  to- 
day," he  answered,  "  but  for  the  holy  abbot  Cainech  in  his 
house  of  Aghaboe."  Now  at  that  very  time  Kenny  was  in 
his  refectory — it  was  the  ninth  hour — breaking  the  bread 
of  the  Eulogia,  when  suddenly  he  heard  the  voice  of  his 
friend  Columba  crying  to  him  to  assist  him,  as  he  was  in 
great  straits. 

Kenny  at  once  jumped  up  from  table  with  one  shoe  on, 
and  crying  to  his  monks,  "  This  is  no  time  for  eating  whilst 
Columba  is  tossing  on  the  sea,"  ran  to  the  church,  and  falling 
on  his  knees  before  the  altar,  prayed  God  to  deliver  the 
abbot  of  lona. 

^ — — )J< 

^_ * 

280  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  n. 

At  that  moment  Columba  turned  to  those  who  toiled  in 
rowing  on  the  tumuUuous  sea,  and  said,  "  Be  of  good  cheer; 
God  has  looked  on  the  zeal  of  Kenny  running  to  church 
with  only  one  shoe  on  his  foot,  to  pray  for  us." 

S.  Pulcherius  bade  his  disciple  Mochumbe  build  himself  a 
cell  and  church,  and  Mochumbe  built  first  a  church  and 
then  a  cell,  and  before  he  had  roofed  in  the  latter  S.  Pul- 
cherius, S.  Kenny,  S.  Fechan,  and  S.  Molua  came  to  see 
him,  and  they  stayed  with  him  till  late. 

And  Mochumbe  said,  "  We  must  eat  and  sleep  in  the 
church,  for  there  is  no  roof  on  the  refectory."  But  S.  Fechan 
answered,  "  Not  so,  we  will  abide  in  the  refectory,  and  God 
will  keep  the  rain  off  us  through  the  night."  So  the  saints 
slept  in  the  roofless  building,  and  though  the  clouds  hung 
low,  there  was  no  rain.  And  in  the  morning  S.  Molua  said, 
"  On  this  place  where  so  great  charity  has  been  shown,  a 
great  abundance  of  divine  blessings  shall  fall." 

And  S.  Pulcherius  said,  "  This  roofless  hut  shall  be  blessed, 
and  a  noble  building  shall  not  fail  to  stand  on  the  spot  as 
long  as  the  world  rolls." 

And  S.  Kenny  said,  "  The  son  of  death  shall  not  die  in 
this  place." 

So  the  saints  blessed  the  humble  cell  and  retired.  Then 
Mochumbe  cried  out,  "  My  fathers  !  you  have  blessed  my 
poor  walls,  have  you  no  benediction  for  me?"  "Son," 
answered  the  saints,  "  in  spirit  we  shall  ever  abide  with 
thee,  and  thou  shalt  become  a  saint  in  this  place,  and  stand 
with  us  in  the  Judgment."  And  in  token  they  planted  there 
five  stones,  "  which,"  says  the  biographer  of  S.  Pulcherius, 
"remain  unto  this  day." 

S.  Kenny  is  said  to  have  inherited  his  father's  poetical 
skill,  and  Ware  attributes  to  him  a  life  of  S.  Columba, 
and  some  hymns  in  praise  of  that  saint. 

Having  governed  in  person,  as  abbot  and   priest,   the 



o^j  „-i  S.  Ethelburga.  281 

monastery  of  Aghaboe,  he  died  in  the  eighty-fourth  year  of 
his  age,  on  the  nth  of  October,  a.d.  599.  Aghaboe  is  now 
called  Kilkenny,  or  the  Church  of  S.  Kenny. 


(7TH    CENT.) 

[Anciently  venerated  in  Essex,  an  office  for  her  with  nine  lections  in 
MS.  in  the  Cotton  Library.  Authority  :— Eede,  in  his  Eccl.  Hist.,  and 
a  life  in  Capgrave.] 

S.  Ethelburga  was  born  in  Lindsey  in  the  village  of 
StaHngton;  she  was  the  daughter  of  Offa,  and  sister  of 
S.  Earconwald,  Bishop  of  London.  Her  father  was  not 
baptized,  and  he  resented  the  infantine  piety  of  his  daughter, 
and  combated  angrily  her  resolution  to  devote  herself  to  a 
life  of  virginity.  Bathed  in  tears  after  a  violent  outbreak  of 
her  father's  wrath,  Ethelburga  would  steal  away  to  the  little 
church  where  she  had  been  baptized ;  and  Ethelburga's  path 
in  the  hottest  summer  is  ever  green,  and  green  also  in  winter 
to  this  day,  says  her  biographer. 

Finding  that  her  father  was  determined  to  marry  her  to  a 
man  of  wealth  and  position,  she  fled  to  Barking  in  Essex,  ac- 
companied by  one  maid.  She  arrived  there  in  harvest  and 
was  given  shelter  by  a  farmer,  on  condition  that  slie  should 
assist  in  reaping.  She  knelt,  and  lo!  angels  with  sickles 
swept  down  the  golden  corn  whilst  she  prayed. 

S.  Earconwald,  consecrated  Bishop  of  London  in  675  by 
S.  Theodore  of  Canterbury,  having  come  into  his  paternal 
inheritance,  founded  a  religious  house  at  Chertsey,  in  Surrey, 
for  men,  and  one  for  women  at  Barking,  over  which  he 
placed  his  sister  Ethelburga  as  first  abbess. 

Whilst   Barking   Abbey   was   being   built,    a   beam   was 


brought  for  the  roof  which,  when  fitted,  was  found  too  short. 
Then  Earconwald  took  one  end  and  Ethelburga  the  other, 
and  pulled  it  out  to  the  proper  length. 

As  Barking  was  the  first  religious  house  for  women 
founded  in  England,  Earconwald  sent  for  the  holy  woman, 
Hildelitha,  who  had  been  brought  up  in  a  French  convent, 
to  assume  the  direction. 

A  pestilence  swept  away  the  priests  who  ministered  at  the 
altars  of  the  convent  and  carried  off  many  of  the  nuns. 
This  was  in  664.  Consternation  fell  on  the  survivors.  But 
one  night  as  the  sisters  went  from  their  church,  at  the  end 
of  matins,  to  pray  at  the  graves  of  the  clergy  who  had  pre- 
ceded them  into  the  other  world,  they  saw  all  at  once  the 
whole  sky  lighted  up  and  cover  them  all  as  with  a  radiant 
shroud.  It  was  a  flash  of  summer  lightning  which  their 
imaginations  transformed  into  a  luminous  gravecloth  flung 
across  the  sky  above  their  heads.  They  were  so  terrified 
that  the  hymn  they  were  singing  died  on  their  lips.  By  this 
mysterious  light  they  saw  the  graveyard  illumined,  and 
noticed  that  there  was  abundance  of  space  for  many  graves. 
They  understood  that  this  flash  of  light  showed  them  the 
place  where  their  bodies  must  lie,  and  revealed  at  the  same 
time  to  them  the  glory  into  which  their  souls  would  gaze. 

There  was  a  nun  at  Barking,  named  Theoritgytha,  who, 
after  having  been  long  the  humble  and  zealous  assistant  of 
Ethelburga,  was  warned  of  the  death  of  the  abbess,  her 
friend,  by  a  vision,  in  which  she  saw  her  dear  Ethelburga 
wrapped  in  a  shroud  which  shone  like  the  sun,  and  raised  to 
heaven  by  golden  chains,  which  represented  her  good  works. 
Ethelburga  died  shortly  after.  Deprived  of  her  spiritual 
mother,  Theoritgytha  lived  for  nine  years  in  the  most  cruel 
sufferings,  in  order,  says  Bede,  that  the  furnace  of  this  daily 
tribulation  might  consume  all  the  imperfection  that  remained 
among  her  many  virtues.     At  last  paralysis  assailed  all  her 



Oct.  II.] 

S.  Jtilia.  283 

members,  and  even  her  tongue.  Three  days  before  her 
death  she  recovered  sight  and  speech ;  she  was  heard  to  ex- 
change some  words  with  an  invisible  visitor.  It  was  Ethel- 
burga,  who  had  come  to  announce  her  dehverance  to  her. 

"  I  can  scarcely  bear  this  joy  ! "  said  the  sick  woman;  and 
the  following  night,  freed  at  once  from  sickness  and  from  the 
bondage  of  the  flesh,  she  entered  into  everlasting  blessedness. 

S.  Ethelburga  of  Barking  is  not  to  be  confounded  with 
S.  Ethelburga  of  Lyming,  widow  of  King  Edwin. 

S.  JULIA,  V.  ABSS. 
(8th  cent.) 

[Gallican  and  Benedictine  Martyrologies.  Authority  : — The  notice 
by  Saussaye  in  his  Martyrology.] 

S.  Julia  or  Juliana  was  a  young  servant  girl  at  Pavilly  in 
Normandy,  who  desired  with  all  her  heart  to  enter  the  con- 
vent at  Pavilly,  ruled  at  that  time  by  Benedicta,  next  after  the 
foundress,  S.  Austreberta.  Julia  besought  the  abbess  to  give 
her  the  veil,  but  Benedicta  scorned  and  repulsed  her  because 
she  was  poor  and  of  ignoble  birth.  Then  Julia  betook  her- 
self to  prayer  to  the  foundress,  and  on  the  anniversary  of  the 
death  of  Austreberta,  entered  the  church  and  threw  her  arms 
about  the  tomb  of  the  holy  abbess,  and  bursting  into  floods 
of  tears,  vowed  she  would  not  let  go  till  her  request  was 
granted.  Benedicta,  incensed  at  the  pertinacity  of  the  girl, 
ordered  her  to  be  removed  by  force.  But  instantly  she  was 
stricken  with  fever,  her  head  became  giddy,  her  heart  faint, 
her  face  flushed.  Alarmed  at  her  condition,  and  attributing 
it  to  her  harshness,  she  promised  to  accept  Julia,  and  the 
fever  left  her  instantaneously. 

As  a  nun,  Julia  proved  herself  a  burning  and  shining 
light ;   she  walked  in  such  an  atmosphere  of  supernatural 


284  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [oct.  n 

sanctity  that  the  sisters  regarded  her  with  awe  and  called 
her  the  "  Little  Sister  of  Jesus."  When  Benedicta  died, 
there  was  but  one  opinion  among  them  all,  that  Julia  must 
succeed  her,  and  so  the  servant  girl  became  abbess  over 
nuns  of  noble  birth. 

Her  body  was  translated  to  Montreuil  along  with  that  of 
S.  Austreberta. 

S.  GUMMAR,  C. 
(8th  cent.) 

[Roman,  Belgian,  and  Gallican  Martyrologies.  Authority:— A  life 
by  Theobald  in  the  12th  century.] 

This  saint  was  born  about  the  year  717,  at  Emblehem,  a 
village  near  Lyre,  or  Lierre,  in  Brabant,  where  was  the  castle 
belonging  to  his  father.  He  served  under  King  Pepin,  and 
was  married  to  a  lady  named  Grimnaira ;  but  the  union  was 
not  a  hapjDy  one.  The  lady  oppressed  the  poor  whilst  her 
husband  was  from  home,  and  on  his  return  resented  iiis 
attempts  to  right  the  wrongs  she  had  inflicted  on  them. 
One  day  she  refused  drink  to  the  reapers  ;  Gummar  at  once 
drove  his  staff  into  the  ground  and  produced  a  spring. 

He  started  on  a  pilgrimage  to  Rome,  and  at  nightfall  cut 
down  a  tree  to  serve  as  his  pillow.  The  owner  of  the  tree 
was  incensed  at  what  Gummar  had  done.  Whereupon  the 
saint — so  runs  the  tale — stuck  up  the  tree  again  and  tied  the 
branches  on  with  his  girdle,  and  it  grew  together  as  of  old. 
Instead  of  going  on  to  Rome  he  betook  himself  to  the 
forest  of  Nives-donck  and  built  a  hermitage.  He  died  there 
about  the  year  774.  His  body  was  afterwards  translated  to 
the  collegiate  church  of  Lierre. 

The  feast  of  S.  Gummar  attracts  every  year  crowds  to  his 
shrine  at  Lierre,  to  invoke  his  aid  against  hernia. 



Oct.  12.] 

5*.  Domnina. — S.  Pantahcs. 


October  12. 

S.  MoNAS,  B.  of  Milan;  a.d.  249. 

S.  Domnina,  M.  at  Anazarbus  in  Cilicia ;  circ.  a.d.  304. 

S.  Maximilian,  B.M.  at  Cilli  in  Styria  ;  circ.  a.d.  308. 

S.  Julian,  B.C.  at  Lodi;  circ.  a.d.  324- 

S.  Pantalus,  B.M.  of  Basle;  a.d.  451. 

SS.  Cyprian,  Felix,  BB.,  and  Others,  MM.  in  Africa, 

a.d.  482. 
S.  FiECH,  B.  ofSletty  in  Ireland;  beginning  of  6th  cent . 
S.  Edwin,  K.  of  Northumbria;  a.d.  633. 
S.  Wilfrid,  B.  of  York;  a.d.  709. 
S.  Seraphin,  C,  O.M.  at  Ascoli in  Italy;  a.d.  1154. 


(about  a.d.  304.) 

[Roman   Martyrology,   introduced   by   Gallesinius   from   the    Greek 
Menology.    Authority  : — Mention  in  the  Menology.] 

DOMNINA  suffered  in  the  persecution  of 
Diocletian.  She  was  a  native  of  Anazarbus  in 
CiUcia.  The  soles  of  her  feet  were  burnt,  and  her 
back  was  scourged.     She  died  of  exhaustion  in 


S.  PANT  ALUS,  B.T^I. 

(a.d.  451.) 

[Lubeck-Cologne  Martyrology  of  1584,  Peter  de  Natalibus,  Ferrarius, 
and  tlie  Acta  Sanctorum.  Authority  : — Mention  in  the  Legends  of 
S.  Ursula.] 

This  purely  apocryphal  saint  is  fabled  to  have  been 
bishop  of  Basle,  and  to  have  been  so  struck  with  enthusiasm 
or  moved  by  courtesy,  on  the  passage  of  S.  Ursula  and  her 




286  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  12. 

eleven  thousand  virgins,  that  he  accompanied  them  down 
the  Rhine  as  far  as  Cologne.  The  fascinations  or  the  virtues 
of  the  eleven  thousand  must  have  been  great  indeed,  for  a 
swarm  of  ecclesiastics  followed  them,  amongst  them  a  Pope 
— only  an  apocryphal  one,  however — and  cardinals.  The 
eleven  thousand,  with  their  devoted  followers,  bishops,  cardi- 
nals, and  pope,  together  with  some  babes,  were  massacred 
at  Cologne  by  the  Huns.  Schoepflin,  in  his  "  Alsatia  illus- 
trata,"  in  1751,  wrote:  "No  historian  or  martyrologist,  nor 
even  those  who  describe  the  martyrdom  of  S.  Ursula  and 
her  company,  mention  Pantalus  before  the  15th  century.  It 
is  true  that  a  certain  Pantalus  is  mentioned  in  the  Revela- 
tions of  Elizabeth  of  Schonau,  who  flourished  in  the  reign  of 
Frederick  I.,  about  1156,  but  such  writings  do  not  deserve 
to  be  classed  as  historical.  If  there  be  any  historical  foun- 
dation, it  is  buried  under  abundance  of  fable.  In  the  15th 
and  following  century,  martyrologists  are  found  who  inserted 
Pantalus  among  the  companions  of  Ursula,  and  reckoned  him 
as  their  fellow  martyr,  on  no  other  grounds  than  the  revela- 
tions of  Elizabeth  of  Schonau." 

The  ecstatic  Elizabeth  having  revealed  that  there  was  a 
Pantalus,  Bishop  of  Basle,  who  was  martyred  at  Cologne,  his 
body  was  sought  there  and  found  in  1155,  immediately  after 
the  revelation  had  been  made.  It  was  found  in  a  stone 
coffin  with  his  name  inscribed  upon  it  as  follows:  "  Pantalus, 
Basileensis  episcopus,  Virgines  sacras  cum  gaudio  susceptas 
Romam  perduxit,  unde  reversus  Coloniam  pervenit,  ibique 
cum  eis  martyrium  suscepit,  et  S.  Grata  Junior."  That  this 
was  a  forged  inscription,  and  that  the  body  was  one  obtained 
from  a  graveyard  to  assist  the  ijnposture,  is  not  a  matter 
admitting  of  question. 

The  body  is  in  the  church  of  the  SS.  Maccabees  at  Cologne, 
the  head  at  Basle,  in  which  diocese  the  translation  of  this 
precious   relic   is   commemorated   on   October  12.      Some 



Oct.  12.]  '^'^-  Cyprian  and  Felix.  287 

relics  at  S.  Tron,  others  in  the  church  of  the  Apostles  at 
Cologne,  in  a  silver  shrine.  An  arm  at  Arlesheim,  two  thigh 
bones  at  Aldbergen,  some  more  bones  in  the  church  of 
S.  Ursula  at  Cologne. 

(about  a.d.  4S2.) 

[Roman  and  many  ancient  Latin  Martyrologies.  Authority  : — Their 
Acts  in  the  History  of  the  Vandal  Persecution  by  Victor  of  Utica,  a 
contemporary  and  sufferer  in  it.] 

About  two  years  before  the  general  persecution  of  the 
Catholics  broke  out  under  Huneric,  the  Vandal  king  in  North 
Africa,  many  had  previsions  of  what  would  take  place.  One 
saw  the  church  of  S.  Faustus  at  Carthage  adorned  ^vith 
tapestry,  and  illumined  with  countless  lamps  and  tapers, 
as  for  a  great  festival,  when  suddenly  the  lights  were  extin- 
guished, and  instead  of  the  fragrance  of  incense  rose  the 
stench  of  a  charnel-house.  He  who  saw  this  vision  came  to 
Eugenius  the  bishop  and  related  to  him  what  he  had  seen, 
in  the  presence  of  Victor,  Bishop  of  Utica,  who  records  it. 
Another  saw  a  great  heap  of  wheat  mingled  with  chaff,  and 
a  mighty  wind  arose  and  sifted  the  grain  from  the  husk; 
then  appeared  a  man  with  shining  face  and  robes,  and  he 
went  over  the  grain  with  his  hand  and  sorted  the  good  from 
the  bad  and  mouldy  and  black,  and  reduced  the  heap  con- 
siderably in  size  thereby.  Bishop  Quintian  dreamed  that  he 
saw  a  beautiful  flock  being  slain  by  butchers  and  cast  into 
caldrons  till  all  were  consumed. 

The  first  sign  of  the  breaking  of  the  storm  was  the  com- 
mand issued  by  Huneric  that  none  should  serve  in  his 
palace,  or  execute  public  functions  who  were  not  x\rians. 


Many  renounced  their  charges,  and  were  thereupon  driven 
from  their  houses,  despoiled  of  their  property,  and  banished 
to  Sicily  and  Sardinia.  He  next  ordered  that  no  Catholic 
bishop  was  to  be  consecrated  till  he  had  paid  to  the  treasury 
five  hundred  pieces  of  gold.  But  when  he  was  told  that  if 
this  was  insisted  on,  the  orthodox  emperor  would  impose  the 
same  tax  on  the  Arians  in  Thrace  and  elsewhere,  he  revoked 
the  edict.  He  next  assembled  the  consecrated  virgins,  and 
used  every  means  in  his  power  to  bribe  or  terrify  them  into 
bringing  false  accusations  against  the  bishops,  which  might 
serve  as  an  excuse  for  him  to  depose  and  banish  them.  To 
force  them  to  give  false  evidence  he  had  recourse  to  torture. 
They  were  hung  up  by  the  hands,  and  weights  attached  to 
their  feet ;  red-hot  plates  of  iron  were  applied  to  their  backs, 
breasts,  and  sides.  Many  died  under  these  tortures,  others 
were  so  mutilated  that  they  were  left  permanently  crippled ; 
but  not  one  was  found  who  would  give  the  evidence  sought. 
Huneric,  after  this,  exiled  the  bishops,  priests,  and  deacons, 
and  other  influential  Catholics,  to  the  number  of  four  thou- 
sand nine  hundred  and  seventy-six ;  they  were  banished  to 
the  Libyan  desert.  Among  them  were  the  old,  the  gouty,  and 
the  sick.  Felix,  Bishop  of  Abbirita,  who  had  occupied  the 
see  forty  years,  was  paralysed,  and  had  lost  both  the  power 
to  walk  and  to  speak.  The  Catholic  bishops,  not  knowing 
how  to  lead  him  along  with  them,  begged  the  king  to  allow 
the  poor  old  man  to  remain  and  die  in  peace  in  Carthage. 
But  Huneric  ordered,  "  If  he  cannot  sit  on  horseback,  let 
him  be  attached  by  cords  to  a  couple  of  oxen,  and  be  drawn 
thus  to  his  place  of  banishment."  He  was  conveyed  on  a 
mule,  tied  across  it,  like  a  sack  of  flour.  All  the  confessors 
were  assembled  in  the  towns  of  Sicca  and  Larsea,  whence 
the  Moors  were  to  conduct  them  to  the  desert.  They  were 
provisionally  enclosed  in  a  prison,  to  which  their  fellow- 
Catholics  were  permitted  access,  to  encourage  them,  and 


* — * 

Oct.  12.]  SS.  Cyprian  and  Felix.  289 

give  them  the  Divine  Mysteries.  Among  them  were  several 
young  children;  and  their  mothers,  yielding  to  their  parental 
love,  begged  them  to  allow  themselves  to  be  re -baptized  by 
the  Arians,  so  as  to  obtain  their  freedom.  But  the  children 
remained  as  firm  as  their  fellow-captives. 

The  prisoners  were  then  thrust  into  a  smaller  place,  where 
there  was  not  room  for  them  ;  they  were  crowded  so  densely 
that  they  were  nearly  suffocated,  nor  was  any  provision  made 
for  their  cleanliness.  The  filth  and  stench  became  so  horrible, 
that  it  was  the  worst  of  all  their  sufferings.  Victor  of  Utica, 
who  describes  all  this,  succeeded  in  penetrating  into  this 
horrible  den ;  he  had  to  wade  up  to  his  knees  in  ordure. 
When  the  Moors  received  instructions  to  drive  the  captives 
forward,  the  Catholics  issued  from  their  prison  in  a  condition 
of  indescribable  filth.  It  was  on  a  Sunday  when  they  emerged 
from  this  pestilential  den  into  the  glaring  sunlight.  They 
burst  forth  into  a  chant  of  triumph,  the  149th  Psalm,  "  Such 
honour  have  all  His  saints." 

Cyprian,  bishop  of  Uniziba,  consoled  them,  and  gave  them 
everything  he  had.  Shortly  afterwards  he  was  also  arrested, 
imprisoned,  and  exiled. 

As  the  long,  foul,  but  joyous  procession  wound  over  the 
sand-hills  it  was  followed  by  crowds.  The  roads  were  too 
narrow  to  contain  the  throng;  they  covered  the  hill  sides, 
holding  tapers  in  their  hands,  in  token  of  their  burning  faith. 
Women  cast  their  children  at  the  feet  of  the  confessors,  im- 
ploring from  them  a  blessing.  "  Who,"  sobbed  they,  "  will 
baptize  our  little  ones  ?  Who  will  give  us  absolution  ?  Who 
will  bury  us  ?  Who  will  offer  the  divine  sacrifice  ?  May  we 
follow  you  !"  Among  the  crowd  was  noticed  an  old  woman 
carrying  a  sack  over  her  shoulder,  and  leading  a  child.  She 
persistently  followed  the  confessors,  and  would  not  leave 
them.  When  the  child  lagged,  she  urged  him  forwards  with, 
"  Run,  my  boy  !  do  you  not  see  these  saints,  how  eager  tliey 

VOL.  XI  1 9 



290  Lives  of  the  Saints,  [Oct.  12. 

are  to  win  their  crown  ?  "  Those  who  attended  the  prisoners 
advised  her  to  return  home.  "  Pray  for  me,  and  for  this 
child,"  she  answered  ;  "  I  am  the  daughter  of  the  late  bishop 
of  Zurita,  and  this  is  my  grandson.  I  lead  him  along  with 
me  lest  the  enemy  should  find  him  alone,  and  take  him  to 
death."  The  bishops,  bathed  in  tears,  said,  "  The  mil  of 
God  be  done." 

They  travelled  by  night  rather  than  by  day,  because  of  the 
heat  of  the  sun,  and  lodged  in  caves,  or  under  such  rough 
shelter  as  had  been  extemporized  for  their  reception. 
During  the  march,  when  the  old  men  and  children  could 
walk  no  more,  they  were  goaded  on  with  the  points  of  the 
spears,  or  stones  were  cast  at  them  to  stimulate  them. 
^Vhen  they  fell,  unable  to  proceed,  the  Moors  tied  their 
feet,  and  they  were  drawn  along  like  dead  beasts.  The 
stones  tore  their  garments  and  skin.  One  had  his  head 
broken,  the  side  of  another  was  ripped  open,  and  many  died, 
and  were  given  hasty  burial  all  along  the  way.  The  food 
provided  for  those  who  walked  was  uncrushed  barley.  When 
they  reached  their  destination  they  found  a  desolate,  sandy 
waste,  full  of  venomous  beasts,  and  there  they  lingered  out 
a  miserable  existence,  till  death  ended  their  sorrows,  and 
translated  them  to  a  glorious  immortality. 

S.  FIECH,  B.C. 

(beginning  of  6th  century.) 

[Irish  Martyrologies.     Authority  : — Mention  in  the  tripartite  Hfe  of 
S.  Patrick,  and  in  the  other  lives  of  the  Apostle  of  Ireland.] 

In  Carlow  lived,  at  the  time  that  S.  Patrick  was  preaching 
the  faith  in  Ireland,  a  chief  bard,  named  Dubtach,  with 
whom   he   had  contracted   a   warm    friendship.     There   is 

^ 4i 

i^ * 

Oct.  12.]  ^-     ^i^C^.  291 

nothing  in  legend  more  poetic  than  the  meeting  between 
the  Gallo-Roman  apostle  and  the  Irish  bards,  who  formed 
an  hereditary  and  sacerdotal  class.  Among  them  he  found 
his  most  faithful  disciples.  Ossian  himself,  the  blind  Homer 
of  Ireland,  is  said  to  have  allowed  himself  to  be  converted  by 
him,  and  Patrick  is  reported  to  have  Hstened  in  his  turn  as 
he  sang  the  long  epic  of  Keltic  kings  and  heroes.  Harmony 
was  not  established  between  these  two  without  being  pre- 
ceded by  storms.  Patrick  threatened  with  hell  the  profane 
warriors  whose  glory  Ossian  vaunted,  and  the  bard  replied 
to  the  apostle,  "  If  thy  God  were  in  hell,  my  heroes  would 
draw  him  thence."  But  triumphant  truth  made  peace 
between  poetry  and  faith.  The  monasteries  Patrick  founded 
became  the  asylum  and  centre  of  Keltic  poetry.  ''  When 
once  blessed  and  transformed,"  says  an  old  author,  "the 
songs  of  the  bards  became  so  sweet,  that  the  angels  of  God 
leant  down  from  heaven  to  listen  to  them."  ^ 

S.  Patrick  visited  Dubtach  the  arch-bard,  father,  more 
over,  of  the  blessed  Bridget,  and  in  one  of  their  conversa- 
tions the  saint  asked  his  friend  if  he  knew  any  one  in  that 
country  whom  he  could  promote  to  holy  orders.  Dubtach 
answered  that  he  had  a  disciple  named  Fiech,  a  sweet 
singer  and  harpist,  then  absent,  who  was  a  modest,  God- 
fearing man.  Before  the  conversation  was  ended  Fiech 
returned  from  Connaught,  whither  Dubtach  had  sent  him  to 
present  some  poems  of  his  composition  to  the  princes  of 
that  province.  Fiech  was  of  an  illustrious  family,  being  son 
of"  Ere,  of  the  house  of  Hy-Bairrch  in  Leinster.  He  was  a 
widower,  left  with  an  only  son,  named  Fiacher.  He  was  not 
yet  baptized,  but  he  was  a  catechumen.  S.  Patrick  examined 
him,  gave  him  the  washing  of  regeneration,  and  the  tonsure, 
and  after  some  time  ordained  him  bishop.  His  see  was  at 
Sletty,  and  he  is  said  also  to  have  governed  a  monastery, 

'  Quoted  by  La  Villemarque,  "  La  Legende  Celtique,"  p.  109. 

which  was  called  Domnach-Fiech,  at  the  east  of  the  Barrow, 
in  Carlo w.  He  had  a  monastery  as  well  at  Sletty,  which 
was  his  own  patrimony.  He  lived  to  an  extremely  advanced 
age,  and  it  is  said  that  sixty  of  his  disciples  departed  this  life 
before  him.  It  is  therefore  probable  that  he  died  at  the 
very  beginning  of  the  6th  century. 

S.  EDWIN,  K.M. 

(a.d.  633.) 

[By  error  in  Wilson's  Anglican  iNIartyrology  on  Oct.  4  (iv.  Octobris, 
instead  of  iv.  Id.  Octobijs).  Not  in  other  martyrologies.  But  several 
churches  in  England  dedicated  to  him.] 

The  life  of  Edwin,  King  of  Northumbria,  is  so  intimately 
mixed  up  with  that  of  S.  Paulinus  of  York,  that  the  reader  is 
referred  for  it  to  the  life  of  this  latter  saint,  on  Oct.  loth. 


(a.d.  709.) 

[Roman  Martyrology.  The  Translation  of  S.  Wilfrid  on  April  24, 
the  Deposition  on  Oct.  12.  York  and  Hereford  Kalendars,  not  Sarum. 
Lives  by  Eddius  and  Eadmer  ;  Bede,  "Eccl.  Hist."  ii.  iii.  iv.  v.  ;  MS. 
Offices  of  S.  Wilfrid  for  parish  of  Ripon,  a.d.  1418 ;  "Fasti  Ebora- 
censes,"  i.  55-83,  and  authorities  there  cited.] 

The  life  of  S.  Wilfrid  possesses  special  interest  and  im- 
portance as  that  of  one  of  the  greatest  men  of  his  day,  who 
lived  through  one  of  the  greatest  crises  that  the  Church  in 
England  has  experienced,  and  who,  by  his  character  and 
conduct,  influenced  public  affairs  as  few  men  could  have 
done.     His  thoughts,  his  energies,  his  singular  abilities,  his 

^. . ^ 

^ ^ 

Oct.  12.]  ^-  Wilfrid.  293 

earnest  prayers,  were,  from  the  time  of  his  arriving  at  early 
manhood,  all  directed  to  that  great  revival  of  religion  which 
was  ushered  in  by  the  mission  of  S.  Augustine.  The  strong 
Roman  sympathies  which  he  formed  in  early  life  increased 
as  years  rolled  on,  and  he  visited  the  holy  city  no  less  than 
three  times.  He  was  the  first  English  prelate  to  appeal  to 
the  Roman  pontiff  against  the  powers  that  thwarted  him  at 
home.  Of  his  eventful  life  we  have  very  full  particulars 
preserved  by  his  friend  and  chaplain,  Stephen  Eddi,  whose 
account,  though  to  be  received  with  caution  as  that  of  an 
ardent  partisan,  is  nevertheless  of  great  value  as  that  of  a 
contemporary  writer. 

S.  Wilfrid  was  born  a.d.  634,  of  noble  parents,  somewhere 
in  Northumbria.  None  of  the  early  biographers  mention 
their  name  or  residence,  and  the  local  tradition  that  Ripon 
was  his  birthplace,  and  AUhallowgate  the  precise  locality,  is 
probably  a  pleasing  fiction  of  comparatively  recent  origin. 
His  birth,  Uke  that  of  S.  Cuthbert  and  others,  is  said  to  have 
been  signalized  by  a  miraculous  light  from  heaven,  filling  the 
whole  house,  so  that  the  neighbours,  thinking  it  was  on  fire, 
ran  for  water  to  put  out  the  flames.  The  midwives,  however, 
told  them  that  a  man-child  was  born,  and  that  it  was  no 
common  fire  which  they  saw,  but  a  sign  from  heaven  be- 
tokening the  favour  of  God.  The  old  writers  are  very 
eloquent  on  this  light,  as  being  like  that  in  the  burning  bush, 
indicating  that  the  new-born  child  was  truly  a  child  of  light, 
destined  by  God  to  lighten  the  whole  land  of  Britain.  Wil- 
frid is  described  as  having  been  a  grave  and  holy  child,  of 
remarkable  beauty,  fond  of  the  society  of  older  people,  and, 
when  in  the  presence  of  those  who  visited  his  father,  "swift 
to  hear,  and  slow  to  speak."  His  first  great  trial  was  the 
loss  of  his  mother,  his  next  the  harshness  of  a  stepmother. 
This  led  to  his  early  departure  from  his  father's  house,  which 
took  place  when  he  was  in  his  thirteenth  year,  at  his  own 

»J,_ * 

294  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  m. 

desire.  He  set  his  mind  on  going  to  court,  like  other  noble 
youths,  and  was  accordingly  provided  by  his  father  with 
arms,  and  horses,  and  servants,  all  equipped  as  befitted  one 
who  was  to  stand  before  kings.  Being  moved  by  the  ex- 
ample of  the  patriarchs,  he  asked  for  his  father's  blessing, 
and,  having  obtained  it,  he  left  the  home  of  his  childhood 
for  the  court  of  Oswi,  King  of  Northumbria.  We  have 
already  seen  that  Wilfrid  was  "  a  proper  child,"  and  are  not 
surprised  therefore  to  find  that  when  he  appeared  at  court 
as  a  handsome  boy  of  noble  bearing,  introduced  by  courtiers 
on  whom  he  had  attended  in  the  home  he  was  leaving,  he 
met  with  a  kindly  reception  from  Eanfled,  the  queen.  He 
speedily  won  all  hearts  by  his  bright  and  happy  face  and 
disposition,  tempered  by  a  serenity  which  is  described  as 
angelic.  He  appears  soon  to  have  found  a  second  mother 
in  the  queen,  to  whom  he  confided  his  desire  to  serve  God 
more  perfectly.  She  accordingly  prevailed  on  the  king  to 
excuse  him  from  military  training,  and  appointed  him  to 
attend  on  a  noble  named  Cudda,  an  old  friend  and  coun- 
sellor of  the  royal  house,  who,  being  now  palsied  and  weary 
of  the  world,  was  longing  to  end  his  days  as  a  monk  at 
Lindisfarne.  And  when  Cudda  decided  to  go,  Wilfrid  must 
needs  go  too ;  he  also  yearned  for  a  holier  life ;  the  boy's 
heart  was  drawn  to  the  heart  of  the  man,  and  they  two 
together,  the  one  in  the  morning  of  life  the  other  at  the 
eventide,  turned  their  backs  upon  the  world  to  devote  them- 
selves entirely  to  the  service  of  God.  As  we  are  so  beauti- 
fully taught  by  our  own  poet : 

"  He  loves  when  age  and  youth  are  met, 

Fervent  old  age  and  youth  serene, 
Their  high  and  \o\i  in  concord  set 

For  sacred  song,  joy's  golden  mean."  ' 

At  Lindisfarne  he  soon  became  as  great  a  favourite  as  he 

'  "The  Christian  Year"— S.  Simon  and  S.  Jude. 


— * 


Oct.  12.] 

6".  Wilfrid.  295 

had  been  at  Court,  and  he  applied  himself  earnestly  to  study 
and  devotion.  He  soon  learned  the  whole  of  the  psalter  by 
heart,  as  monks  were  accustomed  to  do,  and  his  constant 
companions  were  the  Holy  Scriptures,  the  writings  of  the 
Fathers,  and  such  other  books  as  the  monastic  library  con- 
tained. Here  he  remained  for  about  four  years,  during 
which,  as  his  mind  became  more  formed  and  his  judg- 
ment matured,  he  grew  less  and  less  satisfied  with  the 
Scottish  usages,  and  was  convinced  that  there  was  a  more 
excellent  way,  and  that  this  was  to  be  learned  at  Rome,  and 
Rome  alone.  It  is  not  hard  to  divine  how  he  was  led  to 
this  conviction.  Queen  Eanfled  had  been  brought  up  under 
her  mother's  care  and  under  Paulinus's  direction  in  a  monas- 
tery in  Kent,^  and  was  thoroughly  Roman.  With  her  was  her 
chaplain  Romanus.  Oswi  and  his  clergy  were  of  the  Scottish 
school.  There  was  a  constant  controversy  at  court  between 
Rome  and  lona,  and  thus  the  seed  of  strife  was  sown  in 
Wilfrid's  heart.  His  connection  with  the  court  and  with 
Lindisfarne  would  naturally  lead  to  his  forming  the  acquaint- 
ance of  some  of  the  Roman  missionaries,  whose  teaching 
and  conversation  would  be  to  him  as  the  opening  out  of  a 
new  world.  We  are  not  to  think  of  him  at  Lindisfarne  as  a 
mediaeval  recluse.  The  Saxon  monasteries  were  schools  of 
learning  for  young  nobles  and  clerics  as  well  as  retreats  for 
ascetic  devotion,  and  Wilfrid  appears  to  have  resided  as  a 
scholar,  being  allowed  at  times  to  leave  the  place.  Accord- 
ingly we  find  him  consulting  not  only  his  brethren  in  the 
monastery,  but  his  father  at  home,  and  his  friends  in  the 
royal  palace,  respecting  his  future  course.  The  road  to 
Rome  is  spoken  of  as  having  been  up  to  that  time  un- 
trodden by  our  people,  but  this  made  no  difference  to  Wil- 
frid when  once  he  had  set  his  heart  on  journeying  thither. 
He  had  resolved  to  learn  the  way  of  God  more  perfectly, 

*  See  Bede,  "Hist.  Eccl."ii.  ix.  xx.  ;  iii.  xv. 


^_ — (Jj 

296  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  „. 

under  the  very  shadow  of  S.  Peter,  and  to  behold  for  himself 
the  glories  of  the  Eternal  City.  And  as  he  had  quitted  the 
court  for  Lindisfame,  so  now  he  was  restless  till  he  could 
quit  Lindisfarne  for  Rome.  The  brethren  bade  him  God 
speed,  and  the  queen,  with  his  father's  concurrence,  did  all 
in  her  power  to  favour  his  project.  She  gave  him  letters  of 
introduction  to  her  cousin  Erconbert,  King  of  Kent,  asking 
him  to  provide  her  young  friend  with  safe  and  honourable 
conduct  to  Rome.  The  king  received  him  kindly,  and  both 
he  and  Honorius,  the  archbishop,  a  disciple  of  S.  Gregory, 
may  well  have  been  charmed  by  Wilfrid's  devotion  to  re- 
ligion and  his  thirst  for  knowledge.  He  would  be  no  less 
pleased  to  become  acquainted  with  such  men  as  he  would 
meet  at  Canterbury.  But  his  patience  was  sorely  tried  by 
his  having  to  stay  there  a  whole  year,  and  he  employed  him- 
self partly  in  committing  to  memory  the  Roman  psalter  (the 
earliest  version  of  S.  Jerome)  and  unlearning  the  Galilean  (a 
later  Hieronymian  version),  which  he  had  learned  at  Lindis- 
farne. This  was  much  as  if  one  who  had  acquired  our 
Bible  version  should  set  to  work  and  master  the  Prayer- 
Book  version  in  the  same  way.  At  last  it  happened  that 
another  young  EngUsh  noble,  who,  like  Wilfrid,  had  been 
attached  to  Oswi's  court,  one  Baducing,  better  known  as 
Benedict  Biscop,  the  founder  of  Jarrow  and  Monk  Wear- 
mouth,  was  also  desirous  to  visit  Rome.  Wilfrid  was  allowed 
to  go  under  his  protection,  he  being  probably  the  older  of 
the  two.  On  their  arrival  at  Lyons  they  were  honourably 
received  by  Delphinus,  the  archbishop.  Benedict  continued 
his  journey  almost  immediately,  but  Wilfrid,  notwithstanding 
his  impatience  to  see  Rome,  was  induced  to  remain  at 
Lyons  for  a  whole  year.  It  seems  not  unlikely  that  the 
youth  was  in  love,  however  much  he  might  strive  against 
such  tender  emotions.  Delphinus,  who  appears  to  have 
been  a  sort  of  "  prince-bishop,"  offered  to  make  him  his 

^ —— »j( 

S    i'      'y    V 

rroDQ  a  Erawin^  by  A.  Welby  Pugin. 



Oct.  X2.]  ^.  Wilfrid.  297 

heir,  to  give  him  his  niece  in  marriage,  and  to  appoint  him 
governor  over  a  great  part  of  the  country.  But  none  of 
these  inducements  availed  to  turn  him  from  his  great  pur- 
pose, whatever  they  may  have  had  to  do  with  his  tarrying  so 
long  on  the  way.  He  courteously  and  gratefully  declined 
the  honours  that  were  offered  to  him,  stranger  as  he  was, 
answering  that  the  vows  of  the  Lord  were  upon  him,  that 
like  Abraham  he  had  left  home  and  kindred  in  obedience 
to  a  call  from  God,  and  that  to  this  call  alone  he  could  now 
give  ear.  Delphinus  could  not  but  admire  him  all  the  more 
for  such  pious  determination,  and  having  furnished  him  with 
a  guide  and  all  things  needful,  sent  him  on  his  journey, 
earnestly  desiring  him  again  to  stay  at  Lyons  as  he  returned 
to  the  north. 

As  soon  as  he  arrived  in  Rome  he  went  to  the  oratory  of 
S.  Andrew,  probably  at  the  monastery  of  S.  Andrew  on  the 
Coelian  Hill,  which  S.  Gregory  had  founded.^  Prostrating 
himself  before  the  altar,  over  which  was  placed  a  large 
Book  of  the  Gospels,  he  besought  with  tears  that  he  might 
have  understanding  given  him,  and  power  to  teach  those 
gospels  to  others.  While  engaged  in  his  daily  work  of  seek- 
ing out  and  praying  at  the  tombs  of  the  martyrs,  and  other 
holy  places,  he  became  acquainted  with  Boniface  the  arch- 
deacon, secretary  to  Pope  Martin  I.  The  archdeacon's 
house  was  the  school  of  the  clergy;  candidates  for  holy 
orders  came  to  be  instructed  by  him,  and  were  ordained,  as 
at  present,  on  his  certifying  to  their  fitness.  And  so  Wilfrid, 
aspiring  to  the  priesthood,  would  be  likely  to  come  in  his 

From   this   new  friend   he   received  instruction  in   the 

'  See  Life  of  S.  Gregory,  vol.  iii.  p.  227  ;  Stanley's  Canterbury,  1857,  p.  5.  The 
memory  of  Wilfrid's  prayers  here  was  preserved  in  the  Ripon  Offices: — "Resp.  iii. 
Andrea  piissime  Apostolorum  Dei,  experiar  vincula  mese  impietatis  per  tua  merila 
solvi.  Vers,  O  fides  famuli  Dei,  non  citius  oravit  quam  modum  elocutionis  per- 


^ _ * 

298  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  12 

Gospels,  in  the  Roman  rule  for  Easter,  and  in  the  many 
other  matters  of  ecclesiatical  discipline  respecting  which  he 
had  been  desirous  of  information.^  Having  received  the 
Pope's  blessing,  and  taken  leave  of  his  kind  instructor,  he 
returned  to  Lyons,  where  he  was  again  most  hospitably 
entertained.  Doubtless  he  had  much  to  tell  of  what  he  had 
seen  and  heard  during  his  first  visit  to  Rome.  At  Lyons  he 
sojourned  for  three  years,  and  received  the  Roman  tonsure 
from  Delphinus,  thus  casting  off  the  last  outward  mark  of  his 
early  religious  life. 

It  is  impossible  to  say  how  much  longer  he  might  have 
stayed  in  Lyons  had  not  Bathild,  Queen  of  France,  begun 
to  persecute  the  Church.  Delphinus  suffered  martyrdom, 
and  Wilfrid  wished  to  suffer  with  him.  The  persecutors, 
however,  would  not  touch  him  when  they  found  that  he  was 
an  Englishman,  but  allowed  him  to  bury  Delphinus  in  peace 
and  return  to  his  own  land. 

On  his  arrival  he  found,  to  his  great  joy,  Alcfrid,  the  son 
of  King  Oswi,  associated  with  his  father  in  the  govern- 
ment of  Northumbria,  and  both  of  them  ardent  supporters 
of  the  Church.  Alcfrid  had  been  on  the  point  of  going  to 
Rome  with  Biscop  in  653,  but  was  detained  by  his  father.  Like 
many  of  the  rising  youth  of  the  country,  he  avowed  his  pre- 
ference for  Roman  usages;  his  father,  on  the  other  hand, 
remained  strongly  attached  to  the  national  customs.  Wil- 
frid had  landed  somewhere  in  the  kingdom  of  the  West 
Saxons,  and  begun  to  preach.  King  Canwalch  sent  a  report 
of  him  to  Alcfrid,  how  he  had  come  home  full  of  what  he 
had  learned  at  Canterbury,  and  Lyons,  and  Rome.  This 
occasioned  a  summons  for  him  to  return  speedily  to  his 
native  Northumbria.     They  must  have  known  each  other, 

'  An  interesting  relic  of  Boniface  has  recently  been  found  in  a  rubbish-heap  at 
Whitby,  namely,  a  leaden  bulla,  with  the  words  BONIFATII  ARCHIDIAC,  which 
was  possibly  once  attached  to  a  document  brought  to  England  by  Wilfrid  himself. 

^ ^* 


Oct.  12.]  ^.  Wilfrid.  299 

one  would  suppose,  as  boys  together  in  the  palace  of  Oswi. 
However  this  may  have  been,  Wilfrid  was  received  as  an 
angel  of  God,  he  was  regarded  as  a  hero,  having  been  at 
Rome  and  witnessed  martyrdom.  Alcfrid  prostrated  himself 
before  him  and  besought  his  blessing.  Then  they  had  much 
religious  converse  on  the  Roman  discipline,  and  doubtless 
on  the  wonderful  Rule  of  S.  Benedict,  which  in  all  probability 
excited  in  the  prince  that  great  munificence  which  he  so 
soon  displayed.  As  their  mutual  love  increased  day  by 
day,  they  soon  became,  as  Eddi  says,  like  David  and  Jona- 
than. The  prince  bestowed  on  the  ecclesiastic  an  estate  at 
Stamford,  and  another  at  Ripon,  which  included  a  monastery 
he  had  previously  founded  there  for  Scottish  monks,  where 
Eata  and  S.  Cuthbert  were  now  resident.  These,  however, 
had  to  choose  between  accepting  the  Roman  traditions, 
which  Wilfrid  was  determined  to  introduce,  and  leaving  the 
place.  They  could  not  give  up  their  national  usages,  and  so 
had  to  make  way  for  others  who  were  willing  to  be  ruled  by 
Wilfrid.  He  had  not,  however,  as  yet  obtained  priest's 
orders,  but  as  this  seemed  now  desirable,  he  was  at  Alcfrid's 
request  ordained  by  Agilbert,  Bishop  of  the  West  Saxons. 

The  Roman  movement  had  by  this  time  made  such  pro- 
gress in  the  north  that  the  Church  was  fairly  spHt  up  into 
two  parties.  The  controversy  which  had  begun  in  the  mon- 
astery at  Ripon  spread  through  the  whole  of  Northumbria, 
and  nowhere  were  men  less  of  one  mind  in  a  house  than 
in  the  King's  court.  Oswi,  as  we  have  seen,  adhered  to  the 
traditions  of  his  father;  Eanfled  his  wife,  and  Alcfrid  his 
son,  to  the  Roman  innovations,  so  that  the  Easter  of  the  one 
party  in  some  years  coincided  with  the  Passion-tide  of  the 

Under  these  circumstances,  Oswi  summoned  a  council  at 
Streanshalch,  now  Whitby.  On  the  Scottish  side  were  Colman, 
the  Northumbrian  bishop,  with  his  clergy  ;  Hilda,  Abbess  of 



300  Lives  of  the  Saints,  foct.  12 

Whitby;  Cedd,  Bishop  of  the  East  Saxons,  a  Yorkshireman 
by  birth,  and  King  Oswi.  On  the  Roman,  Agilbert,  Bishop  of 
the  West  Saxons  ;  the  priests  Agatho  and  Wilfrid ;  James,  the 
deacon  of  S.  Pauhnus ;  Romanus,  the  queen's  chaplain,  and 
Alcfrid.  The  chief  points  in  dispute  were,  the  time  of  keep- 
ing Easter  and  the  mode  of  making  the  tonsure.  It  may  be 
well  here  to  say  a  little  about  the  famous  "  Paschal  Contro- 
versy," and  the  tonsure.  The  Churches  of  Asia,  professedly  on 
the  authority  of  S.  John  the  Evangelist  and  S.  Philip,  kept 
Easter  Day  not  of  necessity  on  a  Sunday,  but  always  on 
the  same  day  as  the  Jewish  Passover,  viz.,  the  14th  day  of 
Nisan  or  Abib,  which  month  began  with  the  new  moon  next 
to  the  vernal  equinox,  so  that  the  "  Paschal  full  moon " 
appeared  on  the  14th  day.  Hence  those  who  kept  Easter  on 
this  day  were  called  "  Quartodecimans."  The  other  Churches, 
especially  those  of  the  West,  kept  Easter  Day  on  the  Sunday 
after  the  Jewish  Passover,  as  we  do  now,  claiming  the  au- 
thority of  S.  Peter  and  S.  Paul,  and  this  rule  was  confirmed 
by  the  Nicene  Council.  But  the  time  of  the  vernal  equinox 
was  a  matter  of  astronomical  calculation,  and  the  British  and 
Scottish  churches,  although  always  keeping  Easter  Day  on  a 
Sunday,  and  so  not  being  Quartodecimans,  as  has  sometimes 
been  supposed,  differed  from  the  Romans  as  to  the  calcula- 
tion adopted,  and  so  as  to  the  particular  Sunday  kept  as 
Easter  Day,  much  as  we  now  differ  from  the  Greek  Church. 
Then  as  to  the  tonsure,  the  Romans  shaved  the  top  of  the 
head,  leaving  a  circle  of  hair  like  the  crown  of  thorns  ;  the 
Britons  and  Scots  shaved  the  front  part  of  the  head  from 
ear  to  ear.  On  these  and  on  other  ceremonial  differences, 
not  so  particularly  handed  down  to  us,  the  controversy  was 
carried  on  with  a  vehemence  that  we  can  now  scarcely 
understand.  Colman  grounded  the  Scottish  traditions  on 
the  authority  of  S.  John  the  beloved  disciple,  and  of  S. 
Columba.     Wilfrid,  who  was  the  chief  speaker  on  the  other 



Oct.   12.] 

S.  Wilfrid.  301 

side,  and  much  the  more  able  man  of  the  two,  defended  the 
Roman  usages  by  an  appeal  to  the  Chair  of  St.  Peter,  the 
rock  on  which  Christ  had  built  His  Church,  and  to  whom 
He  had  given  the  keys  of  the  kingdom  of  heaven.  A  long 
discussion  took  place,  which  is  reported  at  length  by  Bede 
(H.  E.,  iii.  25).  King  Oswi  seems  to  have  been  convinced 
by  Wilfrid's  learning  and  eloquence,  and  said,  perhaps  in  a 
half  jesting  way,  that  he  dare  not  now  gainsay  the  authority 
of  S.  Peter,  lest  when  he  came  to  heaven's  gate  the  keeper 
of  the  keys  should  refuse  to  let  him  ir. ,  It  has,  indeed,  been 
suggested  that  he  may  have  been  actuated  by  the  more  sub- 
lunary motive  of  desiring  to  stand  well  with  the  supposed 
representative  of  S.  Peter  on  earth.  Wilfrid  certainly  gained 
the  day,  and  Colman,  unconvinced,  retired  with  his  adhe- 
rents to  lona,  leaving  Wilfrid  and  Alcfrid  masters  of  the 
situation.  Cedd  and  Hilda  were  induced  to  adopt  the 
Roman  view,  by  which,  with  respect  to  Easter,  we  have 
been  regulated  ever  since. ^ 

One  Tuda  was  appointed  to  succeed  Colman,  but  he  soon 
afterwards  died  in  a  pestilence,  and  now  all  eyes  were  turned 
on  Wilfrid  as  the  fittest  person  to  take  his  place.  On  his 
nomination  by  the  two  kings,  Oswi  and  Alcfrid,  he  at  first 
excused  himself  as  unworthy,  but  soon  consented.  He 
would,  however,  on  no  account  receive  consecration  from 
any  Scottish  bishops,  or  from  any  who  had  been  consecrated 
by  them.  He  begged  to  be  sent  to  France,  where  he  might 
be  consecrated  by  prelates  who  were  in  full  communion  with 
the  Apostolic  See.  Alcfrid  sent  him  to  his  old  friend  Agilbert, 
who  had  ordained  him  priest,  who  had  supported  him  at  the 

'  "  Many  a  disputation  is  turn'd  off  the  hinges  by  that  which  is  very  Httle  to  the 
purpose,  for  when  the  judgment  is  tired,  then  anything  that  strikes  the  fancy  pre- 
vails. Thus,  King  Oswy  was  carried  away  with  a  notion  that  S.  Peter  was  literally 
3.  porter,  and  that  he  lay  at  his  mercy  whether  he  should  ever  be  able  to  enter  into 
heaven  .  .  .  this  gave  so  great  a  turn  to  the  English  nation  that  it  was  thereby 
brought  to  a  subjection  to  Rome." — Joint.  Wyat,  1706,  in  Peck's  Stamford,  1727, 
page  20. 



302  Lives  of  the  Saints.  joct  12. 

Council  of  Whitby,  and  who  at  that  time  was  Bishop  of  Paris. 
Eleven  other  bishops  assisted  at  the  consecration,  which  took 
place  at  Compiegne,  \vith  all  the  pomp  that  Wilfrid  so  dearly 
loved.  The  bishops  themselves  carried  him  in  a  golden 
chair,  which  no  one  of  lower  rank  was  allowed  to  touch,  in 
fair  procession,  with  music  and  singing.  And  he  was  conse- 
crated to  the  see  of  York,  which  the  great  Paulinus  had  held 
as  Archbishop  of  Northumbria — a  position,  doubtless,  for 
which  his  royal  friends  thought  no  one  could  be  better  fitted, 
than  which  none  could  have  been  more  congenial  to  his 
own  ambition.  Little  did  he  think  what  troubles  awaited 
him,  now  that  he  seemed  at  the  very  height  of  prosperity. 
On  the  voyage  home  he  and  his  companions  were  cast  ashore 
by  a  storm  on  the  coast  of  Sussex,  which  left  their  ship  high 
on  the  sands  at  the  ebb  of  the  tide.  The  natives  attacked 
it,  and  a  conflict  ensued,  in  which  five  of  Wilfrid's  men  were 
lost,  but  the  attacking  party  were  driven  back.  With  the 
flood  they  got  away  to  sea,  and  landed  at  Sandwich  in  Kent. 
Meanwhile,  even  Wilfrid's  own  friends  became  impatient  at 
his  long  absence,  and  the  Scottish  party  were  not  idle.  They 
now  saw  their  opportunity,  and  Oswi,  perhaps  but  half  con- 
vinced at  the  Council  of  Whitby,  was  so  influenced  by  them 
as  now  to  forward  their  views.  Alcfrid  had  perhaps  died  of 
the  plague  that  carried  off  Tuda.  Neither  Eanfled  nor 
Wilfrid's  other  friends  had  power  enough  to  keep  the  see 
vacant  for  him.  The  humble-minded  presbyter  Chad  was 
induced  to  leave  his  quiet  retreat  at  Lastingham  to  be  con- 
secrated by  Wina,  Bishop  of  Winchester,  and  two  British 
bishops,  as  Bishop  of  York,  with  jurisdiction  over  the  whole 
of  Northumbria,  so  as  entirely  to  exclude  Wilfrid.'  It  must 
have  been  a  severe  disappointment  to  him  when  he  did 
return  to  find  the  see  occupied.  But  he  acquiesced  in  what 
had  been  done  so  far  as  to  retire  peaceably  to  his  monas- 

'  See  Life  of  S.  Chad,  vol.  iii.  p.  25. 



=S^8l--^    t  '"■■  /  '^y''-///f    '•'-'■-"5,;,  "v  >\ 

— ^'^^ 


Oct.  12. 



Oct  12.]  'S'.  Wilfrid.  303 

teries  at  Stamford  and  Ripon,  invited  occasionally  by  Egbert, 
King  of  Kent,  and  Wulfhere,  King  of  Mercia,  to  exercise 
episcopal  functions  in  their  dominions,  for  they  were  without 
bishops.  This  state  of  things  continued  for  about  three 
years,  but  was  put  an  end  to  at  last  by  the  arrival  of  Theo- 
dore of  Tarsus  in  England  as  metropoHtan,  a.d.  669. 

Wilfrid's  acquaintance  with  Eddi,  and  his  attachment  to 
the  Benedictine  rule,  began  in  the  interval.  Theodore  suc- 
ceeded in  bringing  about  an  amicable  arrangement,  whereby 
Chad  willingly  retired  to  Lastingham,  and  Wilfrid  was  esta- 
blished at  York  as  bishop  of  all  Northumbria.  At  the  re- 
quest of  Wulfhere,  Chad  was  soon  appointed  by  Theodore 
to  be  Bishop  of  Mercia.  But  he  had  to  undergo  re-conse- 
cration, because  his  former  consecration  was  deemed  un- 
canonical.  Of  the  three  consecrating  bishops  on  that 
occasion,  Wina  was  the  only  one  in  Roman  orders,  and  the 
only  one,  according  to  Bede,  then  to  be  found  in  the  whole 
of  Britain.  Wilfrid  probably  had  something  to  do  with 
Chad's  going  to  Lichfield:  he  would  possibly  be  glad  to 
show  him  a  kindness,  and  would  certainly  not  be  sorry  to 
get  rid  of  one  whom  some  might  consider  as  the  rightful 
bishop  of  York.  And  when  Chad  submitted  to  re-consecra- 
tion, his  satisfaction  would  be  complete. 

King  Oswi  appears  to  have  been  a  person  of  easy-going 
disposition,  and  to  have  fallen  in  with  all  this  as  readily  as  he 
had  done  with  the  former  appointment  of  Chad.  Wilfrid 
now  set  his  whole  mind  on  advancing  the  interests  of  Rome 
in  his  vast  diocese,  which  included  the  district  of  Galloway, 
and  other  parts  of  Scotland,  as  well  as  our  present  northern 
province,  together  with  the  parts  of  Lindsey.  He  employed 
Eddi  to  teach  the  Gregorian  tones,  he  had  skilful  masons  to 
build  in  England  as  they  built  in  Rome,  and  he  strove  to  re- 
cover the  holy  places  of  the  British  Church.  Oswi  soon  after 
died,  and  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Egfrid,  who  at  first 



304  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Octia. 

helped  Wilfrid  by  liberal  contributions  to  his  great  works  at 
Ripon  and  elsewhere, — thank-offerings  for  his  successes 
against  the  Picts  and  the  Mercians,  attributed  to  the  merits 
and  prayers  of  the  man  of  God.  It  is  the  delight  of  the 
chroniclers  to  relate  how,  where  Wilfrid  found  mean  struc- 
tures of  wood  and  thatch,  he  left  noble  buildings  of  stone, 
with  lead  roofs  and  wondrous  vaults.  The  church  at  York 
being  in  a  deplorable  condition,  he  thoroughly  repaired, 
cleansed,  and  whitewashed  it,  as  Eddi  says,  supra  nivem  de- 
albavit ;  and  the  windows  were  now  apparently  for  the  first 
time  filled  with  glass,  instead  of  perforated  wood  or  stone,  or 
oiled  linen.  At  Ripon  he  built  an  entirely  new  basilica  of 
wrought  stone,  with  goodly  columns  and  marvellous  porches, 
on  which  Eddi  descants  in  a  most  interesting  way,  and  gives 
an  account  of  a  magnificent  Book  of  the  Gospels,  probably 
such  a  one  as  Wilfrid  had  seen  in  S.  Andrew's  oratory  at 
Rome,  most  likely  brought  by  him  from  Rome  or  Lyons, 
and  preserved  in  the  minster  till  the  Reformation  as  the 
Textus  Sandi  Wilfridi.  The  crypt,  commonly  called  S.  Wil- 
frid's needle,  which  still  exists,  probably  belonged  to  this 
church,  and  its  curious  little  niches  may  possibly  be  reminis- 
cences of  the  columbaria  in  the  catacombs.  The  dedication, 
characteristically  in  honour  of  S.  Peter,  was  celebrated  on  a 
sumptuous  scale  of  magnificent  ritual  and  hospitality,  with  a 
fitting  oration,  amid  a  great  concourse  of  kings,  abbots, 
nobles,  and  persons  of  all  ranks,  the  walls  resounding  with 
the  Gregorian  chants,  then  the  last  new  music  from  Italy. 
At  Hexham  he  built,  on  land  given  by  S.  Etheldreda,  a 
church  dedicated  to  S.  Andrew,  on  a  corresponding  scale  of 
grandeur,  doubtless  in  memory  of  S.  Andrew's  in  Rome  (see 
p.  297),  and  where  a  crypt  still  remains,  similar  to  that  at 
Ripon,  these  two  being  the  only  known  examples  of  the  same 
kind  in  England,  and  both,  perhaps,  imitations  of  sepulchral 
chambers  in  Rome. 




Oct.   12. 



Oct.  12.]  •5'.  Wilfrid.  305 

He  is  said  to  have  wrought  miracles  at  this  period  of  his 
hfe.  On  one  occasion,  as  he  was  riding  about  in  the  exer- 
cise of  his  episcopal  office,  a  woman  brought  her  dead  child 
to  him  to  be  raised  to  life  and  baptized,  which,  through  her 
faith  and  the  prayers  and  touch  of  the  saint,  at  once  came  to 
pass.  The  child  afterwards  lived  and  died  in  God's  service 
at  Ripon,  and  was  called  the  bishop's  son.  Then  at  Hexham 
a  youth  engaged  in  building  fell  from  a  great  height,  and  was 
taken  up  with  broken  arms  and  legs,  and  at  the  point  of 
death.  At  the  prayers  of  the  saint  and  the  brethren — the 
"medici"  having  bound  up  the  broken  bones — he  recovered 
from  day  to  day,  and  long  lived  to  praise  God.  But  Wilfrid 
was  never  tested  by  too  long  a  course  of  worldly  prosperity 
and  success.  Fresh  trials  now  awaited  him.  S.  Etheldreda, 
Egfrid's  queen,  refused  on  religious  grounds  to  live  as  a  wife 
with  her  husband,  and  the  bishop,  on  being  appealed  to,  sup- 
ported her  views,  and  so  incurred  the  displeasure  ol  the  king. 
Some  think  he  acted  a  double  part  at  this  time,  telling  Egfrid 
he  would  do  the  best  he  could  to  persuade  her,  knowing  all 
the  time  he  could  not,  having  himself  consecrated  her  as  a 
nun.  But  we  do  not  know  all  the  circumstances,  and  per- 
haps Etheldreda  ought  not  to  have  married  at  all.  Anyhow 
a  divorce  took  place,  and  Egfrid  married  Ermenburg,  who 
proved  to  be  a  bitter  enemy  to  Wilfrid.  He  was  reproached 
and  envied  on  account  of  his  wealth  and  splendour  as  the 
second  man  in  the  kingdom,  and  accused  of  neglecting  the 
spiritual  concerns  of  the  see.  Something  ol  the  kind  may 
have  come  to  the  ear  of  Theodore,  and  may  partly  account 
for  his  extraordinary  treatment  of  Wilfrid  at  this  time,  during, 
as  is  believed,  one  of  his  long  absences  from  his  see.  Wilfrid 
had  never  received  the  pall  as  archbishop,  and  so  Theodore 
took  upon  himself  to  subdivide  the  kingdom  of  Northumbria 
into  four  sees — York,  Lindisfarne,  Hexham,  and  Whitherne 
in  Galloway.     Wilfrid  was  simply  ignored  in  all  this,  though 

VOL.  XI.  20 


306  Lives  of  the  Saints.  foct.  «. 

some  say  Lindisfarne  was  offered  to  him.  It  was  not  likely 
that  he  would  submit  to  such  treatment.  He  remonstrated 
with  Theodore  and  Egfrid  face  to  face,  but  without  success, 
and  now  he  saw  but  one  course  open  to  him.  He  made  the 
appeal  to  Rome,  then,  for  the  first  time,  against  an  EngUsh 
sovereign,  and  was  met  by  reproaches,  contumely,  and  deri- 
sion on  the  part  of  the  king  and  his  courtiers,  probably  in 
Witenagemote  assembled.  "Ah  !"  said  Wilfrid,  "ye  who 
now  laugh  at  me  shall  a  year  hence  bitterly  weep." 

His  enemies,  not  venturing  to  prevent  his  going  to  Rome, 
endeavoured  to  intercept  his  appeal  by  subtilty.  They  sent 
a  message  to  Theodoric,  King  of  Neustria,  to  detain  him  on 
his  journey,  and  he,  with  the  help  of  Ebroin,  mayor  of  the 
palace,  sought  to  arrest  the  traveller.  But  they  managed  to 
secure  Winfrid,  Bishop  of  Mercia,  by  mistake,  he  too  being 
on  his  way  to  Rome.  Wilfrid  landed  in  Fries! and,  and  so 
escaped  their  hands.  During  the  winter  he  instructed  the 
rude  Frisians,  and  Adalgis,  their  king,  in  the  Christian 
faith.  The  Frisians  and  Saxons  being  the  same  race,  and 
speaking  the  same  tongue,  he  had  no  difficulty  in  making 
himself  understood.  In  the  spring  he  proceeded  towards 
Rome,  having  gained  for  himself  the  title  of  "Apostle  of 

On  his  way  he  met  with  a  most  hearty  welcome  from 
Dagobert,  a  French  prince,  who  having  vainly  tried  to  de- 
tain him  by  the  offer  of  the  see  of  Strasburg,  sent  him 
on  with  one  Bishop  Deodatus  for  a  companion,  and  with 
rich  presents  and  an  introduction  to  the  King  of  the  Lom- 
bards, from  whose  Court  he  passed  on  to  Rome.  Five-and- 
twenty  years  before  he  had  come  as  the  humble  scholar  from 
Lindisfarne,  now  he  came  as  one  of  the  greatest  of  English 
prelates.  Pope  Agatho,  who  appears  to  have  been  the  very 
Agatho  who  as  a  priest  had  assisted  at  the  Council  of  Whitby, 
rejoicing  in  this  first  appeal  from  England  to  Rome,  called  a 

* »i< 


oct.i».]  •5'.  Wilfrid.  307 

synod.  Theodore  had  sent  messengers  with  his  version  of 
the  story,  and  they  had  arrived  before  Wilfrid.  Both  sides 
were  heard,  and  Wilfrid  triumphed  at  the  Court  of  Rome  as 
he  had  done  before  at  the  little  provincial  convention  at 
Whitby.  He  was  supplied  with  letters  containing  the  syno- 
dical  decision,  with  penalties  of  suspension  and  excommuni- 
cation for  all  who  should  oppose  it.  He  was  to  be  restored 
to  his  see,  but  with  coadjutor  bishops.  Having  gained  this 
point,  he  waited  to  sit  in  a  council  against  the  Monothelites, 
where  he  represented  the  English  Church,  though  he  does 
not  appear  to  have  been  sent  for  that  purpose.  Then  he 
returned  to  the  Northumbrian  Court,  armed  with  the  papal 
missive.  But  Egfrid  and  Ermenburg  cared  little  for  foreign 
decrees,  which  moreover  they  accused  him  of  having  ob- 
tained by  bribery.  The  queen,  we  are  told,  tore  his  reli- 
quary from  his  neck,  to  wear  as  a  toy  or  a  charm,  and  Wilfrid 
was  cast  into  prison.  Here  it  is  pretended  that  he  was 
able  to  heal  the  governor's  wife  of  a  terrible  disease,  by  the 
application  of  holy  water.  Her  husband  would  now  no 
longer  act  as  jailer  to  the  holy  man,  whereupon  the  king 
sent  him  to  another  prison  at  Dunbar.  There  his  fetters  and 
manacles  dropped  oif  as  fast  as  they  were  put  on.  Mean- 
while, the  queen  was  afflicted  with  madness,  wherefore  the 
king,  advised  by  the  abbess  Ebba,  restored  the  relics,  and 
set  Wilfrid  at  liberty.  Thereupon  the  queen  recovered. 
Wilfrid,  however,  was  not  permitted  to  return  to  his  see ;  he 
had  made  himself  many  enemies,  and  was  obliged  to  flee,  first 
to  Mercia  and  then  to  Sussex.  There  he  met  with  a  royal 
patron  in  Ethelwalch,  King  of  the  South  Saxons,  who  was  a 
Christian,  though  most  of  his  people  were  heathens.  There 
was,  however,  a  little  monastery  at  Bosham,  with  five  or  six 
inmates,  which  one  Dicul,  a  Scot,  had  founded.  When 
Wilfrid  came  there,  in  time  of  terrible  drought  and  famine, 
the  people  were  throwing  themselves  oft"  the  cliffs  into  the  sea 


1^ —>h 

308  Lwes  of  the  Saints  [oct  12. 

to  escape  death  by  starvation.  By  his  prayers  he  obtained 
rain,  and  by  teaching  the  rude  men  of  Sussex  how  to  use 
their  eel-nets  in  the  sea,  he  obtained  draughts  of  fishes  which 
were  regarded  as  miraculous.  The  king  converted  his  own 
palace  into  a  residence  for  Wilfrid,  and  gave  him  an  estate  at 
Selsea.  There  he  freed  two  hundred  and  fifty  serfs,  and 
founded  a  monastery,  over  which  he  presided  for  five  years. 
He  also  converted  Cadwalla,  King  of  Wessex,  who  gave  him 
the  fourth  part  of  the  Isle  of  Wight,  and  the  bishopric  of 
Wessex.  Wilfrid  was  thus  driven  from  the  North  only  to  do 
a  great  work  in  the  South.  This  success  could  not  remain 
long  unknown  to  Theodore,  who  now,  being  nearly  ninety 
years  old,  sought  and  obtained  a  happy  reconciliation  with 
him  who  was  supported  by  Rome.  He  had,  moreover,  re- 
ceived a  rescript  from  Pope  Sergius  which  induced  him  to 
effect  this  without  delay.  He  wrote  letters,  expressing  the 
pope's  and  his  own  decision  in  favour  of  Wilfrid,  to  the 
kings  of  Mercia  and  Northumbria.  The  former,  Ethelred, 
gave  him  lands,  monasteries,  and  episcopal  jurisdiction  in 
his  kingdom.  Egfrid  was  killed  in  battle  about  this  time, 
and  Ermenburg,  if  still  alive,  was  in  no  position  to  oppose 
Wilfrid.  Indeed,  she  is  said  to  have  been  converted  by 
the  Roman  faction,  and  to  have  ended  her  days  in  a  monas- 
tery. Aldfrid,  an  illegitimate  son  of  Oswi,  succeeded  Egfrid, 
and  one  of  his  first  acts  was  to  send  for  Wilfrid,  and  re-instate 
him  at  York  and  Ripon.  There,  however,  his  unsubdued 
pride,  greed  of  power,  and  wealth,  brought  him  into  collision 
with  the  great  men  of  his  diocese  and  all  who  had  peace  at 
heart.  Aldfrid,  for  the  sake  of  peace,  asked  him  to  resign 
Ripon,  which  he  refused  to  do,  whereupon  a  serious  dis- 
ruption occurred,  and  about  five  years  after  his  restoration 
he  had  to  flee  to  Mercia  from  the  resentment  of  those 
whose  hostility  he  had  provoked.  There  he  induced  Ethel- 
red,  the  king,  to  become  a  monk,  and  effected  the  founda- 

* — 


octx..]  'S'.  Wilfrid.  309 

tion  of  many  churches  and  monasteries.  Theodore  mean- 
while had  died,  and  was  succeeded  by  Berthwald  in  the 
southern  primacy.  This  prelate,  in  conjunction  with  Ald- 
frid,  called  a  great  synod  of  English  bishops  at  Austerfield 
Plain,  near  Bawtry,^  about  nine  years  after  the  above  quarrel, 
and  Wilfrid  was  present,  either  by  invitation  or  summons. 
Being  asked  whether  he  would  abide  by  the  decision  of  the 
metropolitan,  he  warily  avoided  binding  himself  too  far,  by 
saying  he  would,  provided  it  were  conformable  to  the  decrees 
of  the  Apostolic  See. 

Aldfrid  was  exasperated,  and  great  clamour  and  confusion 
ensued.  Wilfrid  broke  out  into  indignant  expostulations. 
Some  would  have  thrown  him  into  prison,  others  were  pre- 
pared to  offer  him  the  monastery  of  Ripon  provided  he  would 
confine  himself  within  its  precincts,  and  resign  all  episcopal 
authority.  This  was  too  much.  Would  they  degrade  him 
from  his  bishopric,  after  all  that  he  had  done  for  the  North 
of  England  from  his  youth  up  until  that  hour,  and  on  false 
accusations  too  ?  Let  them  come  with  him  to  Rome,  and 
prove  before  the  sovereign  pontiff  the  charges  they  brought 
against  him.  Whereupon  the  king  and  archbishop  pro- 
nounced him  self-condemned,  in  preferring  the  judgment  of 
Rome  to  that  of  themselves.  Being  now  above  sixty  years 
old,  he  set  off  on  his  third  and  last  journey  to  Rome,  attended 
by  his  faithful  Eddi  and  other  friends.  On  his  arrival  he 
again  found  his  accusers  there  before  him,  but  their  stories 
were  not  listened  to  until  he  appeared.  The  points  in  dis- 
pute were  then  debated  in  a  series  of  meetings  held  under 
Pope  John  VI.,  during  a  space  of  about  four  months.  The 
previous  appeal  to  Pope  Agatho  and  its  results  were  recalled, 

'  Nosterfield,  near  Ripon,  has  generally  been  supposed  to  have  been  the  place. 
But  the  words  used  by  Eddi  are  Estrefclda  and  Sivinaivath  (or  fatii).  Two  miles 
south-west  of  Austerfield  is  "  S winnow  Wood."  South-east  is  Swinecar  Road. 
Moreover,  a  general  synod  of  the  English  Church  would  probably  be  held  on  the 
marches  of  North  umbria  and  Mercia,  and  not  near  the  centre  of  Northumbria. 


310  Lives  of  the  Saints.  foct.  12. 

when  the  minutes  of  the  former  synod  were  read.  Wilfrid 
was  again  acquitted  of  all  blame,  and  was  to  be  restored  to 
his  see.  Papal  letters  to  this  effect  were  written  to  Ethelred, 
King  of  Mercia,  as  well  as  to  Aldfrid,  and  Archbishop 
Berthwald  was  directed  to  call  a  council  for  the  adjustment 
of  difficulties.  Wilfrid,  however,  seems  to  have  lost  heart 
about  England ;  he  stayed  in  Rome  many  months,  and  wished 
to  end  his  days  there.  But  Pope  John  and  others  counselled 
him  to  return  to  his  native  land,  and  die,  if  so  he  might,  at 
his  post,  combating  the  liberties  of  the  national  Church. 
Accordingly,  with  the  letters  just  mentioned,  and  with  an- 
other supply  of  relics,  he  turned  homeward.  On  his  way  he 
fell  sick,  and  was  borne  on  a  litter  as  far  as  Meaux,  where  for 
four  days  he  lay  as  in  a  trance,  and  apparently  at  the  point 
of  death.  At  the  dawning  of  the  fifth  day  his  biographer 
pretends  that  S.  Michael  appeared  to  him,  and  told  him  he 
was  sent  by  the  Blessed  Virgin  to  say  that  his  life  should  be 
prolonged  four  years,  and  that  as  he  had  built  churches  in 
honour  of  S.  Peter  and  S.  Andrew,  so  he  ought  to  have 
dedicated  one  to  the  Blessed  Mother  of  God,  promising 
moreover  to  visit  him  again  at  the  end  of  four  years.  He 
told  the  heavenly  vision  to  Acca  the  priest,  then  rose  like 
a  second  Hezekiah,  washed  and  took  food,  and  made  haste 
on  his  way.  The  ^^^nd  was  favourable,  they  soon  crossed 
the  sea,  and  landed  in  Kent,  where  they  found  Berthwald, 
and  had  a  friendly  interview.  Thence  they  proceeded  to  the 
Mercian  Court,  where  they  were  kindly  received  by  Ccenred, 
the  nephew  of  Ethelred,  the  former  king.  Thence  they  sent 
messengers  to  Aldfrid,  who  appointed  a  day  for  meeting 
them,  but  showed  himself  as  ill  disposed  as  before  to  receive 
Wilfrid  and  bear  with  his  imperiousness.  Soon  after  Ald- 
frid lay  on  his  death-bed,  probably  at  Driffield,  in  the  East 
Riding  of  Yorkshire.  Eadulf,  his  successor,  was  still  more 
hostile,  threatening  to  slay  Wilfrid  and  his  friends  if  they  did 

^ ^ 

Oct.  I..]  'S'.  Wilfrid.  311 

not  leave  the  kingdom  within  six  days.  He,  however,  was 
deposed  as  a  usurper,  and  Osred,  the  son  of  Aldfrid,  and 
adopted  son  of  Wilfrid,  became  king  when  but  eight  years 
old,  with  Berchtfrid,  the  confidential  minister  of  Aldfrid,  as 
protector.  Wilfrid  was  thus  again  in  the  ascendant,  and  the 
synod  for  which  Pope  John  had  provided  was  held  on  the 
banks  of  the  Nidd,  under  Archbishop  Berthwald,  with  the 
three  northern  bishops  of  York,  Lindisfarne,  and  Whitherne. 
Elfleda,  the  sainted  abbess  of  Whitby,  and  Berchtfrid,  were 
also  there.  Berthwald  gave  a  summary  of  the  letters  of  the 
Pope  for  the  benefit  of  the  British  bishops  and  others  who 
could  not  well  follow  the  Latin,  not  improbably,  also,  soften- 
ing down  some  expressions  in  his  desire  for  peace.  But  the 
bishops  were  not  at  first  willing  to  make  way  for  Wilfrid 
against  the  interests  of  the  Northumbrian  Church,  even  at 
the  risk  of  papal  excommunication.  They  appealed  to  Berth- 
wald's  own  previous  policy,  to  the  example  of  Theodore,  to 
the  decisions  of  Egfrid  and  Aldfrid.  Elfleda  then  asserted 
that  Aldfrid  on  his  death-bed  had  promised  that,  if  his  life  were 
spared,  he  would  restore  Wilfrid.  Berchtfrid  told  of  a  similar 
vow,  urging  moreover  his  present  master's  wish  to  the  same 
eflfect,  and  at  last  a  compromise  was  arrived  at.  Wilfrid  had 
the  monasteries  of  Ripon  and  Hexham  restored  to  him,  and 
was  apparently  satisfied :  for  now  the  old  spirit  was  broken 
by  trouble  and  infirmit}',  and  he  was  no  longer  the  man  he 
had  been.  He  was  only  too  thankful  that  they  could  all  part, 
as  they  did,  with  the  kiss  of  peace,  and  walk  in  the  house  of 
God  as  friends.  As  Eddi  beautifully  writes :  "Ilia  die  omnes 
episcopi  se  invicem  osculantes  et  amplexantes,  panemque 
frangentes,  communicaverunt,  et  gratias  agentes  Deo  omnis 
hujus  beatitudinis,  in  pace  Christi  ad  sua  loca  remearunt."  ^ 
But  Wilfrid  was  not  to  know  much  more  happiness  here 
on  earth.     He  brooded  over  the  troubled  and  divided  state 

'  See  Life  of  S.  Elfleda,  Feb.  8 

lit * 

312  Lives  of  tlie  Saints.  [Oct.  is. 

of  the  Church,  and  the  desolate  condition  of  the  monasteries 
he  had  founded.  He  felt  almost  certified  how  long  he  had 
to  live,  that  his  work  was  well-nigh  done,  and  it  was  with 
feelings  of  resignation  rather  than  of  triumph  that  he  re- 
ceived his  own  again  at  Hexham  and  Ripon.  He  was  once 
more  attacked  by  the  sickness  which  had  overtaken  him  at 
Meaux — probably  low  fever,  brought  on  by  over-exertion 
and  want  of  rest  telling  on  an  enfeebled  frame.  But  at  the 
earnest  prayers  of  the  brethren,  this  was  again  removed.  At 
Ripon  he  disposed  of  his  worldly  goods,  which  he  divided 
into  four  portions — one  for  Rome,  one  for  the  poor,  one  for 
Kipon  and  Hexham,  and  one  for  his  friends  :  Tatbercht,  his 
kinsman,  he  made  president  of  the  monastery  at  Ripon. 
Then  he  thought  he  felt  well  enough  to  go  and  die  at  Rome, 
taking  Mercia  on  his  way,  whither  he  had  been  invited  by 
Coenred,  the  king,  to  inspect  the  monasteries.  Looking  for- 
ward to  ending  his  days  at  Rome,  he  could  thank  God  and 
take  courage.  Instinct  told  him,  perhaps,  that  it  was  hardly 
well  for  him  to  end  his  career  in  the  midst  of  a  Church  which 
he  had  filled  with  bitterness  and  discord  by  his  pride  and 
partizanship.  He  must  die  with  his  face  set  towards  Rome, 
to  which  he  had  turned  through  life. 

Having  passed  through  Yorkshire,  he  reached  the  Humber, 
and  crossed  that  "  broad  sea  stream ;"  then,  landing  at 
Winteringham,  he  passed  along  the  Roman  road  by  Lin- 
coln and  Stamford  to  the  monastery  he  had  dedicated  to 
S.  Andrew  at  Oundle.  There  the  old  sickness  again  overtook 
him,  and  he  felt  that  the  time  spoken  of  by  S.  Michael  was 
now  at  hand.  Having  given  his  blessing  to  the  weeping 
brethren,  he  calmly  turned  his  head  to  the  pillow,  and,  as  he 
lay,  listened  to  the  voices  in  the  adjacent  choir.  Just  as  they 
were  singing  "Emittes  Spiritum  Tuum,  et  creabuntur,  et  re- 
novabis  faciem  terrae,"  the  man  of  strife  quietly  fell  asleep,  in 
the  seventy-fifth  year  of  his  age  and  the  forty-sixth  of  his 


OCL  12. 


oct.xa.]  ^-  Wilfrid.  313 

pontificate,  October  12,  a.d.  709.^  His  office  says  "that  death 
by  which  he  entered  into  the  joy  of  his  Lord  was  not  death, 
but  sleep,  the  gate  of  death  was  to  him  but  the  gate  of  Hfe 
immortal.  Nor  did  death  conquer  him ;  rather  was  it  swal- 
lowed up  in  victory — '  Abiit  ergo,  non  obitt.'  Nor  was  his 
light  quenched  :  it  still  lightens  all  that  are  of  the  household 
of  God.  Therefore  was  death  to  him  but  a  short  sleep,  that 
he  might  pass  into  the  inheritance  of  the  sons  of  God,  as  it 
is  written,  'So  He  giveth  His  beloved  sleep.' "^ 

Wonderful  singing  of  unseen  birds  was  heard  as  his  spirit 
passed  away,  and  there  were  some  who  thought  it  was  the 
welcome  of  the  angels.  When  they  had  washed  the  body 
over  the  sindon  of  an  abbot,  they  clothed  it  in  pontifical 
garments,  laid  it  on  a  bier,  and  carried  it  to  Ripon  with 
psalms  and  canticles.  Here,  amid  a  great  concourse  of 
people,  they  buried  it  in  the  church  which  he  had  built,  on 
the  south  side  of  the  altar,  with  a  long  epitaph  over  him, 
which  is  preserved  by  Bede.  The  sindon,  somewhat  soiled 
by  the  feet  of  those  who  had  washed  the  body,  was  sent  to  a 
certain  abbess,  who  reverently  cleansed  it,  and  a  nun  who  was 
paralytic  begged  that  she  might  wash  in  the  water,  trusting 
in  the  Lord  that  she  should  receive  health.  No  sooner  had 
she  dipped  her  hand  into  the  water,  and  touched  the  sheet, 
than  her  fingers,  which  had  been  like  dry  sticks,  recovered 
their  suppleness  and  life.  Robbers  tried  to  fire  the  holy 
house  at  Oundle  where  he  had  died,  but  the  fire  forgot  its 
own  nature,  say  the  chroniclers,  and  leaped  back  from  the 
thatched  roof.  Nor  would  it  burn  any  nearer  to  the  house 
than  a  wooden  cross  which  had  been  erected  where  they 
poured  out  the  water  at  the  washing  of  the  body.  The 
robbers  were  terrified  by  a  vision  of  an  angel  in  white  holding 

'  The  day  would  fall  on  a  Saturday  in  that  year,  and  the  psalm  in  which  the  text 
occurs  is  one  of  those  sung  on  Saturday  at  Matins. 
'  In  octava  S.  Wilfridi,  Lectio  i"". 



314  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.12. 

a  cross,  and  some  were  struck  with  blindness.  At  the 
anniversary  of  his  death,  a  light  was  seen  over  Ripon  min- 
ster, about  the  time  of  compline,  in  form  like  a  rainbow,  but 
all  of  pearly  white,  and  like  the  rainbow  accepted  as  a  sign 
that  God  would  not  forsake  His  people.  Miracles  were  sup- 
posed to  have  been  wrought  at  his  reputed  tombs,  but  not 
nearly  so  many  as  were  attributed  to  some  later  saints. 
There  is  the  same  uncertainty  as  to  where  his  bones  actually 
rest  as  there  has  been  with  respect  to  those  of  S.  Cuthbert 
and  S.  Bede  at  Durham,  and  bodies  of  distinguished  persons 
in  other  places.  One  set  of  chroniclers,  at  the  head  of 
whom  stands  Eadmer  the  monk  of  Canterbury,  say  that 
S.  Wilfrid's  bones  were  translated  thither.  According  to  his 
account,  this  was  done  by  Archbishop  Odo,  who  visiting 
Ripon  in  the  loth  century  and  finding  the  church  desolated 
by  the  Danes,  forsaken  by  men  and  defiled  by  beasts, 
opened  the  grave  of  S.  Wilfrid,  and  taking  away  his  bones, 
placed  them  within  the  high  altar  at  Canterbury,  consider- 
ately leaving  the  dust  for  Ripon.  An  anonymous  chronicler 
of  Jervaux,  quoted  by  Leland  (Coll.  i.  216),  gives  Dunstan 
the  credit  of  this  translation.  It  is  stated  by  Eadmer  that 
Lanfranc  afterwards  enshrined  the  relics  on  the  north  side 
of  the  altar ;  ^  and  some  think  they  rest  at  Canterbury  still. 
The  North-country  tradition  is  that  the  remains  of  Wilfrid  the 
Second  were  removed  by  mistake,  and  that  those  of  the  saint 
remained  in  the  grave  on  the  south  side  of  the  altar  until 
translated  by  Archbishop  Oswald  to  the  north  side,  and 
there  enshrined.  That  they  were  placed  in  a  richer  shrine 
by  Archbishop  Gray  in  1224,  the  head  being  kept  separately 
in  a  case  of  gold.  Be  this  as  it  may,  the  Ripon  people 
firmly  believed  all  through  the  Middle  Ages  that  their  saint's 
bones  were  still  in  their  midst,  while  the  Canterbury  folk 

'  In  a  sermon  of  Eadmer  there  is  reference  to  visions  and  wonderful  sounds  heard 
in  connection  with  Wilfrid's  tomb  at  Canterbury. 



Oct.  12.]  'S'.  Wilfrid.  315 

maintained  that  Wilfrid's  bones  were  as  surely  there  as  were 
those  of  their  own  S.  Thomas.  The  acts  of  archbishops 
Oswald  and  Walter  Gray  just  mentioned  formed  subjects  of 
lections  for  the  feast  of  the  Translation. 

The  known  connection  of  the  saint  with  the  church  of 
Ripon  during  life,  and  the  beUef  that  most  of  his  bones' 
were  there,  proved  a  source  of  fame  and  wealth  in  the 
Middle  Ages.  It  was  one  of  the  four  mother  churches  of  the 
Northern  Province,  the  others  being  York,  Beverley,  and 
Southwell.  Special  privileges  of  sanctuary,  and  the  right  of 
using  the  ordeal,  were  supposed  to  have  been  granted  by 
Athelstane.  "  S.  Wilfrid's  burning  iron "  and  the  "  Pok- 
stane"  are  constantly  mentioned  in  the  fabric-rolls  as 
sources  of  income,  being  used  against  murrain  and  other 
diseases  of  cattle  on  payment  of  a  fee.  The  proceeds 
diminished  greatly  during  the  few  years  preceding  the  Re- 
formation, as  was  the  case  with  S.  Cuthbert's  shrine  at  Dur- 
ham, and  doubtless  with  others.  The  Ripon  roll  of  1540 
records  the  abolition  of  the  burning  iron,  which  was  perhaps 
the  identical  instrument  which  had  been  previously  used  in 
the  ordeal  by  fire,  and  which  may  have  been  supposed  to 
retain  supernatural  efficacy  of  a  different  kind.  S.  Wilfrid's 
banner,  like  that  of  S.  Cuthbert  and  others,  was  carried  to 
the  wars.  The  chroniclers  Richard  and  John  of  Hexham 
mention  its  being  hung  on  the  "  standard  "  at  the  battle  of 
Northallerton,  a.d.  1158,  with  those  of  S.  Peter  and  S.  John 
of  Beverley.  Twysden  (-'  Decem  Scriptores,"  p.  339)  gives 
representations  of  the  standard  copied  from  a  MS.  in  Corpus 
Christi  College  Library  at  Cambridge,  but  they  do  not 
show  any  characteristic  devices.  The  "  arms  "  attributed  to 
S.  Wilfrid  in  the  Middle  Ages  were,  Az.  three  estoils  or. 

'  York,  claimed  to  possess  not  only  two  of  his  EvangcHsteria,  richly  adorned  with 
gold  and  silver  (Ripon,  as  we  have  seen,  had  a  Textns  S  Wilfyidi),  but  one  of  his 
arms,  in  a  silver  case.  Archbishop  Gray  found  not  even  one  of  the  smallest  bones 
missing  ;  perhaps  he  acquired  the  arm  for  York. 


316  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  12. 

Many  churches  were  dedicated  to  him,  but,  strange  to  say, 
none  in  Sussex,  where  his  labours  have  not  been  thus  re- 
cognized until  our  own  day.  His  name  is  written  in  letters 
of  gold  in  the  Durham  Liber  Vitce.  Some  writings  have 
been  ascribed  to  him,  but  on  very  doubtful  authority.  He 
was  of  too  restless  a  disposition  to  sit  down  and  write  books, 
or  to  give  himself  to  study  after  he  had  once  become  involved 
in  the  hurry  and  excitement  of  such  a  life  as  his  was. 

If  we  now  briefly  review  the  history  of  his  career  in  refer- 
ence to  his  character,  tastes,  and  disposition,  we  may  observe 
that  from  his  very  boyhood  he  showed  a  strange  power  of 
fascination  over  the  hearts  of  men,  making  friends  wherever 
he  went.  But  when  he  had  attained  to  manhood,  his  inde- 
pendence and  force  of  character,  his  haughtiness  and  violence 
of  temper,  generally  brought  him  into  collision  sooner  or  later 
with  those  whose  friendship  he  had  gained.  He  seems  to 
have  been  easily  turned  for  a  time  from  any  project  he  had  in 
hand,  if  he  saw  an  immediate  opportunity  of  work  for  Rome, 
and  though  impetuous  and  undaunted  by  nature,  he  knew 
when  to  bide  his  time,  and  when  he  had  gained  a  point  was 
not  always  impatient  to  establish  it.  He  lived  in  stormy 
times,  and  had  to  adapt  himself  to  circumstances  of  which  we 
can  form  no  true  conception.  He  was,  no  doubt,  a  courtier, 
ever  managing  to  keep  right,  if  possible,  with  kings  and 
popes  and  other  great  people.  The  Church  was  often 
reminded  of  this  on  his  festivals  by  the  antiphon  '^  Magfiifi- 
cavit  eum  in  conspectu  regmn,  et  dedit  illi  coronam  gloriceT 
Some  have  accused  him  of  duplicity  and  of  unworthy  ambi- 
tion, possibly  unfairly.  There  are  such  things  as  moral 
statecraft  and  sectarian  ambition.  These  as  a  rule  seem  to 
have  characterized  Wilfrid's  proceedings.  He  certainly  had 
an  active  and  at  the  same  time  orderly  frame  of  mind,  which 
could  find  satisfaction  in  nothing  short  of  the  discipline  of 
Rome,  which  to  the  best  informed  minds  of  that  day  seemed, 


Oct   12.] 

6".  Wilfrid.  317 

as  it  probably  was,  the  nearest  approach  to  earthly  per- 
fection. He  was  energetic  and  persevering  in  all  that  he 
undertook,  and  "  everything  he  took  in  hand  was  attuned 
to  the  lofty  tone  of  a  dignified  and  philosophical  mind,  far 
in  advance  of  the  age  in  which  he  lived."  ^  Blame  certainly 
attaches  to  him  for  having  stood  out  so  long  against  the 
division  of  his  enormous  see,  caring  only  for  his  own  interests, 
and  utterly  disregarding  in  the  matter  the  welfare  of  religion 
in  the  vast  diocese  which  he  could  not  possibly  govern  single 
handed.  His  remarkable  love  of  official  pomp  and  splen- 
dour was  combined,  as  has  so  often  been  the  case,  with  the 
practice  of  the  strictest  personal  austerities.  While  affecting 
an  exaggerated  austerity,  he  delighted  in  lavish  and  even 
royal  pomp,  dazzling  the  nobles  whom  he  dehghted  in 
browbeating.  His  tastes  were  unquestionably  refined  and 
enlarged  by  his  visits  to  Rome  and  Lyons  and  elsewhere, 
and  we  have  seen  how  he  delighted  to  introduce  into  the 
rude  North-country  of  his  birth  such  glorious  buildings,  such 
sumptuous  ornaments  and  books,  such  august  and  solemn 
ritual  and  music,  and  may  we  not  add,  such  sweetly  sound- 
ing bells,  as  he  had  become  acquainted  with  in  Southern 
Europe.  As  a  young  man,  he  is  described  by  his  friend 
Eddi  as  "  courteous  to  everybody,  physically  active,  a  quick 
walker,  ready  for  every  good  work,  never  of  a  sad  coun- 
tenance," and  of  his  earliest  years  we  have  already  spoken  on 
the  same  authority.  Beautiful  in  childhood,  comely  in  youth, 
doubtless  he  was  noble-looking  in  manhood,  and  venerable 
in  old  age.  In  art,  he  is  represented  as  a  bishop  or  arch- 
bishop, som.etimes  holding  a  book,  sometimes  with  a  ruined 
tower  in  the  distance,  or  with  a  ship,  or  with  no  distinguish- 
ing emblem  at  all.  The  tower  may  refer  to  his  restorations 
of  ruined  minsters,  the  ship  to  his  adventure  on  the  Sussex 
coast  (p.  308).     In  the  Galilee  at  Durham  was  "the  picture 

'  Walbran,  "  S.  Wilfrid  and  the  Saxon  Church  of  Ripon."  A  paper  read  in  1858. 


318  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  n. 

of  Wilfridus,  Bishop,  in  fyne  couloured  glasse,  as  he  was 
accustomed  to  say  masse,  with  his  myter  on  his  head  and 
his  crosier  staffe  in  his  lefte  hand,  under  whose  feet  is  [was] 
written  '  Sanctus  Wilfridus,  prima  Lindisfarnensis  Monachus, 
post  Abbas  Ripensis,  ultimo  Archiepiscopus  Eboracensis,  uno 
afi}J0  rexit  episcopatum  Lindisfar7iensem''  ("Rites  of  Dur- 
ham"). In  York  Minster,  Methley  Church,  and  doubtless  in 
many  other  places,  he  appeared  associated  with  SS.  Gregory, 
Augustine,  and  Paulinus.  The  feast  of  his  translation  was 
observed  in  the  northern  province  on  the  24th  of  April,  and 
that  of  his  "deposition,"  or  burial,  on  the  12th  of  October, 
both  of  which  days  occur  in  the  York  Calendar.  Within  the 
parish  of  Ripon,  the  feast  of  his  nativity  was  kept  in  addition 
to  these,  as  a  Double  of  the  first-class,  on  the  Sunday  next 
after  S.  Peter  ad  Vincula,  or  Lammas  Day,  still  known  as 
Wilfrid  Sunday.  The  eve  of  this  day,  once  ushered  in  by 
the  antiphon,  ^^  Laudes  vespertinas,  bone  Jesu,  suscipe,  et  boni 
festum  celebrantes  Wilfridi,  ab  omni  noxa  custodi,^'  is  at  pre- 
sent marked  by  a  rude  pageant,  in  which  low  buffoonery  is 
the  most  harmless  feature.  The  name  of  S.  Wilfrid  occurs 
in  the  Hereford  Calendar  on  the  12th  of  October,  but  not 
at  all  in  Sarum  or  Aberdeen.  In  the  modern  Officia  Propria 
for  Roman  Catholics  in  England  and  Ireland,  the  12th  of 
October,  on  which  day  he  is  mentioned  in  the  Roman  Mar- 
tyrology,  is  provided  for  as  a  Double,  with  the  old  York 
Collect  and  three  proper  lections.' 

1  This  biography  is  from  the  pen  of  the  Rev.  J.  T.  Fowler,  Vice-Principal  of  Bishop 
Hatfield's  Hall,  Durham.  I  have  not,  however,  scrupled  to  make  some  alterations, 
as  I  could  not  assent  to  the  favourable  view  he  maintains  of  the  character  of  the 

^ ,J, 



Oct.  13.] 

6".  Carpus. 


October  13. 

S.  Carpus,  Disc.  ofS.  Paul  at  Troas ;  isi  cent. 

S.  Thkophilus,  B.  of  Antioch  in  Syria;  circ.  A.D.  i8i. 

SS.  Faustus,   Januarius,   and   Martialis,   MM.  at  Cordova; 

circ.  310. 
S.  Florentius,  M.  at  Thessalonica ;  ^th  cent. 
S.  LuBENTlus,  P.C.  at  Cobem  on  the  Moselle;  ^th  cent. 
S.  Venantius,  Ab.  of  Tours;  end  of  sth  cent. 
SS.  Fyncana  AND  Findocha,  F^.  in  Scotland;  Ztk  cent. 
S.  CoNGAN,  Ab.  in  Scotland ;  Zt/i  cent. 
S.  SiMPERT,  B.  of  Augsbu7-g;  a.d.  809. 

S.  Gerald,  Count,  C.  at  Anrillac  in  Auvergne  ;  circ.  A.D.  909. 
S.  CoLMAN,  M.  in  Austria  ;  a.d.  1012. 

S.  Edward  the  Confessor,  A',  at  Westtninster ;  a.d.  1066. 
S.  Luke,  Ab.  at  Armento  in  Calabria;  a.d.  1193. 
SS.  Seven  Franciscans,  MM.  in  Morocco;  a.d.  1221. 


(iST   CENT.) 

[Ancient  Roman  Martyrology. 
Roman  Martyrology.] 

Ado,  Usuardus,  Notker,  and  Modern 

ARPUS  was  a  Christian  at  Troas,  with  whom 
S.  Paul  states  that  he  left  a  cloak,^  which  he  re- 
quests him  to  bring  with  him  when  he  visits 
him.  According  to  Hippolytus  and  the  Paschal 
Chronicle,  Carpus  was  bishop  of  Bersea  in  Thrace,  and  he  is 
commemorated  as  such  in  the  Greek  Church  on  May  26. 
The  Greek  Mentea  and  Menology  on  this  day  commemo- 
rate another  Carpus,  Bishop  of  Thyatira,  who  is  mentioned 
in  the  Roman  Martyrology  on  April  13. 

'  2  Tim.  iv.  13. 




320  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  13. 


(about  a.d.  181.) 

[The   "Mart.   Parvum,"  Ado,  Usuardus,  Notker,  and  other  Latin 
artyrologies,  the  Modem  Roman  Martyrology.    Authorities  : — Euseb., 
"Hist.  Eccl.,"  iv.  c.  24;  S.  Jerome,  "  Catal.  Script.  Eccl.,"  c.  25.] 

Theophilus  was  brought  up  in  the  darkness  of  paganism, 
and  he  only  learned  the  doctrines  of  Christianity  by  reading 
the  sacred  Scriptures  for  the  purpose  of  combating  them. 
But  the  study  of  these  books,  and  especially  of  the  Prophets, 
convinced  him  of  the  truth  of  Christianity.^  We  know  no 
details  of  his  career  till  the  year  168,  when  Eros,  fifth  bishop 
of  Antioch,  died,  when  Theophilus  was  elected  in  his  room. 
Eusebius  says  :  "  There  are  three  books  containing  the  ele- 
ments of  the  faith,  addressed  to  Autolycus,  which  are 
ascribed  to  Theophilus,  whom  we  have  mentioned  as  Bishop 
of  Antioch.  Another  also,  which  has  the  title,  '  Against  the 
heresy  of  Hermogenes,'  in  which  he  uses  testimony  from  the 
Revelation  of  John,  and  also  some  catechetical  works.  And 
as  the  heretics,  no  less  then  than  at  any  other  time,  were 
like  tares  destroying  the  pure  seed  of  apostolic  doctrines, 
the  pastors  of  the  churches  ever)rwhere  hastened  to  restrain 
them  as  wild  beasts  from  ravaging  the  fold  of  Christ.  Some- 
times they  did  it  by  their  exhortations  and  admonitions  to 
the  brethren,  sometimes  more  openly  contending  with  the 
heretics  themselves,  in  oral  discussions  and  refutations,  and 
then  again  confuting  them  in  written  works.  Theophilus, 
therefore,  ^vith  others,  also  contended  against  these,  as  is 
manifest  from  a  work  of  no  mean  character,  Avritten  by  him 
against  Marcion,  which  together  with  the  others  we  have 
mentioned,  is  still  preserved.      He  was  succeeded  by  Maxi- 

'  Ad  Autol.,  i.  14. 


Oct.  13.]  <S'  FatistMs  and  Others.  321 

minus,   the  seventh   from   the   apostles   in  the   church  of 

It  is  uncertain  how  long  he  reigned:  according  to 
Eusebius,  eight  years,  but  according  to  others  twelve  or 
thirteen.  The  latter  supposition  is  the  most  probable ;  for 
his  work  addressed  to  Autolycus  was  certainly  written  after 
the  death  of  Marcus  Aurelius,  consequently  after  a.d.  180. 
The  three  books  to  Autolycus  have  alone  survived. 


(about  a.d.  310.) 

[Ado  on  Nov.  9  and  Sept.  28.  Usuardus  on  Oct.  13,  so  also  the 
Modem  Roman  Martyrology.  Maurolycus,  Greven,  Molanus,  and 
others  on  Sept.  28.  The  Spanish  Martyrologies  on  Oct.  13.  Authority  : — 
The  Acts  which  are  trustworthy.] 

Faustus,  Januarius,  and  Martial,  three  Christians  of  Cor- 
dova, were  brought  before  the  governor  Eulogius,  and  when 
they  refused  to  sacrifice  were  slung  on  the  "  little  horse,"  but 
without  the  pain  shaking  their  confidence  and  faith.  Eulogius 
then  ordered  the  ears  and  noses  of  Faustus  and  Januarius  to 
be  cut  off,  and  as  they  remained  steadfast,  the  three  martyrs 
were  consumed  by  fire.  The  "invention"  of  their  relics 
took  place  in  the  year  1575.  The  church  of  S.  Peter  in 
Cordova  was  being  repaired,  when  a  stone  sarcophagus  was 
dug  up  containing  bones  and  skulls  of  eighteen  bodies. 
Popular  opinion  at  once  concluded  that  these  were  the 
bodies  of  the  three  martyrs,  with  some  extra  sufferers. 
This  pious  conjecture  was  affirmed  to  be  true  by  a  papal 
bull  of  Gregory  XIII. 

VOL.  XI. 


^ — ->J< 

322  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  13 


(4TH   CENT.) 

[Greek  Mensa  and  Menologies,  Introduced  by  Baronius  into  the 
Modem  Roman  Martyrology.     Authority  : — Mention  in  the  Menaea.] 

Florentius  of  Thessalonica,  a  very  zealous  Christian,  was 
hung  on  the  "  Httle  horse,"  and  his  sides  torn  with  iron  rakes ; 
then,  more  dead  than  alive,  he  was  cast  into  a  burning  pile 
of  wood  and  consumed. 


(latter  part  of  4TH  CENT.) 

[Venerated  in  the  diocese  of  Treves,  and  specially  at  Cobem  on  the 
Moselle.  Authority  : — A  Life  by  an  anonymous  writer,  and  of  uncertain 
date,  in  the  passionale  of  the  monastery  of  Arnstein.] 

S.  LuBENTius  was  given  by  his  parents  when  a  little  child, 
to  S.  Martin  at  Tours,  and  was  by  him  baptized  and  adopted 
as  his  son.  He  was  afterwards  committed  to  S.  Maximinus, 
Bishop  of  Treves,  to  be  by  him  educated  for  holy  orders, 
and  when  Lubentius  had  reached  a  suitable  age,  Maximinus 
ordained  him  priest. 

Maximinus  died  in  349  when  visiting  his  relatives  in 
Aquitain,  and  his  successor,  S.  Paulinus,  ordered  Lubentius 
to  proceed  to  Aquitain  and  recover  the  body  of  the  bishop. 
He  seems  to  have  been  ignorant  of  the  whereabouts  of  the 
place  where  Maximinus  was  buried,  and  as  Aquitain  was  a 
large  district,  he  rambled  about  it  in  great  uncertainty.  One 
day,  however,  he  heard  a  shepherd  boy  swear  at  n,  straying 
sheep  that  he  would  rattle  his  stick  about  its  sides,  *'  By 

4, ^ 

Oct.  13.]  '5'.  Lubentius.  323 

Maximin  I  will,  if  you  leave  the  flock  again  !  "  TAibentius 
rushed  upon  the  young  shepherd  and  insisted  on  being  told 
where  lay  the  body  of  the  Maximin  by  whom  he  swore.  The 
lad  indicated  the  nearest  church. 

Lubentius  said  nothing  more  on  the  matter,  lest  he  should 
excite  suspicion,  but  he  and  his  companions  in  the  night  got 
into  the  room  of  the  sleeping  custodian,  stole  the  church 
keys,  unlocked  the  doors,  made  off  with  the  dead  body,  and 
conveyed  it  safely  to  Treves.  Having  accomplished  this 
task,  he  returned  to  his  pastoral  charge  at  Cobern  on  the 
Mdselle,  where  he  died  in  the  odour  of  sanctity. 

Wlien  he  was  dead,  the  people  of  Cobern,  delighted  at  the 
prospect  of  having  the  body  of  a  saint  in  their  church,  pro- 
ceeded to  the  house  and  endeavoured  to  remove  the  body. 
But  no.  The  dead  man  lay  immovable.  Nothing  could 
persuade  him  to  stir  an  inch.  The  people  prayed,  but  he 
remained  inflexible.  Then  they  got  angry,  and  would  have 
fallen  on  the  corpse  and  battered  it,  had  not  a  certain 
reverend  man  interposed  and  advised  that  the  body  should 
be  placed  in  a  boat  and  allowed  to  float  up  or  down  the 
Moselle  as  it  liked,  and  pick  its  own  place  of  burial. 

This  was  done.  Below  the  town  the  banks  were  lined 
with  people,  excited,  eager,  hoping  the  boat  would  ground 
at  their  respective  villages.  But  no ;  it  drifted  on  with  the 
dead  man  in  it,  past  Winningen,  Moselweis,  and  did  not  even 
rest  at  Coblenz.  But  now,  marvellous  to  relate,  the  skiff, 
instead  of  descending  the  Rhine,  when  it  had  entered  that 
river,  headed  up  it,  and  attracted  by  the  beauties  of  the 
Lahn,  the  dead  Lubentius  steered  up  that  rapid  river.  Ems 
was  unsuitable.  Nassau,  a  lovely  green  meadow  between 
rocks  covered  with  birch  and  beech,  did  not  arrest  it.  Diez, 
one  day  to  be  crowned  by  a  picturesque  castle ;  Limburg 
rock,  which  a  cathedral  would  surmount  with  seven  spires, 
was  refused ;  and  when  the  scenery  was  dull,  and  the  hills 

>J< * 

324  Lives  of  the  Saints.  toa.  13 

fell  away, the  skift"  grounded  before  the  solitary  rock  of  Diet- 
kirchen  ;  and  there  Lubentius  lies  at  this  present  day.  Such 
is  the  romantic  legend  which  takes  the  place  of  probably  a 
very  prosaic  translation. 


(8th  cent.) 

[Aberdeen  Breviary.  In  the  Scottish  Menology  of  David  Camerarius 
S.  Fyncana  on  Aug.  21,  and  S.  Findocha  on  May  31.] 

The  Aberdeen  Breviary  says  that  Fyncana  and  Findoch 
died  respectively  in  526  and  716.  But  Hector  Boece  says 
that  they  were  daughters  of  S.  Donevald,  or  Donald  (July  12), 
who,  with  his  nine  daughters,  is  said  by  local  tradition  to 
have  led  a  religious  life  in  the  glen  of  Ogilvy,  in  Forfarshire, 
where  they  are  still  remembered  as  the  Nine  Maidens.  After 
his  death  they  are  said  to  have  gone  to  Abernethy.  Boece, 
however,  makes  only  seven  maidens.  The  church  of  Finaven 
was  dedicated  to  the  Nine  Maidens,  so  also  was  Strath- 
martin.  There  is  a  Nine  Maiden  Well  there,  and  in  the 
park  at  Glamis.  But  there  were  other  nine  maidens 
brought  over  by  S.  Bridget — chief  of  whom  was  S.  Mazota 
(Dec.  23) — who  are  often  confounded  with  the  daughters 
of  S.  Donald. 

In  the  Breviary  of  Aberdeen  is  a  note  or  rubric  that 
Fyncana  was  venerated  at  Echt  in  the  diocese  of  Aberdeen, 
and  Findocha  at  the  archidiaconate  of  the  diocese  of  Dun- 
blane, this  is  probably  Findo-Gask.  At  Bendochy,  near 
Cupar  Angus,  there  was  anciently  a  chapel  at  S.  Phink,  de- 
dicated to  that  saint ;  a  small  part  of  the  ruins  remain. 

ij,, — ^>J< 

oct.r3.j  'S".  Congan.  325 


(8th  cent.) 

[Aberdeen  Breviary.  Tamlacht  and  Donegal  Martyrologies  on  Aug. 
2,  as  S.  Comgan  or  Coemgen.  But  this  cannot  be  the  same  as  the 
Scottish  S.  Congan.] 

S.  Congan,  more  correctly  Comgan,  brother  of  S.  Kenti- 
gerna  and  uncle  of  S.  Fillan,  was  the  son  of  a  prince  of 
Leinster,  and  was  in  youth  trained  as  a  soldier.  On  suc- 
ceeding his  father,  he  governed  his  dominions  with  prudence 
and  rectitude  ;  but,  on  being  attacked  by  his  neighbours,  he 
was  conquered,  and  obliged  to  fly,  wounded  in  the  foot  by 
an  arrow.  His  sister  Kentigerna  was  married  to  Feradach, 
Prince  of  Monchestree.  According  to  Irish  accounts  Con- 
gan was  the  son  of  Ceallach  Cualann  (d.  715),  Prince  of 
Leinster,  and  forefather  of  the  O'Kellys,  who  possessed 
Rathdown  in  the  county  of  Dublin  till  the  14th  century. 
The  expulsion  of  Congan  from  his  kingdom  led  also  to  that 
of  his  sister  and  her  sons.  Accordingly  Congan,  with  Kenti- 
gerna and  her  son  Fillan,^  and  seven  clerks,  betook  them- 
selves to  Lochelch  in  Northern  Argyle,  where  they  led  a 
severe  life.  After  the  death  of  his  uncle,  S.  Fillan  built  a 
church  in  his  honour,  and  buried  him  in  lona.  There  are 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Lochelch  two  churches,  Kilchoan 
(Congan)  and  Killellan  (Fillan),  which  bear  record  to  the 
truth  of  this  story. 

'  The  Aberdeen  Breviary  makes  her  the  mother  of  Fillan,  Furzey,  and  Ultan,  but 
SS.  Furzey  and  Ultan  were  sons  of  Finnloga,  Prince  of  South  Munster,  by  Gelges, 
daughter  of  Adhfinn,  Prince  of  Hy-Brinn  in  Connaught.  Fillan,  or  Foilan,  was 
brother  of  S.  Furzey,  but  this  was  not  the  same  Fillan  as  the  son  of  S.  Kentigerna. 

* ^)J< 

326  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oci.  13. 


(a.d.  809.) 

[Roman  and  German  Martyrologies.  Canonized  by  Pope  Nicolas  V. 
in  1450.  Authorities  : — A  life  by  Adalbert,  Prior  of  S.  Ulrich's,  Augs- 
burg, A.D.  1240.] 

S.  SiMPERT,  or  Sindebert,  was  a  nephew  of  Charles  the 
Great,  according  to  some  modern  authors,  but  no  good 
grounds  for  such  a  statement  can  be  produced.  He  spent 
his  early  life  in  the  abbey  of  Murbach,  near  Colmar,  and  on 
the  death  of  Tasso,  Bishop  of  Augsburg,  in  778,  Charle- 
magne selected  him  to  be  his  successor.  After  the  death  of 
Abbot  Amicho  of  Murbach  he  was  elected  abbot  in  his 
room,  so  that  he  ruled  at  the  same  time  an  extensive  diocese 
and  an  important  monastery.  He  rebuilt  the  church  of 
S.  Afra  at  Augsburg,  and  greatly  benefited  by  endowments 
the  abbey  of  Fiissen. 

S.  COLMAN,  M. 
(a.d.  1012.) 

[Gennan  Martyrologies.  Authority :—  A  Passion  by  Ercenfried,  Abbot 
of  Molk,  d.  1 163.] 

In  IOI2,  when  Henry  I.  was  Emperor  of  Germany,  a 
Scottish  or  Irish  pilgrim  travelled  through  Austria  on  his 
way  to  the  Holy  Land.  His  name,  he  said,  was  Colman. 
Ignorant  of  the  language,  he  created  suspicion  among  the 
peasants,  and  was  dragged  before  a  magistrate  on  the 
charge  of  being  a  spy.  The  poor  fellow  was  unable  to  ex- 
plain in  German  what  he  was  and  whence  he  came,  and  his 
silence  was  regarded  as  all  the  more  suspicious.     The  judge 

^ -^ 


Oct.  13.]  S.  Edward  the  Confessor.  327 

ordered  him  to  be  racked  till  he  confessed,  but  the  rack 
would  not  teach  him  German,  and  a  smith  was  allowed  to 
wrench  off  pieces  of  his  flesh  with  hot  pincers.  He  was  then 
hung  with  a  couple  of  malefactors.  Some  miracles  being 
supposed  to  be  wrought  by  his  dead  body,  he  was  as  hastily 
concluded  to  be  a  saint  as  he  had  before  been  regarded  as  a 
spy,  and  lively  imaginations  setting  to  work  on  the  theme, 
transformed  him  into  a  Scottish  prince,  son  of  Malcolm  III. 
and  Margaret.  Scottish  historians  are  of  course  profoundly 
ignorant  of  this. 

The  place  of  the  martyrdom  of  Colman  was  Stockerau. 
The  body  was  afterwards  translated  to  and  enshrined  at 
Molk.  Various  indulgences  have  been  granted  by  Paschal 
II.,  Clement  VI.,  Innocent  IV.,  and  Leo  X.  to  those  vene- 
rating the  relics. 

(a.u.  1066.) 

[Canonized  by  Alexander  III.  in  Ii6l,  and  the  festival  appointed  for 
Jan.  5.  In  1163  the  body  was  translated,  on  Oct.  13;  on  which  day 
his  principal  festival  is  now  kept.  A  national  council  at  Oxford  in  1222 
commanded  his  festival  to  be  kept  throughout  England  as  a  holiday. 
Authorities  : — (i)  A  life  by  Aelred  of  Rievaulx,  d.  1166.  (2)  A  second 
life  written  before  1074,  pub.  by  H.  R.  Ward,  in  "  Rer.  Britann.  Med. 
Aevi  Script."  iii.  (3)  "  La  Estoire  de  Seint  Edward  le  Rey,"  an  old 
French  epic  poem,  written  by  a  monk  of  Westminster  in  1245.  (4)  The 
Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle.  (5)  Florence  of  Worcester,  d.  11 18.  (6) 
William  of  Malmesbury,  d.  1 143.  (7)  Ordericus  Vitalis,  d.  1 144.  (8) 
An  Icelandic  Jatvarthar  Saga,  pub.  Copenhagen,  1852.  (9)  "Encomium 
Emmse,"  by  a  contemp.  writer;  &c.] 

On  the  death  of  Ethelred  II.  in  1016,  many  of  the  English, 
wearied  with  the  incessant  conflict  with  the  Danes,  resolved 
to  elect  Cnut,  or  Canute  as  he  is  commonly  called,  king  of 
the  English.     But  those  who  remained  faithful  to  the  old 


328  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  13. 

house  of  the  Saxon  princes  held  an  election  in  London,  and 
chose  Edmund,  son  of  Ethelred,  in  his  room,  and  he  was 
crowned  in  the  cathedral  of  S.  Paul's  by  Archbishop  Lyving. 
Canute  held  Wessex,  which  now  included  the  whole  of 
England  south  of  the  Thames,  but  on  an  uncertain  tenure,  as 
the  gallant  Edmund  entered  Wessex,  and  defeated  the  Danes 
at  Pen  Selwood.  Canute  besieged  London,  but  Edmund 
again  defeated  him,  at  Brentford. 

Edmund  died,  after  a  glorious  reign  of  seven  months,  on 
S.  Andrew's  day,  leaving  behind  him  two  sons,  Edmund  and 
Edward.  Of  his  brothers  three  at  least  were  living,  Edwy, 
son  of  Ethelred  the  Unready,  by  his  first  wife,  and  Alfred 
and  Edward,  the  sons  of  Emma  of  Normandy. 

On  the  death  of  Edmund  Ironside,  Canute  established 
himself  without  resistance  over  the  whole  realm.  Alfred  and 
Edward,  sons  of  Ethelred  and  Emma,  escaped  with  their 
mother  to  Normandy,  and  the  two  sons  of  Edmund,  Edward 
and  Edmund,  were  sent  by  Canute  to  King  Olaf  of  Sweden, 
who  sent  them  into  Hungary  to  S.  Stephen,  that  they  might 
be  beyond  the  reach  of  Canute,  who  desired  their  deaths,  and 
had  requested  Olaf  to  destroy  them.  Edmund  died  young, 
but  Edward  lived,  and  eventually  married  Agnes,  niece  of 
Gisela,  wife  of  S.  Stephen. 

In  10 1 7  Canute  sent  over  to  Normandy  for  Queen  Emma, 
widow  of  Ethelred,  and  married  her.  She  must  have  been 
somewhat  advanced  in  life,  for  it  was  fifteen  years  since  her 
marriage  with  Ethelred,  and  Canute  was  a  young  man,  only 
twenty-two.  Queen  Emma  is  said  to  have  made  Canute 
promise  that  he  would  leave  the  crown  to  one  of  her  chil- 
dren by  him,  should  she  have  any  through  her  second  mar- 
riage. Edmund  and  Edward,  her  sons  by  Ethelred,  re- 
mained in  Normandy  under  the  care  of  Duke  Richard.  In 
1026  Richard  of  Normandy  died,  and  his  successor,  Richard 
III.,  died  very  soon  after.     Then,   in   1028,  Robert,   the 

* * 


Oct.  13.]  '^-  Edward  the  Confessor.  329 

younger  son  of  Richard  II.,  succeeded  his  brother.  He  was 
the  father  of  William  the  Conqueror.  The  Norman  writers 
inform  us  that  he  meditated  doing  something  to  advance  the 
claims  of  his  cousins  to  the  throne  of  England,  and  that  he 
sent  a  fleet  against  Canute,  but  that  it  was  driven  back  by 
contrary  winds,  and  some  of  the  ships  were  wrecked. 

Emma,  now  queen  of  the  English  for  the  second  time, 
had  become  the  mother  of  two  children  by  Canute,  Harda- 
canute  and  Gunhilda.  Canute  died  in  1035,  at  the  age  of 
forty,  and  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Harold,  by  Elgiva, 
daughter  of  Earl  Alfhelm.  Harold  took  the  kingdom  north 
of  the  Thames,  whilst  the  south  was  relinquished  to  Harda- 
canute.  The  latter,  however,  was  in  Denmark,  of  which  he 
was  king,  and  during  his  absence  his  dominions  in  the  south 
of  England  were  governed  by  his  mother  Emma  and  Earl 
Godwin.  Godwin  was  a  very  remarkable  man :  risen  appa- 
rently from  obscurity,  he  forced  his  way  by  his  abilities  to  a 
position  of  the  highest  trust  and  power.  Very  early  in  the 
reign  of  Canute  he  was  made  an  earl,  and  shortly  after  Earl 
of  all  Wessex,  and  viceroy  when  Canute  was  out  of  England. 
When  Canute  died,  Godwin  remained  Earl  of  the  West 
Saxons  under  Hardacanute,  Harold,  and  Edward. 

In  the  year  1036  Alfred,  the  eldest  of  the  surviving  chil- 
dren of  Ethelred,  was  murdered,  and  the  name  of  Godwin 
was  implicated  in  the  foul  deed.  The  story  is  told  variously. 
Though  Hardacanute  had  been  made  king  over  part  of 
England,  he  stayed  in  Denmark,  and  great  discontent  was 
felt  in  Wessex  at  his  not  visiting  his  dominions.  It  was 
most  likely  this  which  induced  Alfred,  son  of  Ethelred  and 
Emma,  to  leave  Normandy  and  venture  into  England.  He 
hoped  to  profit  by  this  discontent,  and  secure  for  himself  the 
crown  of  Wessex.  It  does  not  appear  that  either  Emma  or 
Earl  Godwin,  or  any  one  else,  invited  him,  but  it  is  quite 
certain  that  he  came  over,  bringing  with  him  a  good  many 


^ ,J, 

330  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  13. 

Norman  followers.  It  is  uncertain  whether  he  met  his  mother 
or  not.  According  to  some  accounts  she  was  exasperated  at 
his  intrusion ;  and,  in  alarm  lest  he  should  wrest  the  crown 
from  her  favourite  son,  Hardacanute,  she  herself  had  a  hand 
in  the  bloody  deed.  Earl  Godwin  met  Alfred  at  Guildford, 
but  did  not  arrest  him,  nor  interfere  with  his  progress,  and 
it  is  not  improbable  that  he  secretly  sympathized  with  his 
attempt.  But  Alfred  was  shortly  after  taken  by  the  servants 
of  Harold,  his  companions  were  killed,  tortured,  or  mutilated, 
and  he  himself  was  conveyed  to  Ely,  where  his  eyes  were 
put  out,  and  he  soon  afterwards  died.  Godwin  has  been 
charged  Avith  this  crime  by  later  historians,  but  the  evidence 
is  against  his  having  had  any  share  in  it.  Godwin  was  not 
the  minister  of  Harold,  but  of  Hardacanute,  and  he  had 
opposed  the  election  of  Harold.  Godwin  probably  saw  that 
before  long  the  popular  impatience  of  Hardacanute  would 
lead  to  the  union  of  Wessex  with  the  north  of  England  under 
the  sceptre  of  Harold,  and  he  may  have  feared  that  in  this 
event  his  prospects  would  not  improve.  Far  safer  for  him  to 
have  a  Saxon  prince  his  master  in  Wessex.  His  interest  lay 
in  protecting  and  favouring  Alfred,  not  in  putting  him  out  of 
the  way. 

Next  year,  1037,  the  people  of  Wessex  got  tired  of  waiting 
for  Hardacanute,  and  Harold  was  chosen  king  over  all 
England.  Queen  Emma  was  driven  out  of  the  land,  and 
took  refuge  with  Baldwin  of  Flanders  at  Bruges.  Harold 
died  in  1040,  and  was  succeeded  by  Hardacanute.  He 
crossed  at  once  to  England  with  sixty  Danish  vessels,  and 
the  first  thing  he  did  was  to  levy  a  heavy  tax  on  the  whole 
land  to  pay  his  Danes.  He  then  caused  the  body  of  his 
half-brother  Harold  to  be  dug  up,  and  thrown  into  a  fen. 
An  accusation  was  then  trumped  up  against  Bishop  Lyving 
of  Worcester  and  Earl  Godwin  of  having  caused  the  murder 
of  Alfred.     Hardacanute  deprived   the  bishop ;   but  Earl 


Oct.  13.]  S.  Edward  the  Confessor.  331 

Godwin  took  oath  of  his  innocence,  and  bought  his  exculpa- 
tion at  the  price  of  a  magnificent  ship,  manned  by  eighty 
picked  men,  well  armed. 

Shortly  after  Hardacanute  deprived  Archbishop  Elfric,  to 
whom  he  had  given  the  bishopric  of  Worcester,  and  rein- 
stated Lyving ;  so  that  there  seems  no  doubt  that  the  king 
did  not  believe  in  Lyving's  guilt  Queen  Emma  returned  to 
England  in  1040,  and  then  her  son  Edward  came  over  from 
Normandy  and  lived  at  the  Court  of  Hardacanute. 

In  the  year  1042  Hardacanute  died,  and  Edward  was 
almost  unanimously  elected  king  of  the  English  in  his  room, 
through  the  united  influence  and  persuasion  of  Bishop  Lyving 
and  Earl  Godwn.  Edward  was  anointed  and  crowned  king 
on  Easter  Day,  1042,  at  the  age  of  forty.  He  was  a  mild, 
pious,  but  feeble  prince  :  his  heart,  weaned  from  the  world, 
sought  comfort  in  religion,  and  the  cares  of  government  were 
a  painful  distraction  to  a  mind  musing  on  heavenly  things. 
From  his  infancy  he  had  been  addicted  to  prayer.  He 
assisted  daily  at  the  holy  Sacrifice,  visited  churches  and 
monasteries  with  assiduity,  and  loved  the  converse  of  church- 
men. He  was  modest  in  his  comportment  and  sparing  in 
his  words. 

Earl  Godwin  became  the  king's  chief  adviser,  and  nearly 
two  years  after  his  coronation,  in  Januar}^  1045,  Edward 
married  Godwin's  daughter,  Edith. 

Ingulf  of  Croyland  says :  "  He  married  Editha,  the  daughter 
of  Earl  Godwin,  a  lady  of  exquisite  beauty,  of  exceeding 
erudition,  of  exemplary  conduct,  of  humble  piety,  and 
throughout  the  whole  of  her  hfe  an  unsullied  virgin ;  mild 
and  retiring  in  character,  she  was  not  imbued  with  any  of 
the  rude  and  barbarous  manners  of  her  father  and  brothers ; 
true  and  honourable  in  mind,  she  excited  the  enmity  of  no 
one  ;  so  that  she  deserv^ed  the  eulogium  of  the  well-known 
verse,  '  As  the  thorn  the  rose,  so  Godwin  begat  Editha.' 


.Jl * 

332  Lives  of  the  Saints  [Oct.  13. 

Many  a  time  have  I,  when  a  boy  on  a  visit  to  my  father  at 
the  king's  court,  beheld  her,  and  often  has  she  met  me  on 
my  return  from  school,  and  questioned  me  about  Hterature 
and  my  composition,  and  then,  diverting  the  conversation, 
as  she  much  liked  to  do,  from  grammatical  accuracy  to  the 
trifling  subtleties  of  logic,  of  which  she  was  a  perfect  mistress, 
when  she  had  reduced  me  to  silence  by  a  cunning  train  of 
argument,  she  has  directed  her  attendant  to  present  me  with 
three  or  four  pieces  of  money,  and  then  sent  me  to  the  royal 
buttery,  feasted  me,  and  sent  me  oftV  Unfortunately  Ingulf 
is  not  to  be  trusted.  His  work  is,  if  not  a  late  forger)^  at  all 
events  so  amplified  by  a  later  hand  with  fraudulent  purpose, 
as  to  be  undeserving  of  confidence.  His  account  of  him- 
self is  full  of  anachronisms,  consequently  we  can  put  no 
trust  in  his  statement  that  Edith  was  an  unsullied  maiden 
to  the  day  of  her  death.  William  of  Malmesbury,  writing  in 
1 142,  just  a  century  later  than  the  reign  of  Edward,  says  : 
"  She  was  a  woman  whose  bosom  was  the  school  of  every 
liberal  art,  though  little  skilled  in  earthly  matters  ;  on  seeing 
her,  if  you  were  amazed  at  her  emdition,  you  must  absolutely 
languish  for  the  purity  of  her  mind,  and  the  beauty  of  her 
person.  Both  in  her  husband's  lifetime  and  afterwards, 
she  was  not  entirely  free  from  suspicions  of  dishonour;  but 
when  dying,  in  the  time  of  King  WiUiam,  she  voluntarily 
satisfied  the  bystanders  of  her  unimpaired  chastity  by  an 
oath.  When  she  became  his  wife,  the  king  acted  towards 
her  most  delicately,  and  knew  her  not.  I  have  not  been 
able  to  discover  whether  he  acted  thus  from  dislike  to  her 
family,  or  out  of  pure  regard  to  chastity;^  yet  it  is  most 
notoriously  affirmed  that  he  never  violated  her  purity." 
As  soon  as  Edward  was  crowned,  accompanied  by  the 

'  Roger  of  Wendover  says  :  "Whether  he  acted  thus  from  hatred  of  her  father, 
or  from  love  of  chastity,  is  uncertain ;  but  the  presumption  is  strong  that  the  pious 
king  was  unwilling  to  beget  successors  of  a  traitor  stock." 

Ijl * 


Oct.  13.] 

S.  Edward  the  Confessor.  333 

three  great  earls,  Godwin,  Leofric,  and  Siward,  he  rode  to 
Gloucester,  where  his  mother  Emma  was  living.  She  had 
not  shown  any  love  to  him  or  his  brother  Alfred,  but  had 
transferred  her  maternal  affections  to  her  children  by  Danish 
Canute.  Edward  resented  this,  and  his  first  act  after  his 
coronation  was  to  swoop  down  on  her,  *'  and  the  king  caused 
all  the  lands  which  his  mother  possessed  to  be  seized  into 
his  own  hands/'  says  the  Saxon  chronicle,  ''  and  he  took 
from  her  all  that  she  possessed  in  gold,  and  in  silver,  and  in 
things  unspeakable,  because  she  had  before  held  it  too 
closely  from  him.  And  soon  after,  Stigand  was  deposed 
from  his  bishopric,  and  all  that  he  possessed  was  seized 
into  the  king's  hands,  because  he  was  nearest  to  his  mother's 
counsel,  and  she  went  just  as  he  advised  her,  as  people 
thought."  Florence  of  Worcester  adds  that  he  kindly 
allowed  her  the  necessaries  of  life,  and  "  ordered  her  to 
remain  quiet." 

Not  long  after,  Edward  banished  Gunhilda,  niece  of 
King  Canute,  with  her  two  sons,  probably  because  they 
had  opposed  his  election. 

But  if  Edward  was  implacable  against  those  who  had  not 
been  liberal  towards  him  when  he  needed  money,  or  who  had 
opposed  his  coming  to  the  crown,  he  was  ready  enough  to 
favour  those  who  had  befriended  him.  In  Normandy  he 
had  contracted  many  friendships,  and  when  he  became  King 
of  England  these  Normans  swarmed  about  him,  asking  for 
preferment.  Edward  good-naturedly  gave  them  what  they 
wanted.  He  put  a  Norman  monk  into  the  bishopric  of 
London,  and  he  gave  that  of  Dorchester  to  another  Nor- 
man, named  Ulf,  a  bad  man,  who,  as  the  chronicles  say, 
"  did  nothing  bishop-like." 

This  nominee  of  the  king  went  to  Rome  for  confirmation, 
but  Pope  Leo  "  almost  broke  his  staff,"  as  the  Saxon  chronicle 
says,  because  Ulf  was  so  ignorant  that  he  could  scarcely  read 


334  Lives  of  the  Samts.  [Oct.13. 

the  missal  or  breviary.  But  Ulf  bribed  those  around  the  Pope 
and  secured  the  bishopric.  In  1050,  Eadsig,  Archbishop  of 
Canterbury,  died,  and  the  monks  of  Christ  Church  elected 
to  the  vacant  throne  one  Elfric,  an  Englishman.  Earl  God- 
win urged  the  king  to  confirm  the  election,  but  he  would  not 
hearken  to  his  advice,  or  regard  the  rights  of  the  electors, 
but  appointed  to  the  archiepiscopal  see  his  Norman  favourite, 
Robert,  to  whom  he  had  given  the  bishopric  of  London. 
There  had  not  been  a  foreigner  archbishop  of  Canterbury, 
perhaps  not  bishop  of  any  see  at  all,  since  Theodore  of 
Tarsus.  And  now,  as  if  there  were  nobody  in  England 
good  enough  for  any  high  place,  these  Normans  were  given 
bishoprics  and  other  high  offices,  and  were  generally  set  to 
suck  up  the  fat  of  the  land.  Even  those  who  did  not  stay  in 
England  to  hold  estates  and  offices,  came  over  to  see  the 
king,  and  to  get  presents  from  him.  Archbishop  Robert 
especially  was  always  foremost  in  mischief;  he  tried  to  set 
the  king  against  Earl  Godwin  and  those  of  the  English  who 
were  about  his  person.  The  king's  sister  Godiva  had  married 
Drogo,  Count  of  Mantes,  and  her  son  Ralph  had  an  earldom, 
and  other  Normans  large  estates  in  the  island,  and  they 
erected  strong  castles  on  them  after  the  Norman  fashion, 
oppressed  the  people  and  reduced  them  to  vassalage.  This 
was  very  galling  to  the  English,  who  could  not  endure 
the  feudal  despotism  which  had  been  growing  up  in  France, 
and  which  was  alien  to  their  free  institutions.  Presently 
there  came  a  crash. 

Godiva  had  lost  her  husband,  the  Count  of  Mantes,  and 
she  married  Eustace,  Count  of  Boulogiie,  who  shortly  after  his 
marriage  came  over,  like  other  people,  to  see  his  brother-in-law, 
and  get  from  him  estates  or  money.  Then  he  set  off  on  his  way 
home,  laden  ^\'ith  presents.  On  reaching  Dover  he  and  his 
retainers  went  to  the  house  of  one  of  the  principal  citizens, 
and  wanted  to  force  their  way  in  and  lodge  there  uninvited, 


Oct.  ,3.]  S.  Edward  the  Confessor.  335 

as  conquerors  might  treat  a  subjugated  people.  The  master 
of  the  house  refused  to  admit  the  haughty  strangers,  and  a 
skirmish  took  place  between  the  Normans  and  the  people  of 
Dover,  who  rushed  to  revenge  their  fellow-citizen,  whom  the 
Normans  had  killed  for  refusing  them  hospitality. 

If  we  may  trust  Roger  of  Wendover,  "  The  earl  and  his 
comrades  in  great  wrath  slew  a  number  of  men  and  women, 
and  trod  their  children  under  their  horses'  feet."  In  the 
fight,  about  twenty  people  on  each  side  were  killed,^  but  at 
length  Eustace  and  his  men  were  driven  out  of  the  town. 
They  returned  to  the  king,  who  was  at  Gloucester,  and  told 
him  their  story.  Edward  was  so  incensed,  that  he  ordered 
Earl  Godwin  to  march  with  troops  at  once  to  Dover,  and 
severely  chastise  the  town  for  having  insulted  his  Norman 
brother-in-law.  Godwin  peremptorily  refused  to  stain  his 
hands  in  blood  for  such  a  matter.  He  told  the  king  that  no 
man  in  his  earldom  should  be  put  arbitrarily  to  death  without 
a  fair  trial  by  jury,  as  instituted  by  King  Alfred.  French 
vassals  might  submit  to  be  chastised  like  curs  at  the  ca- 
price of  their  lords,  but  this  free  Englishmen  would  not 
endure.  If  the  men  of  Dover  had  committed  a  crime,  let 
their  magistrates  be  brought  to  trial  before  the  Witenagemot, 
and  tried  fairly.  This  language  ill  pleased  the  king's  French 
favourites ;  they  represented  to  him  that  in  their  land  a 
sovereign  prince,  or  noble,  might  chastise  his  vassals  at  will, 
and  was  supreme  judge  of  their  conduct.  And  they  incensed 
him  more  and  more  against  Godwin,  whose  freedom  of 
speech  in  defence  of  right  had  somewhat  galled  his  spirit. 

Godwin,  finding  that  the  king  was  set  against  him,  as- 
sembled with  Earls  Sweyn  and  Harold  at  Beverstone  in 
Gloucestershire,  on  the  top  of  the  Cotswolds  near  Tetbury. 
Meanwhile  the  king  sent  to  Siward,  the   Danish  Earl  ot 

'  Roger  of  Wendover  says   that  eighty   Normans  were  killed,  but  this  is  an 


^ ■ * 

336  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  13. 

the  Northumbrians,  and  to  Leofric,  Earl  of  the  Mercians, 
and  to  his  nephew,  the  French  Earl  Ralph,  and  got  together 
an  army.  But  the  great  bulk  of  the  people  flocked  to  Earl 
Godwin,  as  the  protector  of  their  rights  and  liberties.  Then, 
as  the  king  had  done  no  justice.  Earl  Godwin  demanded 
that  Edward  should  banish  his  Norman  friends  from  their 
earldoms,  where  they  oppressed  their  subjects,  and  that  the 
earldoms  should  be  given  up  to  them.  The  king  refused,  as 
his  army  was  eager  to  attack  Earl  Godwin  and  his  Anglo- 
Saxons.  But  the  great  earl  did  not  dare  to  bring  matters  to 
a  bloody  conclusion,  and  it  was  agreed  that  the  matter 
should  be  referred  to  the  Witenagemot.  When  the  wise  men 
assembled,  Godwin  and  his  sons  were  summoned  before 
them.  They  declined  to  attend  unless  the  king  would 
pledge  his  word  that  they  should  be  allowed  to  come  and  go 
safely,  and  would  deliver  hostages  in  pledge  of  his  sincerity. 
This  the  king  refused  to  do,  so  Godwin  and  his  sons  would 
not  appear  before  the  Witenagemot.  The  assembly  there- 
fore pronounced  them  contumacious  and  outlawed  them. 
So  Earl  Godwin  and  his  wife  Gytha,  and  their  sons  Sweyn, 
Tostig,  and  Gurth,  took  refuge  with  Baldwin,  Count  of 
Flanders,  at  Bruges. 

It  is  probable  that  the  pride  and  power  of  Godwin  had 
created  jealousy  and  alarm.  He  was  right  in  his  demands, 
and  he  took  up  arms  in  the  defence  of  the  right,  but  under- 
neath all  lay,  or  was  thought  to  lie,  ambition  to  advance  his 
own  family.  This  may  explain  the  conduct  of  the  wise  men 
in  outlawing  him  and  his  sons.  Godwin's  sons  Sweyn  and 
Tostig  and  Gurth  accompanied  him  to  Bruges,  but  Harold 
and  Leofwin,  his  two  other  sons,  went  to  Ireland,  where  they 
were  well  received  by  Dermot,  King  of  Leinster. 

As  soon  as  Godwin  and  his  sons  were  disgraced  and  out- 
lawed, King  Edward  turned  on  his  wife  Edith,  the  daughter 
of  Godwin,  and  treated  her  much  as  he  had  treated  his 

* ,j, 


Oct.  13.]  S.  Edward  the  Co7ifessor.  337 

mother.  The  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle  says  :  "  Then  put  away 
the  king  the  lady  who  had  been  consecrated  his  queen,  and 
caused  to  be  taken  from  her  all  which  she  possessed,  in 
land,  and  in  gold,  and  in  silver,  and  in  all  things,  and  de- 
livered her  to  his  sister  at  Whervvall." '  At  the  same  time 
he  expelled  Sparhavoc,  Bishop  of  London,  and  thrust  upon 
the  diocese  his  Norman  chaplain,  William,  The  abbey  of 
Abingdon  he  gave  to  a  Norman  bishop,  Rudolf.  The 
earldom  of  Somerset,  Devon,  Dorset,  and  Cornwall  was 
given  by  the  king  to  a  kinsman — probably  another  Norman 
— named  Odda. 

As  soon  as  Godwin  was  gone,  Edward  felt  relieved  of  the 
dictation  Avhich  interfered  with  his  surrounding  himself 
with  Normans.  He  was  visited  then  by  WiUiam,  Duke  of 
Normandy,  his  cousin,  and  it  was  then  that  Edward  made 
to  him  the  unfortunate  promise  which  cost  England  her  best 
blood,  and  led  to  her  conquest.  William  always  based  his 
claim  to  the  throne  on  a  promise  made  him  by  King 
Edward  at  this  time.  The  crown  of  England  was  elective, 
so  that  Edward  could  not  leave  it  to  whom  he  would,  but 
he  was  so  imbued  with  French  despotic  notions  which  he 
had  imbibed  in  his  youth  in  Normandy,  that  he  may  have 
thought  he  could  do  so.  And  at  this  time  he  was  full  of 
bitterness  against  Godwin  and  his  sons,  so  that  he  probably 
made  the  promise  to  William  in  the  hopes  of  excluding 
Godwin's  family  from  the  throne,  and  in  his  bigoted  pre- 
ference for  Norman  despotism  over  the  freedom  of  English 

William  and  his  companions  received  many  gifts  from 
King  Edward,  with  which  they  returned  to  Normandy. 

In  1052  died  the  queen's  mother,  Emma,  at  Winchester, 
and  was  buried  beside  her  second  husband,  Canute.      She 

'  Florence  of  Worcester  and  Roger  of  Wendover  say,  "He  sent  her  away  igno 
miniously,  with  one  servant." 

VOL.   XI.  22 


^__ }f 

338  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [oa.  13. 

seems  to  have  been  a  hard,  selfish,  and  unscrupulous  woman. 
Scandalous  stories  were  circulated  about  her  intercourse 
with  Bishop  Alwyn  of  Winchester,  and  she  was  put  to  the 
ordeal  by  fire,  but  walked  unharmed  over  red-hot  plough- 
shares. Such  is  the  story  told  by  historians  like  Brompton 
(a.d.  1 198)  and  Knyghton  (a.d.  1395),  but  the  story  is 
imported  from  the  legend  of  S.  Kunegund  (a.d.  1040),  the 
wife  of  Henry  II.  of  Germany.  No  historian  to  whom  much 
credit  is  due  records  it. 

Things  did  not  prosper  in  England  under  Norman  rule. 
Griffith,  King  of  North  Wales,  burst  into  Herefordshire  and 
harried  the  country  as  far  as  Leominster.  Frequent 
skirmishes  took  place  and  much  blood  was  shed,  the  Welsh 
generally  proving  victorious;  the  whole  frontier  was  in  a 
condition  of  alarm  and  distress. 

Meanwhile,  Earl  Godwin  and  his  sons  thought  of  coming 
home  again.  They  got  the  Marquis  Baldwin,  and  Henry, 
King  of  the  French,  to  plead  for  them,  but  in  vain ;  the 
Norman  favourites  of  the  king  had  his  ear,  and  would  not 
suffer  him  to  hearken.  Accordingly  Godwin  and  his  three 
sons  who  were  with  him  in  Flanders,  sailed  for  England, 
and  simultaneously  Harold  and  Leofwin  came  over  from 
Ireland  with  nine  ships.  King  Edward  sent  a  fleet  to  Sand- 
Avich  to  watch  for  Godmn,  under  the  Earls  Ralph  and  Odda, 
but  a  storm  drove  back  the  ships  of  Godwin.  When  he 
sailed  again,  King  Edward  found  that  his  English  sailors 
and  soldiers  would  not  fight  under  their  Norman  chiefs 
against  the  English  earl,  and  Godwin  landed  on  the  14th 
September,  a.d.  1052,  in  London.  The  king  made  every 
effort  to  collect  an  army.  "But,"  says  Florence  of  Worcester, 
"  as  there  were  few  men  of  any  courage,  either  on  the  king's 
or  on  Godwin's  side,  who  were  not  Englishmen,  nearly  all 
shrunk  from  fighting  against  their  kinsfolk  and  countrymen ; 

^ _ ►i. 

Oct.  13.]  S.  Edward  the  Confessor.  339 

so  that  the  wiser  sort  on  both  sides  interfered  to  restore 
peace  between  the  king  and  the  earl,  and  both  armies  re- 
ceived orders  to  lay  down  their  arms.  The  next  morning 
the  king  held  a  council,  and  fully  restored  to  their  former 
honours  Godwin,  and  his  wife,  and  all  his  sons.  .  .  .  The 
king  also  took  back  with  due  honours  Queen  Edith,  the 
earl's  daughter,  and  restored  her  to  her  former  dignity.  The 
alliance  being  renewed  and  peace  established,  they  promised 
just  law  to  all  the  people,  and  banished  all  the  Normans 
who  had  introduced  unjust  laws  and  given  unrighteous  judg- 
ments, and  in  many  things  had  influenced  the  king  to  the 
disadvantage  of  his  English  subjects." 

When  the  two  French  bishops,  Robert  of  Canterbury  and 
Ulf  of  Dorchester,  heard  the  decision  of  the  Witenagemot, 
they  mounted  their  horses  and  galloped  out  of  the  east  gate 
of  London,  cutting  down  with  their  long  Norman  broad- 
swords all  who  opposed  them,  till  they  got  to  the  coast, 
when  they  sailed  away  in  a  crazy  ship,  and  never  came  back. 
Bishop  WilUam  of  London  went  away  also,  but  he  was  re- 
called, for  he  was  a  good  and  holy  man,  and  the  English 
people  bare  no  ill-will  against  him.  Next  morning  the 
Witenagemot  met  again,  and  Earl  Godwin  rose  and  made  a 
speech,  and  said  that  he  and  his  sons  were  guiltless  of  the 
charges  raised  against  them ;  and  he  was  reinstated  in  his 
earldom,  and  all  his  sons  were  taken  back  into  favour  with 
the  king. 

Next  year,  1053,  at  Easter,  died  Earl  Godwin,  whilst 
feasting  with  the  king.  An  idle  story  was  invented  concern- 
ing his  death,  which  has  been  reported  by  the  Norman 
chroniclers,  who  held  him  in  peculiar  detestation.  According 
to  this  tale,  whilst  Godwin  was  feasting  with  the  king,  the 
cupbearer's  foot  slipped,  and  he  would  have  fallen  had  he 
not  stayed  himself  up  with  the  other  foot.  Then  said  Godwin, 

_ ^ 

340  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.13. 

"So  brother  helpeth  brother."  "I  had  a  brother  once," 
said  Edward;  "he  would  have  helped  me  hadst  thou  not 
slain  him." 

Then  said  Godwin,  "  Many  a  time  have  I  been  charged 
by  thee  with  this  murder  of  thy  brother  Alfred.  Now  I  call 
God  to  witness  that  I  am  innocent.  If  not,  may  this  piece 
of  bread  choke  me."  And  he  took  a  morsel  of  bread  from 
the  table  and  put  it  in  his  mouth.  It  stuck  in  his  throat  and 
he  died.^ 

This  malicious  story  rests  on  no  foundation.  The  English 
wept  for  Earl  Godwin  as  for  their  friend  and  father,  the  de- 
fender of  their  liberties,  a  true  EngHshman  at  heart;  but 
they  rejoiced  that  he  had  left  a  worthy  son  to  walk  in  his 
ways.  For  when  Godwin  died,  Harold,  his  son,  was  made 
Earl  of  the  West  Saxons,  and  from  this  time  Harold  became 
the  greatest  man  in  the  kingdom.  He  and  King  Edward 
were  very  good  friends,  and  Harold  in  fact  governed  the 
kingdom,  leaving  the  king  ample  leisure  for  his  theolo- 
gical musings  and  devotions.  Edward  was  very  fond  of 

"There  was  one  enjoyment  in  which  he  chiefly  delighted," 
says  William  of  Malmesbury,  "  which  was,  hunting  with  fleet 
hounds,  whose  opening  in  the  woods  he  used  with  pleasure 
to  encourage ;  and  again,  with  the  pouncing  of  birds  whose 
nature  it  is  to  prey  on  their  kindred  species.  In  these 
exercises,  after  hearing  divine  service  in  the  morning,  he 
employed  himself  whole  days.  In  other  respects  he  was  a 
man  by  choice  devoted  to  God,  and  lived  the  life  of  an  angel 
in  the  administration  of  his  kingdom.  To  the  poor  and  to 
the  stranger,  more  especially  fo7'eigners,  and  men  of  religious 
orders,  he  was  kind  in  invitation,  munificent  in  presents,  and 

'  The  story  is  contradicted  by  the  account  of  Florence  of  Worcester,  who  says  that 
the  earl  was  taken  ill  at  the  banquet,  and  carried  to  the  king's  room,  where  he 
lingered  on  for  five  days,  and  then  died.     He  evidently  was  struck  with  apoplexy. 

^ ^ 

Oct.  13.]  S.  Edward  the  Confessor.  341 

constantly  inciting  the  monks  of  his  own  country  to  imitate 
their  holiness.  He  was  of  a  becoming  stature,  his  beard  and 
hair  milk-white,  his  countenance  florid,  fair  throughout  his 
whole  person,  and  his  form  of  admirable  proportion."  Else- 
where William  of  Malmesbury  says  of  him  :  "  He  was  a  man 
from  the  simplicity  of  his  manners  little  calculated  to  govern, 
but  devoted  to  God,  and  in  consequence  directed  by  Him. 
For  while  he  continued  to  reign  there  arose  no  popular 
commotions  which  were  not  immediately  quelled;  no  foreign 
war,  all  was  calm  and  peaceable  both  at  home  and  abroad, 
which  is  the  more  to  be  wondered  at,  because  he  conducted 
himself  so  mildly  that  he  would  not  even  utter  a  word  of  re- 
proach to  the  meanest  person.  For  when  he  had  gone  out 
once  hunting,  and  a  countryman  had  upset  the  standings  by 
which  the  deer  are  driven  into  the  toils,  struck  with  noble 
indignation  he  exclaimed,  '  By  God  and  His  Mother !  I  will 
serve  you  just  such  a  turn,  if  ever  I  have  the  chance.'  Here 
was  a  noble  mind,  which  forgot  that  he  was  a  king,  under 
such  circumstances,  and  could  not  think  himself  allowed  to 
injure  a  man  even  of  the  lowest  condition."  William  of 
Malmesbury  rightly  attributes  the  tranquillity  and  prosperity 
of  his  reign  to  his  having  been  under  the  control  of  master 
minds :  Siward,  Earl  of  Northumbria ;  Leofric,  Earl  of  Here- 
ford ;  and  Harold,  son  of  Godwin,  Earl  of  the  West  Saxons, 
"  However  indolent  and  unassuming  he  himself  might  be 
esteemed,  he  had  nobles  capable  of  elevating  him  to  the 
highest  pitch." 

It  will  be  hardly  necessary  to  relate  the  political  events  of 
the  remaining  years  of  King  Edward's  life,  as  whatsoever 
was  done  in  repelling  and  crushing  the  Welsh,  and  in  fight- 
ing the  Scots,  was  done  by  his  great  Earls  Harold  and 
Siward.  He  had  no  part  in  the  wars  and  victories,  and  no 
credit  attaches  to  him  for  the  breaking  of  the  Welsh  power, 
or  for  the  defeat  of  Macbeth. 

^ _ ^ 

>J< >5< 

342  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  13. 

In  1055,  as  King  Edward  had  no  children,  he  sent  an 
embassy  into  Germany  to  the  Emperor  Henry  III.,  and  one 
object  of  the  embassy  was  to  get  the  emperor  to  send  into 
Hungary  for  Edward  the  Ethehng,  son  of  Edmund  Ironside, 
who  was  now  the  only  representative  of  the  old  royal  race. 
King  Edward  was  then  aged  fifty-two.  In  1057  Edward  the 
Etheling  came  to  England  with  his  children,  but  did  not 
meet  his  uncle  the  king,  for  he  died  on  his  arrival  in 
England,  and  was  buried  in  S.  Paul's,  leaving  a  son,  Edgar, 
a  child. 

King  Edward  remitted  the  tax  called  the  Danegeld,  which 
had  been  imposed  on  the  nation  in  1000,  and  which  was 
money  for  bribing  the  Danes  not  to  molest  the  English. 
When  Canute  was  king  he  continued  the  tax,  and  paid  with 
it  his  Danish  fleet.  It  continued  to  be  collected  under 
Hardacanute,  and  also  under  King  Edward,  though  the 
excuse  for  the  tax  was  gone.  But  Edward  saw  this  and 
remitted  it,  to  the  great  joy  of  the  English.  According  to 
the  legend  the  king  was  taken  into  his  treasury  to  see  the 
pile  of  gold  at  his  disposal,  collected  under  the  name  of 
Danegeld,  and  he  exclaimed  that  he  saw  a  devil  dancing  on 
top  of  the  heap.  He  therefore  ordered  it  to  be  dispersed 
among  the  poor,  and  refused  to  have  the  tax  again  imposed 
on  the  EngHsh. 

During  his  exile  in  Normandy,  S.  Edward  made  a  vow  to 
perform  a  pilgrimage  to  the  tomb  of  the  Apostles  at  Rome, 
should  God  give  him  the  throne  of  his  father.  When  made 
king  he  thought  about  fulfilling  his  vow,  but  when  he  pro- 
pounded before  the  Witenagemot  his  intention  of  making 
his  pilgrimage,  the  council  protested  that  it  was  impracticable, 
and  at  last  made  the  king  understand  that  it  was  folly  for 
him  to  think  of  leaving  the  kingdom  to  shift  for  itself  whilst 
he  was  absent.  Edward  consented  to  refer  the  matter  to 
Leo  IX.,  who  then  sat  in  the  chair  of  S.  Peter.      Aelred, 

i — 4< 

^ . ^ 

Oct.  13.]  ^-  Edward  the  Confessor.  343 

Archbishop  of  York,  Heriman,  Bishop  of  Winchester,  and 
two  abbots  were  despatched  to  Rome  on  this  errand.  The 
Pope  dispensed  with  the  vow  on  condition  that  Edward 
should  give  to  the  poor  the  money  which  his  journey  would 
have  cost  him,  and  also  should  build  and  endow  a  magni- 
ficent abbey  dedicated  to  S.  Peter.  King  Edward  having 
received  this  brief,  pitched  on  Westminster  as  the  site  of  his 
foundation.  The  year  1065  was  a  troubled  one.  The 
Northumbrians  were  not  content  under  the  rule  of  Tostig, 
their  earl,  son  of  Godwin,  and  brother  of  Harold.  He  was 
a  rough,  stern  governor,  and  he  compassed  his  ends  by  un- 
justifiable means.  In  1064  a  Northumbrian  thane  named 
Cospatric  had  come  to  the  Court  of  King  Edward.  Tostig 
bore  him  some  grudge,  and  he  sent  private  intimation  of  his 
wish  to  see  him  made  away  with  to  his  sister,  the  learned 
and  pious  Edith,  the  queen.  Edith  at  once  had  him 
murdered  at  Court,  whilst  the  Christmas  festivities  were 
being  carried  on.  Tostig  also  murdered  two  thanes,  Gamel, 
Orm's  son,  and  Ulf,  Dolfin's  son,  in  his  own  chamber  at 

"  Soon  after  the  feast  of  S.  Michael,"  says  Florence  of 
Worcester,  "the  Northumbrian  thanes Gamelbjorn,  Dunstan 
Athelneth's  son,  Glonicorn  Hjardult's  son,  entered  York 
with  two  hundred  soldiers,  to  avenge  the  execrable  murder 
of  the  noble  Northumbrian  thane,  Cospatric,  who  was 
treacherously  killed  by  order  of  Queen  Editha  at  the  king's 
Court  on  the  fourth  night  of  Christmas,  for  the  sake  of  her 
brother  Tostig,"  as  also  for  the  murder  of  Gamel  and  Ulf. 
Another  cause  of  discontent  was  the  "  enormous  taxes  which 
Tostig  unjustly  levied  throughout  the  whole  of  Northum- 
bria."  The  rising  became  general  throughout  the  north  ; 
the  men  of  Lincolnshire,  Nottinghamshire,  and  Derbyshire 
joined  them,  and  marched  to  Northampton.  There  Harold 
went  to  meet  them,  and  held  a  great  meeting.  King  Edward 

^ ^ 

I     344  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  13. 

sent,  charging  the  Northumbrians  to  leave  off  their  rebellion. 
They  in  return  demanded  that  Earl  Harold  should  lay  their 
complaints  personally  before  him,  and  should  demand  the 
banishment  of  Tostig  from  the  king's  presence  and  from  the 
kingdom,  otherwise  they  said  they  would  fight.  Harold 
went  to  the  king  with  their  message,  on  which  Tostig 
charged  his  brother  most  unjustly  with  having  set  on  the 
Northumbrians  to  make  these  accusations  against  him.  No- 
thing could  be  more  unlikely,  as  Harold  had  no  kind  of 
motive  for  doing  so;  and  Harold  indignantly  repudiated  the 
charge.  But  though  Harold  had  no  motive  to  stir  up  the 
Northumbrians  to  rebellion,  he  had  an  obvious  motive  not 
to  push  them  to  extremities.  A  civil  war  between  the  north 
and  south  of  England  would  be  most  disastrous  to  the  whole 
nation,  and  rather  than  have  that,  he  would  consent  to  their 
just  demands,  and  sacrifice  his  brother.  Whilst  he  was  with 
the  king,  the  Northumbrians  gave  earnest  of  their  intentions 
by  plundering  Northamptonshire,  burning  houses  and  com, 
and  carrying  off  hundreds  of  captives.  Harold  met  them 
again  at  Oxford,  which  the  Northumbrian  army  had  now 
reached.  He  tried  to  persuade  them  to  take  Tostig  back, 
but  they  would  not  hearken.  So  Morkere,  son  of  Earl  Alfgar, 
was  made  their  earl,  and  Tostig  was  outlawed  and  banished. 
King  Edward  was  very  angry  at  having  to  part  with  his 
favourite,  and  at  not  being  allowed  to  chastise  his  enemies. 
But  Earl  Harold  knew  that  it  must  be  so,  and  the  king  had 
nothing  left  but  to  pray  that  God  might  punish  them,  and 
whether  through  his  prayers  or  not,  certainly  the  Northum- 
brians suffered  evil  enough  during  the  ensuing  years. 

In  1066,  at  Christmas,  King  Edward  held  his  Court  at 
Westminster,  and  on  Holy  Innocents'  Day  caused  the  abbey 
he  had  erected  to  be  dedicated  with  great  pomp  to  the 
Prince  of  the  Apostles.  But  both  before  and  during  the 
solemn  festival  of  the  dedication  he  was  ill.      As  his  illness 

* — 

"^   CD   "^ 

Tj   OJ-t^     r-H 
>-<  Q,  c3     03 



Oct.  13.]  •5*-  Edward  the  Confessor.  345 

increased  he  took  to  his  bed,  when,  after  lying  two  days 
speechless,  and  apparently  lifeless,  he  revived  on  the  third 
day,  and  fetching  a  deep  sigh,  exclaimed,  "Almighty  God, 
if  it  be  not  an  illusion,  but  a  true  vision  which  I  have  be- 
held, grant  me  strength  to  tell  it  to  those  who  are  by  ;  but  if 
on  the  other  hand  it  be  false,  I  pray  Thee  withhold  from  me 
the  power  of  telling  it."  After  this  prayer  he  said  :  "  I  saw 
just  now  standing  by  me  two  monks  whom  I  had  seen  in 
Normandy  in  my  youth,  and  knew  to  have  lived  most 
religiously,  and  died  most  Christianly.  These  men  assured 
me  that  they  were  sent  to  me  with  a  message  from  God,  and 
proceeded  as  follows :  '  Forasmuch  as  the  princes,  dukes, 
bishops,  and  abbots  of  England  are  not  the  servants  of  God 
but  of  the  devil,  therefore  God  will  within  a  year  and  a  day 
deliver  this  kingdom  into  the  hand  of  the  enemy ;  and  this 
land  shall  be  wholly  overrun  with  demons.'  On  my  saying 
that  I  would  declare  this  to  the  people  that  they  might 
repent,  '  It  will  be  to  no  purpose,'  they  replied,  'for  they  will 
not  repent,  nor  will  God  have  mercy  upon  them.'  '  But  when 
may  we  hope  for  a  remission  of  such  dire  calamities?'  I 
asked.  '  When,'  they  replied,  '  a  green  tree  shall  be  cut 
down  and  the  head  carried  far  away  from  the  roots,  and 
after  this  they  of  their  own  accord  unite  and  blossom  and 
bear  fruit,  then  may  a  remission  of  these  evils  be  hoped  for.' '" 
Roger  of  Wendover  appends  this  remark:  "The  English 
afterwards  proved  the  truth  of  this  prophecy  ;  for  England 
truly  became  the  dwelling  of  foreigners  and  felt  the  yoke  of 
strangers,  none  of  her  dukes,  or  prelates,  or  abbots  being 
English,  nor  was  there  any  hope  of  ending  this  misery." 
Roger  of  Wendover  wrote  in  1235  ;  he  took  his  story  from 
William  of  Malmesbury,  who  wrote  in  1142. 

The  story  was,  no  doubt,  invented  after  the  Norman  Con- 
quest, when  popular  delusion  had  exalted  Edward  into  the 
representative  Saint   and   Patron   of   the   English   people. 



346  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  13. 

There  was  not  the  slightest  probability  of  his  regarding  a 
Norman  invasion  as  the  overrunning  of  the  country  by  de- 
mons. He  always  favoured  these  insolent  foreigners  at  the 
expense  of  his  own  subjects. 

King  Edward  died  on  the  eve  of  the  Epiphany,  Thursday, 
January  5,  1066,  and  was  buried  next  day  in  the  minster  he 
had  built,  and  where  his  body  still  reposes. 

He  was  the  first  English  king  to  touch  scrofulous  swellings 
and  sores  for  the  purpose  of  healing  them.  Many  came  to 
him  to  be  touched,  and  every  one  who  asserted  that  he  was 
healed  was  rewarded  with  a  gold  medal.  It  was  marvellous 
how  many  succeeded  in  persuading  the  king  that  they  were 
healed,  and  thus  securing  the  piece  of  gold. 

The  body  of  S.  Edward  reposes  in  a  noble  tomb  in  West- 
minster Abbey.' 

'  In  compiling  this  Memoir,  Mr.  Freeman's  "  Norman  Conquest,"  vols.  i.  and  ii., 
has  heen  consulted. 



Oct.  14.]  ^-  Callixtus.  347 

October  14. 

S.  Callixtus,  Pope,  M.  at  Rome;  a.d.  222. 

SS.    FORTUNATA,   V.,    AND    HER    BROTHERS,    MM.    at    CcBSaVC, 

Palestine ;  a.d.  303. 
S.  Gaudentius,  B.M.  at  Rimini  in  Italy;  a.d.  355. 
S.  CcELESTlus,  B.  o/Metz;  beginning  of  A,th  cent. 
S.  DoNATiAN,  B.  o/R/ieims;  end  0/ 4th  cent. 
S.  FoRTUNATUS,  B.  of  Todi  ill  Uiubria;  a.d.  537, 
S.  Manechild,  V.  at  Chalons ;  6th  cent. 
S.  RusTicus,  B.  of  Treves ;  circ.  a.d.  574. 
S.  Angadrisma,  V.  Abss.  at  Beaiivais ;  circ.  a.d.  695. 
S.  BuRCHARD,  B.  of  Wiirzburg;  a.d.  754. 
S.  CosMAS,  B.  of  Majuina  in  Palestine ;  a.d.  780, 
S.  Dominic  Loricatus,  C.  at  San  Severitio;  a.d.  1060. 


(a.d.  222.) 

[The  ancient  Kalendars  of  Fronto  and  Leo  Allatius,  the  Martyrology 
of  Jerome,  in  some  copies  on  Oct.  12,  in  others  on  Oct.  14.  Bede, 
Usuardus,  Ado,  Wandelbert,  Roman  Martyrology.  Authorities : — 
Mention  by  Eusebius,  but  especially  the  "Refutation  of  Heresies,"  attri- 
buted to  S.  Hippolytus,  B.  of  Portus.  The  Acts  of  the  Martyrdom  of 
S.  Callixtus  are  not  trustworthy.] 

NFORTUNATELY  we  have  an  account  of  the 
life  of  S.  Callixtus  from  one  side  only,  from  the 
pen  of  a  zealous  antagonist,  probably  S.  Hippoly- 
tus, Bishop  of  Portus. 
Pope  S.  Zephyrinus,  who  sat  in  the  throne  of  S.  Peter 
from  A.D.  202  to  A.D.  219,  was  a  pious  but  unlearned  and 
feeble-minded  pontiff,  desirous  of  doing  what  was  right,  and 
of  upholding  orthodox  doctrine,  but  profoundly  ignorant  of 
theology,  and  therefore  embracing  adverse  tenets  with  all  the 
zeal  of  which  an  irresolute  mind  was  capable.  He  was  at 
one  time  inclined  to  favour  Noetianism,  at  another  Sabel- 



34^  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Ocui.v 

lianism.  He  fell  after  a  while  under  the  control  of  a  master 
mind,  the  able  Callixtus.  S.  Hippolytus  vigorously  and  in- 
dignantly opposed  Zephyrinus  when  he  proclaimed,  "  I 
acknowledge  one  God,  Jesus  Christ,  and  none  beside  Him, 
that  was  born  and  suffered." 

When  Zephyrinus  died,  Callixtus  aspired  to  succeed  him, 
and  his  canvassing  proved  successful.  Callixtus  had  been 
the  slave  of  the  wealthy  Carpophorus,  a  Christian  in  the  house- 
hold of  the  emperor ;  he  had  been  set  up  by  his  master  as 
manager  of  a  bank  in  the  quarter  of  Rome  called  the  Piscina 
Publica.  The  Christian  brethren  and  widows,  on  the  credit 
of  the  name  of  Carpophorus,  deposited  their  savings  in  this 
bank  of  Callixtus.  He  squandered  the  money  on  his  o'vvn 
pleasures,  and  was  called  to  account,  fled,  embarked  on 
board  a  ship  at  Ostia,  was  pursued  by  his  master,  threw 
himself  into  the  sea,  was  rescued,  brought  back  to  Rome,  tried, 
and  sentenced  to  hard  labour  on  the  treadmill.  The  merciful 
Carpophorus,  says  S.  Hippolytus,  cared  not  so  much  for  his 
own  losses  as  for  those  of  the  poor  widows  ;  and  he  released 
Callixtus  on  the  pretext  of  collecting  moneys,  which  the 
prisoner  assured  him  were  due  still,  and  which,  if  paid  in, 
would  reduce  the  sum  for  which  the  bank  had  failed. 

Callixtus  had  had  dealings  with  the  Jews,  and  they  owed 
him  money,  or  he  pretended  that  they  did.  He  went  into 
the  synagogue  one  Saturday,  and  disturbed  the  service  by 
his  clamours  for  the  money.  The  Jews  beat  him,  and  drew 
him  before  Fuscianus,  prefect  of  the  city,  and  brought 
against  him  the  charge  of  having  troubled  their  religious 
rites.  Carpophorus,  hearing  that  his  slave  was  again  in 
trouble,  appeared  before  the  magistrate,  and  deposed,  "  Put 
no  confidence  in  the  words  of  this  fellow ;  he  has  squandered 
large  sums  of  money  I  had  entrusted  to  him  ;  he  is  no 
Christian,  but  he  is  seeking  occasion  of  death."  The  Jews 
insisted  on  the  law  being  put  in  effect,  and  Callixtus  was 



Oct.  14.] 

•S.  Callixtus.  349 

scourged  ignominiously,  and  transported  to  the  mines  of 

Marcia,  the  concubine  of  the  Emperor  Commodus,  was 
favourable  to  the  Christians  ;  Pope  Victor  used  her  influence 
with  the  emperor  to  obtain  the  release  of  his  exiled  brethren, 
and  the  confessors  in  the  mines  were  restored  to  liberty,  and 
returned  to  Rome.  A  list  of  the  confessors  had  been  sup- 
plied by  the  Pope.  The  name  of  CaUixtus  was  naturally 
enough  not  on  the  list,  but  when  Hyacinthus,  the  eunuch 
charged  with  releasing  the  captives  from  the  Sardinian  mines, 
executed  his  office,  Calhxtus  persuaded  him  to  liberate  him 
also,  assuring  him  that  his  name  was  omitted  by  oversight. 
He  accordingly  returned  to  Rome ;  Victor,  though  distressed 
at  the  affair,  was  too  merciful  to  expose  the  fraud,  and 
Callixtus  was  sent  to  Antium  with  a  monthly  allowance  for 
his  maintenance.  There  he  remained  nine  or  ten  years,  till  re- 
called by  Zephyrinus,  the  new  pope,  who  placed  him  over  the 
cemetery  which  has  since  borne  his  name.  Callixtus  by  degrees 
acquired  complete  power  over  the  feeble  mind  of  Zephyrinus. 

"  Zephyrinus  did  not  at  first  perceive  the  knavery 
(iravovpYia)  of  the  fellow,  but  he  found  it  out  at  last,  as 
I  shall  relate  presently,"  continues  S.  Hippolytus.  "  Callix- 
tus persuaded  him  to  assert  publicly  that  he  recognized  but 
one  God,  Jesus  Christ,  and  that  none  but  He  had  been 
begotten  and  had  suffered ;  but,  as  he  sometimes  added,  It 
was  not  the  Father  who  died,  but  the  Son,  there  rose  inter- 
minable divisions  among  the  people.  When  I  heard  these 
opinions,  far  from  adhering  to  them,  I  refuted  them  vehe- 
mently, and  fought  for  the  truth.  But  as  all,  except  myself, 
flattered  his  hypocrisy,  Callixtus,  carried  away  by  rage,  called 
me  a  ditheist  (an  adorer  of  two  Gods),  and  vomited  upon 
me  all  the  venom  that  was  in  his  breast." 

Having  attained  the  papacy,  the  first  act  of  Callixtus  was 
to  drive  Sabellius  from  the  communion  of  the  Church. 



350  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  14. 

"  This  Callixtus,"  continues  the  author  of  the  "  Refutation 
of  Heresies,"  "  was  an  impostor,  a  man  capable  of  doing  any- 
thing, and  in  a  short  while  he  succeeded  in  deceiving  a  great 
many  people.  With  a  heart  full  of  venom,  and  with  no  up- 
rightness of  spirit,  he  maintained  a  certain  external  respect 
for  the  truth.  Pressed  by  the  calumny  he  had  brought 
against  me  of  having  professed  ditheism,  and  in  order  to 
reply  to  Sabellius,  who  reproached  him  incessantly  with 
having  altered  the  primitive  faith,  he  invented  a  new  heresy: 
he  said  that  the  Word  was  Son  only  in  name,  as  was  also  the 
Father,  but  that  in  reality  the  Father  and  the  Son  were  only 
one  indivisible  Spirit,  and  that  the  Father  was  one  and  the 
same  as  the  Son,  and  that  there  was  no  distinction  between 
them ;  that  all  was  pervaded  by  the  divine  Spirit,  whether 
in  heaven  or  in  earth,  and  that  the  Spirit  incarnate  in  the 
womb  of  the  Virgin  was  not  different  from  the  Father,  but 
was  but  one  and  the  same  with  Him;  and  that  this  is  what 
was  meant  by  the  words,  '  Believe  you  not  that  I  am  in  my 
Father,  and  my  Father  in  Me  ?'  He  added,  that  the  visible 
part  of  Christ,  the  manhood,  was  the  Son,  and  that  the 
Spirit  in  the  bosom  of  the  Son  was  the  Father.  '  In  verity,' 
said  he,  '  I  will  never  recognize  two  Gods,  a  Father  and  a 
Son,  but  only  one  God.  The  Father  having  descended  into 
the  Son,  deified  the  flesh  which  He  assumed,  and  uniting 
with  Him  formed  but  one  being,  who  is  called  both  Father 
and  Son,  but  who  is  nevertheless  but  one  God ;  this  God 
forming  but  one  person  cannot  be  two.  Thence  it  follows 
that  the  Father  suffered  with  the  Son.' He  has  esta- 
blished a  school  against  the  Church,  for  teaching  his  doctrine, 
and  he,  first  of  all  has  thought  to  enlist  human  passions  on 
his  side  by  promising  remission  of  sins  to  all.  Any  one  forming 
a  connection  A\dth  another  and  calling  himself  a  Christian,  if 
he  commit  a  fault,  has  only  to  pass  into  the  school  of  Callix- 
tus, where  nothing  is  thought  of  it.     Thus,  charmed  by  his 



Oct.  14.]  •^-  Callixtus.  351 

doctrine,  a  crowd  of  people,  overwhelmed  with  remorse,  and 
guilty  of  all  kinds  of  heresies,  some  excommunicated  by  our- 
selves after  solemn  judgment,  have  joined  his  partisans  and 
filled  his  school.  He  was  the  first  to  lay  down  the  principle 
that  a  bishop  must  not  be  deposed  for  his  guilty  conduct, 
even  though  he  may  have  merited  death.  Under  him  there 
have  introduced  themselves  among  the  clergy,  bishops, 
priests,  and  deacons  who  have  contracted  two  or  three 
marriages.  And  even  if  some  member  of  the  clergy  marries 
he  maintains  him  in  his  dignity,  as  if  he  had  committed  no 

fault If  there  are  women  not  married  who  are 

oppressed  by  carnal  lusts,  and  who  refuse  to  take  husbands 
among  men  of  rank,  he  authorizes  them  to  take  some  one  of 
an  inferior  rank  whom  they  may  choose,  be  he  free  or  slave, 
and  to  regard  as  legitimate  this  union  which  is  forbidden  by 
the  law.  Consequently  women  who  call  themselves  the 
Faithful  have  begun  to  lace  tight  and  use  drugs  to  procure 
abortion,  not  wishing  to  bear  children  to  a  slave  or  man  of 
low  estate,  when  they  are  highborn  and  rich.  See  to  what 
an  excess  of  impiety  this  perverse  man  has  fallen,  who 
teaches  at  once  adultery  and  murder." 

In  all  this,  we  cannot  trust  the  angry  adversary  of  Callix- 
tus. He  reveals  to  us  the  existence  of  two  parties  in  Rome, 
one  indulgent,  the  other  austere.  Some  declarations  of  Pope 
Callixtus,  or  more  probably  of  Zephyrinus  acting  under  the 
influence  of  Callixtus,  on  the  connection  of  the  sexes,  had 
already  excited  the  indignation  of  Tertullian  in  Africa, 
hardened  into  Montanism.  "  The  Bishop  of  Bishops,"  he 
wrote,  "  has  promulgated  an  edict  that  he  would  remit  to 
penitents  even  the  sins  of  adultery  and  fornication.  This 
licence  to  lust  is  issued  in  the  stronghold  of  all  wicked  and 
shameless  lusts."  ^ 

Callixtus  is  said  to  have  instituted  the   Ember  seasons. 

'  De  Pudicitia. 



152  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [o^t.  14. 

There  is  no  evidence  that  he  received  martyrdom.  Hippoly- 
tus,  although  a  contemporary,  probably  wrote  his  book  after 
the  death  of  Callixtus,  for  he  speaks  of  his  school  as  "  still 
subsisting  ;"  and  he  derides  the  title  of  martyr  given  to  him, 
saying  that  his  martyrdom  was  obtained  by  his  having  to 
appear  before  the  magistrates  for  his  crimes  before  he  became 
pope.  "  He  confessed  the  faith  indeed  when  Fuscianus  was 
prefect  of  Rome,  and  this  is  the  sort  of  martyrdom  he  got." 
Then  he  relates  how  he  made  a  disturbance  in  the  synagogue 
and  was  banished  to  the  mines. 

It  must  be  remembered  that  we  have  only  the  invective 
of  S.  Hippolytus  on  which  to  construct  the  history  of  the  life 
of  S.  CalHxtus.  This  is  so  violent  that  we  may  conclude  it 
is  much  exaggerated.  Theological  animosity  embittered  his 
views  of  the  character  of  the  Pope  whose  suffragan  he  was. 
It  seems  hardly  possible  that  the  electors  of  Rome  should 
have  chosen  as  their  bishop  a  man  who  was  a  convicted 
swindler.  The  violence  of  the  author  of  the  "  Refutation  of 
all  Heresies "  was  eHcited  by  the  ease  with  which  sinners 
were  pardoned  by  Callixtus.  The  Pope  may  have  seen  that 
the  borders  of  the  Church  were  extending.  If  she  were  to 
be,  as  she  said  she  was,  the  Ark  of  Noah,  containing  clean 
and  unclean  beasts,  or  the  field  full  of  tares  as  well  as  wheat, 
then  it  was  impossible  any  longer  to  maintain  the  severity  of 
discipline  which  had  been  observed  in  the  primitive  Church. 
If  the  Catholic  Church  must  remain  a  collection  of  saints 
on  earth,  then  she  could  only  be  a  small  community.  If, 
on  the  other  hand,  she  was  to  embrace  all  the  sons  of  Adam, 
then  she  must  relax  her  austere. discipline  to  meet  the  needs 
of  the  feeble  and  the  fallen.  Callixtus  adopted  the  true 
view  of  the  vocation  of  the  Church,  but  his  doing  so  aroused 
the  opposition  of  a  Puritan  party,  the  most  advanced  mem- 
bers of  which  took  refuge  in  Montanism. 

The  rehcs  of  S.  Callixtus  are  in  S.  Maria  beyond  the 


Oct  14. 


Oct.  14]  S.  Fortunatus.  353 

Tiber,  at  Rome,  some  bones  at  Fulda,  others  at  Cysoing, 
near  Lisle ;  others  at  S.  Michel  on  the  Meuse,  near  Verdun ; 
a  head  in  the  church  of  S.  Sebastian  at  Rome ;  an  arm  in  S. 
Chrysogonus ;  another  arm  at  S.  Maria  in  Cosmedin  ;  part 
of  an  arm  in  SS.  Sergius  and  Bacchus;  and  many  other 
bones  in  other  churches  of  Rome.  A  head  at  Valentia,  a 
jawbone  at  Cologne,  part  of  a  head  at  Prague,  &c. 

(a.d.  537.) 

[Roman  Martyrology.  Authority: — Gregoiy  the  Great,  in  his  "Dia- 
logues of  Miracles,"  lib.  i.  c.  lo.] 

Fortunatus,  Bishop  of  Todi,  in  Italy,  was  popularly  re- 
ported to  have  performed  many  miracles.  A  gentleman  had 
a  horse  which  was  so  wild  that  he  could  not  mount  it.  He 
led  it  to  the  bishop,  who  made  the  sign  of  the  cross  over  it, 
and  tamed  it. 

The  Goths  carried  off  two  little  boys  of  the  town.  For- 
tunatus sent  for  their  chief  and  begged  him  to  restore  the 
children  to  their  parents.  He  refused.  Next  day  the  chief 
was  riding  through  Todi,  when  his  horse  slipped  on  the  pave- 
ment and  fell,  and  threw  him  down.  He  thought  his  leg  was 
broken,  and  this  in  punishment  for  having  refused  the  re- 
quest of  the  bishop.  He  sent  to  him  at  once,  promising  to 
restore  the  two  boys.  Fortunatus  blessed  water,  and  sent  it 
by  his  deacon,  who  sprinkled  the  leg  of  the  Goth  with  it, 
and  the  man  got  up,  and  though  he  found  his  leg  a  Httle 
stiff,  to  his  great  delight  satisfied  himself  that  no  bones  were 

VOL.  XI.  23 


354  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  14, 

(a.d.  754.) 

[Roman  and  German  Mart5rrologies.  Authorities : — Two  Lives,  one 
by  an  anonymous  writer,  the  other  by  Egilward,  who  wrote  at  the  end 
of  the  loth  cent.  As  the  anonymous  writer  does  not  mention  the 
translation  of  the  relics  of  S.  Burchard  in  986,  he  must  have  written  in 
the  earlier  part  of  the  10th  cent.] 

S.  Burchard  was  a  native  of  Wessex,  and  probably  a 
kinsman  of  S.  Boniface.  He  led  a  monastic  life  from  early 
3^outh,  and  was  summoned  by  S.  Boniface  to  assist  him  in 
Germany  in  725.  He  was  then  in  priest's  orders.  He  made 
two  expeditions  to  Rome,  once  in  company  with  S.  Boniface. 
He  was  ordained  Bishop  of  Wiirzburg  by  Pope  Zacharias  in 
741,  and  subscribed  the  decrees  of  the  Council  of  Leptines 
in  742.  He  built  many  churches  in  his  diocese,  and  trans- 
lated the  relics  of  his  predecessor,  the  martyr  Killian. 
When  advanced  in  age  he  resigned  the  see  into  the  hands 
his  disciple  Megingaud,  and  retired  to  Homburg,  a  castle, 
whose  ruins  may  still  be  seen,  on  a  height  above  the  Maine, 
near  where  the  Saale  flows  into  it,  and  there  he  died.  His 
body  was  translated  to  Wiirzburg,  where  it  now  reposes. 

S.  COSMAS,  B. 

(a.d.  780.) 

[Greek  Mensea  and  Menology.] 

S.  CosMAS  of  Jerusalem  holds  the  second  place  among 
Greek  ecclesiastical  poets.  Left  an  orphan  at  an  early  age, 
he  was  adopted  by  the  father  of  S.  John  Damascene ;  and 
the  two  foster-brothers  were  bound  together  by  a  friendship 

or.t.  14.]  S.  Cosmas.  355 

which  lasted  through  Hfe.  They  excited  each  other  to 
hymnology,  and  assisted,  corrected,  and  polished  each 
other's  compositions. 

Cosmas,  like  his  friend,  became  a  monk  of  S.  Sabbas, 
and  against  his  will  was  consecrated  Bishop  of  Majuma, 
the  port  of  Gaza,  in  734,  by  John,  Patriarch  of  Jerusalem, 
the  same  who  ordained  Damascene  priest. 

In  the  office  for  the  saint  in  the  Greek  Church  for 
this  day  is  the  following  testimony  to  his  powers  as  a 
hymnographer  : — "  Put  on  a  glad  countenance,  O  Church, 
and  call  thy  children  together,  that  thou  mayest  with  them 
rejoice  for  thy  sublime  preacher.  For  Cosmas,  divine  and 
glorious,  the  spiritual  harp,  the  divine  lyre,  calls  all  to 
the  mystic  table,  laying  before  us  mellifluous  and  divinely 
resounding  melodies.  .  .  .  O  Blessed  one !  like  a  trumpet 
thou  proclaimest  the  passion  and  miracles  of  Christ,  and 
singest  the  sleep  of  the  Immaculate  Mother;  thou  hast 
rejoiced  all,  O  Cosmas,  by  the  sweet  and  soft  music  of  thy 

"  Where  perfect  sweetness  dwells,  is  Cosmas  gone; 
But  his  sweet  lays  to  cheer  the  Church  live  on," 

says  the  stichos  prefixed  to  his  life. 

His  compositions  are  tolerably  numerous,  and  he  seems 
to  have  taken  a  pleasure  in  competing  with  S.  John 
Damascene,  as  on  the  Nativity,  the  Epiphany,  and  the 
Transfiguration,  where  the  canons  of  both  are  given.  He 
is  the  most  learned  of  the  Greek  Church-poets;  and  his 
fondness  for  types,  boldness  in  their  application,  and 
love  of  aggregating  them,  made  him  the  Oriental  Adam 
of  S.  Victor.  It  is  partly  owing  to  a  compressed  fulness 
of  meaning,  very  uncommon  in  the  Greek  ecclesiastical 
poets,  partly  to  the  unusual  harshness  and  contraction  of 

^ ^ 

356  Lives  of  the  Saints.  [Oct.  14. 

his  phrases,  that  he  is  the  hardest  of  ecclesiastical  bards 
to  comprehend.^ 

He  probably  died  in  a.d.  780,  but  the  date  cannot  be 
fixed  with  certainty. 

1  Dr.  Neale,  "Hymns  of  the  Eastern  Church." 

END   OF    VOL.    XL 

L'rinted  by  Ballantyne,  Hanson  &'  Ca 
Edinburgh  Is'  London 

^ * 

Date  Due 

All  library  items  are  subject  to  recall  at  any  time. 

i'FC  0  9  '^00 


Brigham  Young  University 


1197  22389  8419